For questions about or related to trigonometric series.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

33
votes
2answers
431 views

Closed form for $\prod_{n=1}^\infty\sqrt[2^n]{\tanh(2^n)},$

Please help me to find a closed form for the infinite product $$\prod_{n=1}^\infty\sqrt[2^n]{\tanh(2^n)},$$ where $\tanh(z)=\frac{e^z-e^{-z}}{e^z+e^{-z}}$ is the hyperbolic tangent.
16
votes
1answer
210 views

Closed form for $\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{\cos(\pi \log n)}{n^2}$

Is there a closed form for the following sum? $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{\cos(\pi\log n)}{n^2}$$
11
votes
1answer
194 views

Need help with calculating this sum: $\sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac{1}{2^n}\tan\frac{1}{2^n}$

I need help with calculating this sum: $$\sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac{1}{2^n}\tan\frac{1}{2^n}$$
10
votes
1answer
209 views

Limit of maximum of $f_{n}(x)=\dfrac{1}{n}(\sin{x}+\sin{(2x)}+\sin{(3x)}+\cdots+\sin{(nx)})$

let $$f_{n}(x)=\dfrac{1}{n}(\sin{x}+\sin{(2x)}+\sin{(3x)}+\cdots+\sin{(nx)}),x\in R,n\in N$$ let $$a_{n}=\max_{x\in R}{(f_{n}(x))}$$ Find this limit $$\lim_{n\to\infty}a_{n}$$ My try: since ...
8
votes
2answers
152 views

To compute $\tan1-\tan3+\tan5-\cdots+\tan89$, $\tan1+\tan3+\tan5+\cdots+\tan89$

How do we compute : $$i)\ S_1 = \tan1-\tan3+\tan5-\cdots+\tan89$$ and $$ii)\ S_2 = \tan1+\tan3+\tan5+\cdots+\tan89$$ all the angles are in degrees. Thanks
7
votes
2answers
265 views

Calculate: $\sum_{k=0}^{n-2} 2^{k} \tan \left(\frac{\pi}{2^{n-k}}\right)$

Calculate the following sum for integers $n\ge2$: $$\sum_{k=0}^{n-2} 2^{k} \tan \left(\frac{\pi}{2^{n-k}}\right)$$ I'm trying to obtain a closed form if that is possible.
6
votes
6answers
2k views

Example of a trigonometric series that is not fourier series?

My textbook doesn't give any example of this kind of series. Could you provide some? Trigonometric series is defined in wikipedia as : $A_{0}+\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}(A_{n} \cos{nx} + B_{n} \sin{nx})$ ...
6
votes
2answers
120 views

What is the Taylor series of $\frac{1}{\sin(z)}$ about $z_0 = 1$?

This was a exam question so I know it cannot take too long to write out the proof. Only I cannot see an answer. I would imagine you write $\sin(z) = \sin(1+(z-1)) = \sin(1)\cos(z-1) + ...
6
votes
1answer
242 views

Does this curve tend to a square wave?

I have put some Mathematica code here: http://pastebin.com/cY6r7skS that uses this algorithm: $$y1 = Sin[x];$$ $$y2 = Sin[y1];$$ $$y3 = Sin[y1 + y2];$$ $$y4 = Sin[y1 + y2 + y3];$$ $$y5 = Sin[y1 + y2 ...
5
votes
4answers
462 views

A sine integral

The integral \begin{align} \int_{0}^{\pi/2} \frac{ \sin(n\theta) }{ \sin(\theta) } \ d\theta \end{align} is claimed to not have a closed form expression. In this view find the series solution of the ...
4
votes
2answers
386 views

Compute $\sum_{j=1}^k\cos^n(j\pi/k)\sin(nj\pi/k)$

Compute the series $\sum_{j=1}^k\cos^n(j\pi/k)\sin(nj\pi/k)$ Hint: the answer is in fact 0
4
votes
3answers
105 views

Expansion of $\sin x$

I wanted to know, how can I derive: $$\sin x = x - \frac{x^3}{3!} + \frac{x^5}{5!} - \frac{x^7}{7!}+\cdots$$
4
votes
1answer
127 views

