Transcendental numbers are numbers that cannot be the root of a nonzero polynomial with rational coefficients (i.e., not an algebraic number). Examples of such numbers are $\pi$ and $e$.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

11
votes
0answers
139 views

Are the sums $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{(n!)^k}$ transcendental?

This question is inspired by my answer to the question "How to compute $\prod_{n=1}^\infty\left(1+\frac{1}{n!}\right)$?". The sums $f(k) = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{(n!)^k}$ (for positive integer ...
1
vote
1answer
238 views

Is $\large \frac {\pi}{e}$ rational, irrational, or trandescendal?

Is there an argument for why $\large \frac {\pi}{e}$ is rational, irrational, or trandescendal? Can the quotient of any two transcendental numbers (which are not rational multiples of each other) be ...
5
votes
1answer
68 views

For integer $k > 1$, is $\sum_{i=0}^{\infty} 1/k^{2^i}$ transcendental or algebraic, or unknown?

Title says it all, I have an itch about series like this that seem to fall in the gray area where classical proofs that rational partial sums that converge too quickly must converge to transcendental ...
0
votes
1answer
62 views

number of the form $\frac{a_0+a_1\pi +\text{…}+a_n\pi ^n}{b_0+b_1\pi +\text{…}+b_m\pi ^m}$ [closed]

all numbers of the form $$\begin{align*}\frac{a_0+a_1\pi +\text{...}+a_n\pi ^n}{b_0+b_1\pi +\text{...}+b_m\pi ^m}\end{align*}$$ form an number field. $n,m$ are arbitrary non-negative itegers, ...
3
votes
1answer
269 views

Prove that ${\sqrt2}^{\sqrt2}$ is an irrational number without using a theorem.

Prove that ${\sqrt2}^{\sqrt2}$ is an irrational number without using the Gel'fond-Schneider's theorem. I'm interested in this problem because I knew that ${\sqrt2}^{\sqrt2}$ is a transcendental ...
17
votes
1answer
411 views

Are $\pi$ and $e$ algebraically independent?

Update Edit : Title of this question formerly was "Is there a polynomial relation between $e$ and $\pi$?" Is there a polynomial relation (with algebraic numbers as coefficients) between $e$ or $\pi$ ...
1
vote
1answer
103 views

$\pi$ and $\ln4$ relations. Even and Odd alternating sums.

Tonight, playing around on WolframAlpha, I discovered that the alternating sum of the odd numbers is $\frac\pi4$ and the alternating sum of the even numbers is $\frac{\ln4}4$ Are there any known ...
-1
votes
1answer
55 views

Transcendental proofs vs. Irrational proofs

Why are proofs of the transcendence of certain numbers usually harder than irrationality proofs of those same numbers (for example, Lindemann's proof of the transcendence of pi vs. Niven's proof of ...
84
votes
1answer
20k views

Can $x^{x^{x^x}}$ be a rational number?

If $x$ is a positive rational number, but not an integer, then can $x^{x^{x^x}}$ be a rational number ? We can prove that if $x$ is a positive rational number but not an integer, then $x^x$ can ...
11
votes
6answers
373 views

Numbers with no finite representation on paper

It occurred to me that there must be a lot of numbers without any form of finite representation on paper. Is there a name for these numbers? For example... Integers and rationals have a very simple ...
3
votes
1answer
91 views

The set $\{\frac{3^m}{\alpha^n}:\;m,n\in\mathbb Z\}$ is dense in $\mathbb R_+$

This seems that the set $$\left\{\frac{3^m}{\alpha^n}:\;m,n\in\mathbb Z\right\}$$ is dense in $\mathbb R_+$ (the set of positive real numbers), but I can not find the proof. How to prove this? Edit ...
3
votes
1answer
80 views

Can a finitely generated $\mathbb{Z}$-algebra contain $\mathbb{Q}$?

Is there a ring between $\mathbb{Q}$ and $\mathbb{R}$ that is finitely generated as an algebra over $\mathbb{Z}$? My guess is there isn't. I can see that it would have to be finitely generated over ...
4
votes
0answers
92 views

The Tribonacci constant and the Dragon

Let $x = \frac{\ln T}{\ln 2} = 0.879146\dots$ where $T$ is the tribonacci constant, then x solves the transcendental equation, $$4^x(2^x-1)=(2^x+1)$$ Let $x = \frac{\ln y}{\ln 2} = 1.523627\dots$ ...
40
votes
3answers
931 views
30
votes
1answer
608 views

What is the role of mathematical intuition and common sense in questions of irrationality or transcendence of values of special functions?

I got the number $$\frac{\Gamma\left(\frac{1}{5}\right)\Gamma\left(\frac{4}{15}\right)}{\Gamma\left(\frac{1}{3}\right)\Gamma\left(\frac{2}{15}\right)}=0.824326275998351470388591998726842...$$ in the ...
10
votes
2answers
180 views

Irrational numbers, decimal representation

Can this even be proved? (Or disproved?) Any irrational number without a 0 (zero) in its decimal representation is transcendental. Not sure where to start on this one...
19
votes
1answer
334 views

Is the positive root of the equation $x^{x^x}=2$, $x=1.47668433…$ a transcendental number?

