A brief study of transcendental numbers and algebraic independence theories; currently an on-development branch of mathematics with a lot of open problems.

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Transcendental field extensions obtained by taking quotient of $k[X_1, \ldots, X_n]$

Given a field $k$, $n \in \mathbb{N}\setminus \lbrace 0 \rbrace$ and $M$ a maximal ideal of $k[X_1, \ldots, X_n]$, can the field $L = k[X_1, \ldots, X_n]/M$ ever be transcendental over $k$? By this I ...
12
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1k views

Is there an explicit irrational number which is not known to be either algebraic or transcendental?

There are many numbers which are not able to be classified as being rational, algebraic irrational, or transcendental. Is there an explicit number which is known to be irrational but not known to be ...
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1answer
61 views

$\mathrm{Aut}(\mathbb{Q}(\pi)/\mathbb{Q})=$?

Perhaps a silly question. I'm trying to understand trascendental field extensions, but I can't find a lot of instructive examples. Consider the extension $\mathbb{Q}(\pi)/\mathbb{Q}$. What is its ...
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1answer
37 views

Number of generators of ideal if quotient field has certain transcendence degree

I am trying to prove the following statement by induction on $n$: Let $P$ be a prime ideal of $\mathbb{Z}[X_1,\ldots,X_n]$ with $\mathbb{Z}\cap P = \{0\}$. Suppose that ...
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25 views

$V\subset \mathbb{P}^n(k)$ is irreducible, prove that $\dim(V)$ is the transcendence degree of $k(V)$ over $k$.

This is a problem from Ideals, Varieties, and Algorithms by Cox et. al. $V\subset \mathbb{P}^n(k)$ is irreducible, prove that $\dim(V)$ is the transcendence degree of $k(V)$ over $k$, where $k(V)$ ...
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2answers
67 views

For what values of $x$ is $\cos x$ transcendental?

For what values of $x$ is $\cos x$ transcendental? Is there any way I can figure out the values of $x$ where $\cos x$ is transcendental or do I have to check individually for every $x$ whether it is ...
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1answer
34 views

Is this number a Liouville number?

Suppose I have a binary constant $q = 0.1010000000000000000000000000000000001001..._2$. In base 10 this number is $q $~$ .6250000000077325..$ and is defined as $$q = \sum_{\rho}^{\infty} ...
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27 views

Textbooks on transcendence theory

Is there a nice, modern textbook (some lecture notes or survey would do, too) that covers the main results and methods from transcendence theory? Ideally, it should also have some good exercises. So ...
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29 views

Constants in Siegel's Lemma

I've got a hopefully straightforward question to ask concerning the following lovely version of Siegel's Lemma: Let $K$ be some algebraic number field, and let $O_K$ be it's ring of integers. Define ...
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32 views

Continuity of Function involving logarithm function

I want to prove a function $f(x) = g(x) * log x $ is continuous on interval $[0, 1]$, where value of $g (x)$ is $0$ at lower limit point $0$. Anybody can help me out here. Thanks in advance.
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92 views

Are logarithms of prime numbers algebraically independent?

From Baker's theorem it follows that a linear combination of natural logarithms of prime numbers with non-zero algebraic coefficients can never be zero. Has it been proved that the set of all natural ...
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61 views

Prove that $E_0$ is transcendental

Consider the non-negative natural numbers: $0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19\dots$ Encode the primes as $1$, the rest as $0$. $E = 0,0,1,1,0,1,0,1,0,0,0,1,0,1,0,0,0,1,0,1\dots$ ...
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80 views

When does the following construction generate a transcendental number?

Given $n\in[0,1]$ with base-b expansion $0.n_1n_2n_3\dots$, define $\Delta_b(n)$ to be the number with the following base-b expansion: $\huge{ 0.\underbrace{n_1}_{1^{st}\text{ ...
67
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3answers
2k views

Is $ 0.112123123412345123456\dots $ algebraic or transcendental?