Finite Series - reciprocals of sines

Find the sum of the finite series $$\sum _{k=1}^{k=89} \frac{1}{\sin(k^{\circ})\sin((k+1)^{\circ})}$$ This problem was asked in a test in my school. The answer seems to be ...
4
votes
1answer
107 views

finding $\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}\sum_{r=1}^{n}\arctan\left(\frac{2r}{1-r^2+r^4}\right)$

I want to find $$L=\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}\sum_{r=1}^{n}\arctan\left(\frac{2r}{1-r^2+r^4}\right)$$ I already know that I need to split the expression $\frac{2r}{1-r^2+r^4}$ of the form ...
4
votes
2answers
95 views

Looking for a source of an infinite trigonometric summation and other such examples.

Question: If $x \neq 0$, then prove that $\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\dfrac1{2^n} \tan\left(\dfrac{x}{2^n}\right) = \dfrac1{x} - \cot x.$ My answer: I proved this result by using the ...
4
votes
2answers
171 views

Find the limit of $\prod_{k = 4}^{\infty}\cos\left(\pi \over k\right)$

Find the limit of $$\prod_{k = 4}^{\infty}\cos\left(\pi \over k\right)$$ The limit does exist, but I can not get it. Thanks Willie-Wong & Lee Mosher for correcting the expression.
4
votes
3answers
92 views

How does WolframAlpha simplify sine and cosine?

When I feed WolframAlpha an expression like $\sin({\pi\frac{2}{3}})$, it correctly prints that this is equal to $\frac{\sqrt3}{2}$, instead of the decimal expansion $0.866025403\ldots$. Perhaps it ...
4
votes
0answers
92 views

Has this function a name?

Has this function a name? $$f(x) = \prod_{i=2}^{\lceil \frac{x}{2} \rceil} \sin\left( \frac {\pi x}{i}\right)$$ (the product of $\sin( \frac {\pi x}{i})$ for $i=2,3,...,\lceil x/2 \rceil$)
4
votes
0answers
171 views

On the series $ \displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{\Lambda(n)}{\sqrt{n}} \cos(x \log(n) + a) $.

Is the following series ‘summable’ in the sense that it may be divergent but we can attach a meaning to it? $$ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{\Lambda(n)}{\sqrt{n}} \cos(x \log(n) + a) = (\text{reg}) ...
3
votes
7answers
351 views

Prove $ \cos\left(\frac{2\pi}{5}\right) + \cos\left(\frac{4\pi}{5}\right) + \cos\left(\frac{6\pi}{5}\right)+ \cos\left(\frac{8\pi}{5}\right) = -1 $

$$ \cos\left(\frac{2\pi}{5}\right) + \cos\left(\frac{4\pi}{5}\right) + \cos\left(\frac{6\pi}{5}\right)+ \cos\left(\frac{8\pi}{5}\right) = -1 $$ Wolframalpha shows that it is a correct identity, ...
3
votes
2answers
67 views

$\int _0^{\pi }\:\sum _{n=0}^{\infty \:}\frac{n\cdot \sin \left(nx\right)}{e^n}dx=\frac{2e}{e^2-1}$

It is asked to prove: $\int _0^{\pi }\:\sum _{n=0}^{\infty \:}\frac{n\cdot \sin \left(nx\right)}{e^n}dx=\frac{2e}{e^2-1}$ I have tried to search for convergence and it gave me 0 so i can't solve it. ...
3
votes
2answers
394 views

Does the sum $\sum^{\infty}_{k=1} \frac{\sin(kx)}{k^{\alpha}}$ converge for $\alpha > \frac{1}{2}$ and $x \in [0,2 \pi]$?

Does the series $$ \sum^{\infty}_{k=1} \frac{\sin(kx)}{k^{\alpha}}, $$ converge for all $\alpha > \frac{1}{2}$ and for all $x \in [0,2 \pi]$? It is obvious that it does when $\alpha > 1$, ...
3
votes
2answers
91 views

Taylor Series of $\tan x$

I found a nice general formula for the Taylor series of $\tan x$: $$\tan x = \sum_{n\,=\,1}^\infty \frac {(-1)^{n-1}2^{2n} (2^{2n}-1) B_{2n}} {(2n)!} x^{2n - 1} $$ where $B_n$ are the Bernoulli ...
3
votes
1answer
99 views

Solve $x\sqrt{10} = \prod\limits_{k = 1}^{90} \sin(k), x\in \mathbb Q$.

