For questions about trees in graph theory, which are connected graphs with no cycles. Also can be used for questions about forests, which are graphs that are disjoint unions of trees.

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1answer
168 views

For BSP generation, How to intersect or locate a triangle with a plane defined by another triangle?

I've hit a stumbling block in my project to draw the Utah teapot. I want to generate a binary space partition tree of a set of 3D triangles. The decision step in the recursive tree-construction ...
2
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3answers
377 views

Graphs: trees, induction proof

I was wondering if you could help me prove the following. $G$ is a tree $\iff$ deleting any edge will disconnect it. And a similar one: $G$ is a tree $\iff$ adding any edge will create a cycle. I ...
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2answers
352 views

Confusion related to a graph problem

I have this question related to this graph problem Suppose that an n-node undirected graph G = (V , E) contains two nodes s and t such that the distance between s and t is strictly greater than n/2. ...
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0answers
46 views

Enumeration of symbols in grammatical expressions or vertices in tree graphs

I have expressions (type of a function) like e.g. $$f:(A\to B)\to C \to (D\to E)\to F.$$ (Where I understand $A\to B\to C$ as $A\to (B\to C)$, in case that is relevant.) There might be information ...
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1answer
50 views

Number of upper sets of size $n$ in a finite tree

Consider a finite tree $T = (V, <)$, where $y < x$ means that $y$ is the parent of $x$. We assume that $T$ has a unique root $r$ that has no parent. An upper set of $T$ is a subset $S$ of $V$ ...
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2answers
347 views

single elimination tournament, don't understand question?

A single elimination tournament is performed in rounds. In each round the teams each play exactly one game and the winners continue, and the losers are knocked out of the competition. So, in each ...
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2answers
434 views

Is the graceful labeling conjecture still unsolved?

From the Wikipedia article on graceful labeling: ... A major unproven conjecture in graph theory is the Ringel–Kotzig conjecture, named after Gerhard Ringel and Anton Kotzig, which hypothesizes that ...
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1answer
130 views

Computational Complexity of Parallel Algorithms

Does parallelism factor in when deriving the computational complexity of a parallel algorithm? Suppose I have a perfect binary tree $T$ with leaves numbered $1$ to $n$, and an algorithm ...
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0answers
74 views

Presentation of tree decompositions (and related concepts) in terms of continuous maps?

A tree decomposition of a graph $G$ is commonly defined in terms of a tree $T$ with the following structure: Each vertex $t \in V(T)$ is associated to a set $X_t \subseteq V(G)$; The union ...
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1answer
74 views

A way to codify (pre-calculatate) if a one Tree Node is a descendant of another

I have a simple, 1-directional tree representing the veins in a human body. It looks somewhat like this (red dots are nodes, blood flow is always downwards, sorry for my drawing): What I need is a ...
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2answers
1k views

What does lg x mean? is it $\log_2 x$ or $\log_{10} x$ in binary trees

I'm a bit confused, $\log_{10} x = \log x $ right? I believe I've read somewhere that $\log_{2} x = lg x$ but some people say lg = $\log$. So what does lg really stand for? specifically when talking ...
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1answer
342 views

Is this formula for the number of nodes for a complete tree or a full and complete tree?

In a lecture it was said that "How many nodes are there in a complete k-ary tree with height h?" and this was the answer: $$ \sum^{h}_{i = 0}k^i $$ where h is the height and k is the max number of ...
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2answers
1k views

Proof by induction and height of a binary tree

I need some help with a simple proof. I want to know if this proof is correct: Let's define the height of a binary tree node as: 0, if the node is a leaf 1 + the maximum height of the children ...
3
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2answers
90 views

Real tree and hyperbolicity

I seek a proof of the following result due to Tits: Theorem: A path-connected $0$-hyperbolic metric space is a real tree. Do you know any proof or reference?
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1answer
61 views

Tree formalisms

The intuitive notion of a tree in mathematics is quite straightforward. However, there are several different formalisms of the tree concept. The link http://ncatlab.org/nlab/show/tree lists several ...
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0answers
111 views

Free medial magmas

A medial magma is a set $M$ with a binary relation $*$ satisfying $(a*b)*(c*d) = (a*c)*(b*d)$. Medial magmas constitute an algebraic category $\mathsf{Med}$, therefore there is a functor $\mathsf{Set} ...
3
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1answer
114 views