I can prove using the Gelfond–Schneider theorem that the positive root of the equation $x^{x^x}=2$, $x=1.47668433...$ is an irrational number. Is it possible to prove it is transcendental?
11
votes
1answer
302 views

Proving that $\frac{\pi}{2}=\prod_{k=2}^{\infty}\left(1+\frac{(-1)^{(p_{k}-1)/2}}{p_{k}} \right )^{-1}$ an identity of Euler's.

This is another identity of Euler's relating $\pi$ to the prime numbers, available here \begin{align*} \dfrac{\pi}{2}=\prod_{k=2}^{\infty}\left(1+\dfrac{(-1)^{\dfrac{p_{{k}}-1}{2}}}{p_{k}} \right ...
4
votes
2answers
154 views

Why is the concept of transcendental numbers linked with rational coefficients? Why not real nor complex coefficients?

I've read this: In mathematics, a transcendental number is a (possibly complex) number that is not algebraic—that is, it is not a root of a non-zero polynomial equation with rational ...
3
votes
4answers
604 views

Non-existence of irrational numbers?

I realize the title of my question will probably cause the raising of some eyebrows, so let me explain. Not sure whether to file this under "math" or "philosophy". This also might be able to be ...
14
votes
1answer
273 views

Why is an irrational number's algebraic complexity the opposite of its Diophantine complexity?

Definition 1. Given $x \in \Bbb{R}$, the algebraic degree of $x$ is the degree of the minimal polynomial of $x$ over $\Bbb{Q}$. If $x$ is transcendental, we will define its algebraic degree to be ...
2
votes
1answer
158 views

Is $e^{\pi \alpha}$ known to be transcendent for all real algebraic $\alpha$?

The MathWorld article Transcendental Number contains a reference to Yu. V. Nesterenko proof of transcendence of $e^{\pi \sqrt{2}}$. Is there a more general result about transcendence of $e^{\pi ...
12
votes
2answers
386 views

Proving that $\pi=\sum\limits_{k=0}^{\infty}(-1)^{k}\left(\frac{2^{2k+1}+(-1)^{k}}{(4k+1)2^{4k}}+ \frac{2^{2k+2}+(-1)^{k+1}}{(4k+3)2^{4k+2}}\right)$

Long time ago I've been playng with formulas for $\pi$ and found that one above in the title which can also be expressed as \begin{align*} ...
0
votes
1answer
74 views

What's the name of this class of transcendental numbers?

I'm considering the set $$\left\{\sin(k)\mid k\in\Bbb Z\backslash \left\{0\right\}\right\}.$$ All of its members are transcendental numbers, but together they don't form the complete set of all ...
4
votes
1answer
102 views

Prove or disprove transcendence of numbers

I have two in one question: 1) Let $\{p_n\}_{n\in \mathbb{N}}$ be sequence of all prime numbers. Is number $\displaystyle\alpha = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} 10^{-p_n}$ transcendental number? 2) Let ...
4
votes
2answers
173 views

How to show $e^{2 \pi i \theta}$ is not algebraic.

I was wondering if someone could possibly help me figure out how to show $e^{2 \pi i \theta}$ is not algebraic when $\theta$ is irrational. Thanks!
17
votes
2answers
797 views

Does $\sin(x)=y$ have a solution in $\mathbb{Q}$ beside $x=y=0$

Is there a way to show, that the only solution of $$\sin(x)=y$$ is $x=y=0$ with $x,y\in \mathbb{Q}$. I am seaching a way to prove it with the things you learn in linear algebra and analysis 1+2 ...
7
votes
1answer
153 views

Prime elements in $\mathbb{Q}[[X,Y,Z]]$ whose status as an infinite series is unchanged by arbitrary multiplication

Let's suppose $R$ is the ring $\mathbb{Q}[[X,Y,Z]]$. I'm interested in finding power series $f(x,y,z) \in R \setminus \mathbb{Q}[X,Y,Z]$ which are, first of all, prime elements in $R$, but also ...
1
vote
2answers
219 views

Can every transcendental number be expressed as an infinite continued fraction?

Every infinite continued fraction is irrational. But can every number, in particular those that are not the root of a polynomial with rational coefficients, be expressed as a continued fraction?
3
votes
2answers
120 views

Is this a transcendental number?

A complex number that has transcendental real part is always transcendental? How about in the case of imaginary part?
7
votes
1answer
374 views

Liouville's proof of the existence of transcendental numbers

The existence of transcendental numbers can be shown easily by considering the cardinality of the set of solutions to polynomials with integer cofficents and the cardinality of the real numbers. It ...
0
votes
2answers
219 views

Algebraic and Transcendental Numbers - Set Theory

Denote $\mathbb Q$$[x]$ = set of polynomials with coefficients $c_1$, $c_2$, $...$ ,$c_n$ in $\mathbb Q$. A number $a$ is algebraic if there exists a polynomial $f(x)$ in $\mathbb Q$[x] such that ...
3
votes
0answers
57 views

Schneider's theorem about the transcendence of values of the $j$-function

It is known that the $j$-function takes algebraic values when evaluated at imaginary quadratic integers. This is a result that was proved by Schneider in 1937 apparently. To be precise, Schneider ...
7
votes
1answer
262 views

Is every complex number the root of a polynomial? (Converse to fundamental theorem of algebra.)