Can someone help me with this question? I've found a solution but it's not a very nice one. I used 6 times the relation $\sin(2\theta) = 2\sin(\theta)\cos(\theta)$. There's got to be a better way. ...
3
votes
2answers
62 views

integrate product of trig functions

I need to find the Fourier cosine series for $\cos(3x)\sin^2(x)$, But I don't even know where to start to determine $$\int _0^{\pi }\cos(3x)\sin^2(x)\cos(k x)dx$$
3
votes
1answer
511 views

Sum of tangent functions where arguments are in specific arithmetic series

By looking through an book, I found this interesting series To prove that: $$\tan(\theta)+\tan \left(\theta+ \frac{\pi}{n} \right) + \tan(\theta + \frac{2\pi}{n}) + \dots + \tan \left (\theta + ...
3
votes
2answers
234 views

Showing $|\sum_{k=1}^n\frac{\sin(kx)}k|<2\sqrt{\pi}$

For any real $x$ and positive integer $n$, is it true that: $$\left|\sum_{k=1}^n\frac{\sin(kx)}k\right|<2\sqrt{\pi}\quad ?$$ Please justify.
3
votes
0answers
65 views

Proof of a series containing normal as well as hyperbolic functions

Show that $$\sum _{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{\sinh(\pi n \sqrt 2)- \sin(\pi n \sqrt 2)}{n^3{\cosh(\pi n \sqrt 2})- \cos( \pi n \sqrt 2)}=\frac{ \pi^3}{18 \sqrt 2}$$ I have no hint as to how to even start.
2
votes
2answers
266 views

Evaluation of a trigonometric partial sum

I just wanted to evaluate $$ \sum_{k=0}^n \cos k\theta $$ and I know that it should give $$ \cos\left(\frac{n\theta}{2}\right)\frac{\sin\left(\frac{(n+1)\theta}{2}\right)}{\sin(\theta / 2)} $$ ...
2
votes
1answer
54 views

Explain how the following is equal to $2\cos x$.

The question was Prove $$\frac{1+\sin2x+\cos2x}{\cos x+\sin x}=2\cos x$$ I simplified it using several trigonometric identities, what I got is this "$\dfrac{2\cos^2 x + 2\cos x \sin x}{\cos x + ...
2
votes
2answers
219 views

$\sum_{k=0}^{n-1}\sin(k\frac{\pi}{n}+\theta)$

I'm trying to find the closed form of the above formula. This link shows the solution of tan version. Sum of tangent functions where arguments are in specific arithmetic series Though I'm trying to ...
2
votes
1answer
142 views

What is a fast method for evaluate this trigonometric series?

$$\sum_{n=1}^{11}\sin^{14}\left(\theta+\frac{2n\pi}{11}\right)=?$$ By wolfram alpha, we know that ...
2
votes
3answers
73 views

Closed form for a trigonometric partial sum

I know that: $$\sum_{k=1}^n\arctan(2k^2)=\frac{\pi n}{2}-\frac{1}{2}\arctan(\frac{2n(n+1)}{2n+1})$$ Can a similar closed form expressions be given for $\sum_{k=1}^n \arctan(k^2)$? I was able to ...
2
votes
2answers
658 views

Power Reducing Formula

I need some how with the power reducing formula. I'm having trouble understanding how to apply it. Here's an equation that utilizes it: $\cos^2 (\theta x) - 1 = 0$ How do I solve this on the ...
2
votes
4answers
59 views

Can somebody explain to me why these terms are equal?

I just read a proof on ProofWiki that proves Euler's formula, but I can't seem to understand what is done in this following step: ...
2
votes
3answers
86 views

History of infinite series representations of $\sin(x)$ and $\cos(x)$

When did the famous infinite series representations for $\sin(x)$ and $\cos(x)$ came about? To be specific when did people realise that the ratio of the two sides of a right triangle with one angle ...
2
votes
2answers
72 views

Complex number trigonometry problem

Use $cos (n\theta)$ = $\frac{z^n +z^{-n}}{2}$ to express $\cos \theta + \cos 3\theta + \cos5\theta + ... + \cos(2n-1)\theta$ as a geometric series in terms of z. Hence find this sum in terms of ...
2
votes
1answer
90 views

new ArcTan serie working for any x?