Virtually infinite cyclic groups act on a tree

A virtually infinite cyclic group $G$ is quasi-isometric to $\mathbb{Z}$ and thus has two ends; by Stallings theorem, $G$ acts (without inversion) on a tree with finite edge-stabilizers. But the ...
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1answer
210 views

Relationship between ordered and binary trees

I am looking for a formula for the number of ordered trees with $n$ vertices and $l$ leaves as well as for a formula for the number of binary trees with $l$ left and $r$ right children. Finally, I ...
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2answers
277 views

Breadth first search tree's cycles [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Proof related to breadth first search I'm trying to prove the following: Suppose a connected graph $G$ has a cycle $C$ of length $n$. Prove that in any breadth-first ...
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2answers
247 views

Suppose there are two different spanning trees for a simple graph. Must they have an edge in common?

My instinct is yes, but I don't know how to formalize it into a proof. I still haven't wrapped my head around spanning trees yet. Any thoughts are appreciated!
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1answer
385 views

How to find the maximum number of vertices in a tree with respect to maximum path length and maximum degree value

Given a tree, find the maximum number of vertices $v$ in that tree using the maximum path length $p$ and a maximum degree that applies to all vertices $d$. Assuming that I drew my test tree ...
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2answers
137 views

Question about trees and generalizing the Principle of Dependent Choices.

One form of the Principle of Dependent Choices is that for any tree $T$ of height $\omega$ such that every node of $T$ has a successor, there is a branch of $T$ of length $\omega$. In this post, I ...
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2answers
242 views

Bijection between binary trees and plane trees?

I would like to describe a bijection between binary trees and plane trees. A binary tree has a root node and each node of the tree has at most 2 children (left and right). A plane tree has a root node ...
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1answer
148 views

Depth first search on graph

I have a homework problem I think I know the answer to, but want to double check Consider the graph with three nodes, $a$, $b$, and $c$, and the two arcs $a \rightarrow b$ and $b \rightarrow c$. ...
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0answers
48 views

What is the runing time of this algorithm involving length and depth?

I'm hoping that someone can shed some light on this running time. I have a "tree", for lack of a better description, that has a length $l$ and depth $d$. I want to maximize the tree size, which ...
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1answer
183 views

has deleting node in a binary search tree Displacement feature?

I am developing an academic project about graph and tree theory.I searched a lot but I didn't find a clear answer. In a part of project we want to delete some nodes from tree for example we want to ...
2
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1answer
267 views

Length of Shortest Path in a Generated Binary Tree

Let's say I have a binary tree of $2$-tuples of positive integers starting with $(1,1)$. The left-child of any element $(A,B)$ is $(A,A+B)$, and the right-child of any element is $(A+B,A)$. Hence, the ...
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3answers
380 views

$n$-ary trees with $k$-internal nodes - Catalan numbers

It is known that the Catalan numbers count the number of binary trees with $k$-internal nodes. I was thinking of how to count ternary trees or in general $n$-ary trees with $k$ internal nodes and got ...
2
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1answer
94 views

How to establish bijective between the set of rooted trees and natural numbers, using Godel numbering?

Consider the structure of a rooted tree independent of its underlying set, (i.e. in the sense of trees as combinatorial species). I know a number of ways which we can encode any such tree in natural ...
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1answer
177 views

What is the fairest solution/formula for rewarding points in a hierarchical network?

Introduction The nature of this hierarchical network is based on the concept of Multi-Level Marketing strategy. Example 1 - Unfair Situation Ancestor receives 1 point for every descendant ...
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2answers
145 views

existence of a spanning tree

Let $T$ and $T'$ be two spanning trees of a connected graph $G$. Suppose that an edge $e$ is in $T$ but not in $T'$. Show that there is an edge $e'$ in $T'$, but not in $T$, such that ...
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1answer
603 views

M-ary tree problem

A full $m$-ary tree $T$ has 81 leaves and height 4 1) Give the upper and lower bounds for $m$ 2) What is $m$ if T is also balanced? [with $m^h=l$ for maximum leaf in a m-ary tree $m^4=81$ then m=3 ...
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2answers
187 views

Tree problem about preorder notation

Show that an ordered rooted tree is uniquely determined when a list of vertices generated by a preorder traversal of the tree and the number of children of each vertex are specified.
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0answers
67 views

Groups acting on (regular) trees with finite quotient

Let $T$ be a regular tree, and suppose that $G \leq \mathrm{Aut}(T)$ has finite quotient graph, $T / G$. Is it true (in general) that $G$ will have trivial centralizer in the full automorphism group? ...
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0answers
58 views

How can I prove this property of a $d$-ary tree?