For every polynomial with complex coefficients, the fundamental theorem of algebra guarantees the existence of complex numbers which happen to be roots of it. But is this everything? i.e. is the ...
0
votes
2answers
269 views

Are the digits of irrational/transdental numbers random?

If I were to look at the decimal representation of some irrational or even transdental number, and if I choose a natural number at random can I expect that it is some digit with probability $0.1$ ?
23
votes
1answer
628 views

Is $0.23571113171923293137\dots$ transcendental?

Is the following number transcendental? $$0.23571113171923293137\dots$$(Obtained by writing prime numbers consecutively from left to right, in the decimal expansion)
7
votes
1answer
441 views

Is it possible to express $e$ in terms of $\pi$ algebraically and vice-versa?

Am I right in thinking this is not possible since both are known to be transcendental? Also, $e^{i\pi}+1=0$ suggests this is not possible - we can not isolate $e$ or $\pi$ from this since it involves ...
4
votes
1answer
100 views

Is the Glaisher–Kinkelin constant transcendental?

As the title says, is it known whether or not the Glaisher constant is a transcendental number?
2
votes
3answers
183 views

Does the Abel-Ruffini Theorem contradict the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra?

It is my understanding that the Abel-Ruffini Theorem implies that certain polynomial equations $(x^5-x+1=0$, for instance) have transcendental roots. However, the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra states ...
9
votes
2answers
442 views

proof that $e^x$ is a transcendental function of $x$?

Let a function $f(x)$ be algebraic if it satisfies an equation of the form $$c_n(x)(f(x))^n + c_{n-1}(x)(f(x))^{n-1} + \cdots + c_0(x)=0,$$ for $c_k(x)$ rational functions of $x$, and let $f$ be ...
-6
votes
2answers
172 views

which representation/fraction approximates the value of $\pi$ in a better way. one which is most widely used is $\frac{22}{7}$ [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Why is $22/7$ a better approximation for $\pi$ than $3.14$? Approximating $\pi$ with least digits do we know any representation/fraction other that $\frac{22}{7}$ ...
0
votes
1answer
59 views

Polynomials with roots having the same module and linear dependent arguments

Is it possible for a polynomial with integer coefficients to have some of its roots: $$m_1e^{i\theta_1 \pi}, m_2e^{i\theta_2 \pi}, \ldots, m_ke^{i\theta_k \pi}$$ such that there exist nonzero integers ...
0
votes
1answer
167 views

matrix exponential is a rational or not?

I want to know whether following are true or false: for any given natural number $n$, $T>0$ a rational, suppose that $Q_1, \cdots, Q_n$ are $m\times m$ matrices with rational entries, $t_1, ...
1
vote
3answers
252 views

Is there a general way to solve transcendental equations?

To make things definite, let's narrow them and call transcendental equation of the form $$f(x) = 0$$ where $f$ is a real elementary function in the usual sense. For example $$\cos(\pi x) + x^2 = ...
3
votes
1answer
55 views

Free module, $\mathbb{Z}[a]$ over $\mathbb{Z}[(a+1)^2]$ for transcendental number a

I'm trying to prove that for a transcendental number $a$ the module $\mathbb{Z}[a]$ over $\mathbb{Z}[(a+1)^2]$ is free. For $\mathbb{Z}[a+1]$ over $\mathbb{Z}[(a+1)^2]$, the basis is $\{1,a+1\}$. What ...
10
votes
1answer
410 views

Does this show that the Apery Constant is transcendental?

Last August I posted this on mathoverflow: http://mathoverflow.net/questions/71856/a-serendipitous-riemann-identity. I show the (slightly revised) equation below: $$\zeta (3)=\frac{2\pi^4}{315} ...
3
votes
0answers
79 views

Linear independence of reciprocals of logarithms

I would like to ask whether there is a proof of the following statement: Let $p$, $q$ be primes and $n$ positive integer coprime with $pq$. Then $\frac1{\log p}$, $\frac1{\log q}$ and $\frac1{\log n}$ ...
2
votes
2answers
252 views

The definition of “algebraically independent”

In Lang's Algebra, he gives a definition that Elements $x_1, \cdots, x_n\in B$ are called algebraically independent over $A$[a subring of $B$] if the evaluation map $$f\mapsto f(x)$$is injective. ...
4
votes
1answer
163 views

Infinitely many transcendental numbers over Q

My previous question was not well-framed so I will ask again: Can you explicitly produce an infinite set of real numbers which is algebraically independent over $\mathbb Q$?