Using Log series, we can write: $$ \frac{1}{2 i} \left( \text{Log} \left( 1 + e^{\text{i2t}} \right) - \text{Log} \left( 1 + e^{\text{-i2t}} \right) \right) = \frac {1} {2 i}\left ( \sum _ {k = ...
2
votes
2answers
103 views

Need help on part b of this trigonometric question.

The title of the question is: Using graphical technique determine the single wave resulting from a combination of two waves of the same frequency and then verify the result using trigonometrical ...
2
votes
2answers
293 views

Algebraic solution to find circle radius given distance of three external points from perimeter

I have an engineering problem, which involves math. The reason it's "engineering" is that I don't need a pure mathematical solution, but a good-enough approximation could work - the only constraint is ...
2
votes
2answers
113 views

Differentiability of the sum of the series $\sum_k \sin(kx)/k^2$

How to show the following: If $ f(x) = \displaystyle\sum_{k=1}^{\infty} \dfrac {\sin(kx)}{k^2} $, then show that $f(x)$ is differentiable on $(0,1)$ I guess it should be related to uniform ...
2
votes
0answers
61 views

Proving that sin(x)/x=(1-x^2/pi^2)(1-x^2/4pi^2)(…)

I am faced with explaining to a bunch of people who have taken a course in real analysis, but no course in complex analysis, why $\sin(x)=x\prod_{n\geq1}(1-x^2/\pi^2n^2)$. I vaguely remember being ...
2
votes
0answers
63 views

Finite Trigonometric Sum

I have a dynamical system model whose equilibria depend on the solution of the following finite sum: \begin{align} \sum_{j\neq ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

Solving $\operatorname{ctg} x=x/b$

I have no problems finding first solution (both: $b \to 0$ and $b \to \infty$). My solutions on photos. I got stuck trying to find solution when $x \to \infty$. As I think, solution for $x$ will have ...
2
votes
1answer
63 views

$\prod_{k=1}^{n-1}\cos\left(\theta+\frac{k\pi}{n}\right)$

I know that the first one of the following identities holds, yet I don't know the identity of the general case as shown in the title and the bottom of the page. Is there anyone who knows the closed ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Determine the maximal compact interval such that $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}(-1)^n\frac{x^{2n+1}}{2n+1} = \arctan(x)$ holds true

The Assignment: Determine the maximal compact interval, such that the following identity holds true:$$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}(-1)^n\frac{x^{2n+1}}{2n+1} = \arctan(x)$$ Explain your answer and show ...
1
vote
2answers
60 views

Where is the series $\displaystyle\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\dfrac{\cos(nx)}{n}$ pointwise convergent?

Where is the series $\displaystyle\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\dfrac{\cos(nx)}{n}$ pointwise convergent? I tried to apply the Dirichlet's test but I couldn't.
1
vote
1answer
60 views

Does the expansion of $\sin x$ contradict the normal formula $\sin x = \frac{\text{Perpendicular}}{\text{Hypotenuse}}$?

Lets say I have a right angled triangle with sides $3, 4$ and $5$ units. They form a perfect Pythagorean triplet. One of the angles in the triangle, say $\alpha$ must have the following condition: ...
1
vote
2answers
56 views

Verifying the trigonometric identity $\cos{x} - \frac{\cos{x}}{1 - \tan{x}} = \frac{\sin{x} \cos{x}}{\sin{x} - \cos{x}}$

I have the following trigonometric identity $$\cos{x} - \frac{\cos{x}}{1 - \tan{x}} = \frac{\sin{x} \cos{x}}{\sin{x} - \cos{x}}$$ I've been trying to verify it for almost 20 minutes but coming up ...
1
vote
2answers
123 views

$\cot(x)\,$ in the large $x$ limit?

I couldn't find asymptotic forms of trigonometric functions in any Math Table. In particular, I am trying to find $\;\cot(a x)\;$ in large $x$ limit. thanks,