I have the following homework (algorithms lecture): Every $d$-ary tree $G=(V,E)$ contains a vertex $v$ such that the size of the subtree with root $v$ is at least $\frac{1}{d+1} \vert V \vert$ and at ...
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1answer
147 views

Cubic (3-regular) graph spanning tree

Considering loop free cubic graphs (graphs where every node has 3 neighboring nodes): Is is possible to construct a spanning tree that only has nodes with 3 neighbors in the spanning tree or 1 ...
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1answer
338 views

Help in understanding search of Vantage-Point tree

This is my reference: http://stevehanov.ca/blog/index.php?id=130 A vantage-point tree is a way of organizing a set of points so that finding the n-nearest neighbors is as efficient as possible. It ...
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1answer
36 views

If $G$ is a tree and $\forall v_1, v_2 : dist(v_1, v_2)$ is even, where $v_1, v_2-$ are leaves $\Rightarrow \exists!$ a maximal independent set.

If $G$ is a tree and $\forall v_1, v_2 : dist(v_1, v_2)$ is even, where $v_1, v_2-$ are leaves of the tree $\Rightarrow \exists!$ a maximal independent set. Give some clue please! Thanks anyway!
2
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3answers
2k views

Minimum Number of Nodes for Full Binary Tree with Level $\lambda$

If the level ($\lambda$) of a full binary tree at zero is just a root node, than I know that I can get the maximum possible number of nodes (N) for a full binary tree using the following: N = ...
0
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1answer
78 views

Constructing a tree from disjoint graphs

I will preface my question with the definition of a simple tree that applies to my question: -"A simple tree is an undirected and connected graph with no cycles."- I am having difficulty coming up ...
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1answer
143 views

Prove equivalence of conditions for a tree

Let $G=(V,E)$ denote a nonempty graph. Show that the following conditions are all equivalent. $G$ is a tree. Any two vertices in $G$ can be connected by a unique simple path. $G$ is ...
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3answers
729 views

What is the main difference between a free tree and a rooted tree?

In graph theory what is the difference between a rooted tree and a free tree ? What is normally meant when just the plain "tree" is used ?
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1answer
82 views

Natural order of rational trees?

What would be a natural order of rational trees? Rational trees arise naturally from free algebras if we view a term as a finite tree. For example the term f(a,g(b,c)) could be viewed as the ...
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1answer
401 views

Every automorphism of a tree with an odd number of vertices has a fixed point

If $T$ is a tree, and $T$ has an odd number of vertices, then $\forall f$, where $f$ is automorphism $\Rightarrow \exists$ fixed point (vertex). What it means: Formally, an automorphism of a tree $T$ ...
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1answer
458 views

How to make a parse tree for the following propositional logic formula?

I have a formula $\neg (( q \rightarrow \neg q) \vee p \vee ( \neg q \rightarrow ( r \wedge p)))$. As it contains 3 subformulas between the $\vee$'s, how can I put it into a parse tree. Would it be ...
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2answers
354 views

Proof for Full Binary Tree Using Handshaking Lemma?

I asked a question a few days ago and figured out the proof for this theorem using induction. ...
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1answer
408 views

Proving terminal vertices and total vertices of a full binary tree?

I am trying to make a proof by induction of the following theorem. ...
0
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1answer
195 views

A binary tree in 3-ary tree

We have an infinite $3$-ary tree, with root $R$. In coloring $C(p)$ each edge is black with probability $p$ and white with probability $1 - p$, and edges are independent. Show that there is a ...
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2answers
187 views

Why for number of leaves in a tree (all types of trees) is it true

I have to prove the following claim, given the tree $T=(V,E)$, $|V|\geq3$: $$|V_1| \leq \frac { |V| \times (\Delta (V) - 2) + 2 }{ \Delta (V) - 1 } $$ where $|V_1| - $ number of leaves in a tree, and ...
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0answers
45 views

How to formulate a best-search algorithm limited by a count of nodes visited?

The problem I'm doing a search by computer program. Each node takes about 5 minutes of wall time to get a result so I'm looking to carefully choose the nodes to inspect so as to find the best result ...