Let $$x=0.112123123412345123456\dots $$ Since the decimal expansion of $x$ is non-terminating and non-repeating, clearly $x$ is an irrational number. Can it be shown whether $x$ is algebraic or ...
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1answer
189 views

Existence of $x$ such that $2^x =a,3^x=b,5^x=c$ for some integers $a,b,c$

Conjecture: There does not exist a non-integer $x$ such that $$2^x=a$$ $$3^x=b$$ $$5^x=c$$ where $a,b,c$ are all integers. I'm aware that the similar question There does not ...
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1answer
109 views

Transcendence Degree of the Function Field of Meromorphic Functions over $\mathbb{C}$

What is the transcendence degree of the field of meromorphic functions over $\mathbb{C}$? By a cardinality argument (meromorphic functions are determined by their image under a countable dense ...
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520 views

Irrationality of sum of two logarithms: $\log_2 5 +\log_3 5$

I try to prove that the number $$\log_2 5 +\log_3 5$$ is irrational. But I have no idea how to do it. Any hints are welcome.
8
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1answer
117 views

Integer solutions of $\log a \log b = \log c \log d$

Four positive integers $a,b,c,d>1$ satisfy $\log a \log b = \log c \log d$. Is necessarily $\frac{\log a}{\log c} \in \mathbb{Q}$ or $\frac{\log a}{\log d} \in \mathbb{Q}$? I tried to use ...
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148 views

Integers (strictly) between 0 and 1 form the basis of transcendental number theory?

In a MathOverflow comment on the question of "What is the most useful non-existing object of your field?", an answer is given A number which is less than 1 and greater than 1. Which elicited a ...
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1answer
40 views

Exceptional Set and Schanuel's conjecture

I was reading an article about transcendental funtions (Algebraic values of transcendental functions at algebraic points, by Huang, J., Marques, D., Mereb, M.). The authors gave an example that says: ...
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4answers
632 views

square-root of a transcendental number

I know that a square-root of an irrational number is also irrational. Is it also true that the square root of a transcendental number is transcendental?
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119 views

Are there classifications transcendental numbers that are similar to algebraic numbers for differential equations?

Considering that transcendental numbers are described as not a root of a non-zero polynomial equation with rational coefficients, are there classifications of transcendental numbers that are ...
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79 views

A notion of transcendence degree for fields of formal power series?

There is an intuitive sense in which one would like to say that the field of formal Laurent series $k((z))$ over a field $k$ has "transcendence degree $1$". Of course, it doesn't have transcendence ...
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Borel's result on transcendence measure

In "Sur la nature arithmétique du nombre e" (Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences 128 (1899), 596-9) Borel presented his result on transcendence measure for e. This can be restated as follows: ...
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59 views

Relating sequence of integers with decimal representation

Let a sequence of integers be defined by a rule/formula,if this sequence is supposed to be a decimal representation of a number such as: $1)$ $a_{n+1}=a_n+1$ (given $a_0=0$) ...
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764 views

Values of hypergeometric functions

Let $_pF_q(a_1,\ldots,a_p;b_1,\ldots,b_q;c)$ denote the generalized hypergeometric function. Let $A \subset \mathbb R$ be the set of all values of $\ _pF_q(\cdot)$ at rational points $a_i,b_j,c\in ...
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36 views

Irreducible polynomial in relatively algebraically closed extension

I am thinking about how to prove this fact: given a field extension $K\subseteq L$ such that $K$ is algebraically closed in $L$, and an irreducible polynomial $f\in K[X]$. Prove that $f$ is ...
2
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2answers
201 views

transcendental number theory - classification

On Wikipedia one can find that transcendental number theory, or transcendednce theory is a branch of number theory. That confuses me a little since I thought that number theory is concerned with ...
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150 views

irrationality measure

I was reading that you can associate a measure to any given number giving you "how irrational" the given number is. I was wondering is there any irrationality measure that would tell you that the ...
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63 views

Are elements of the range of a transcendental function themselves transcendental, excepting a “few” special cases?

Let $f(x)$ be a transcendental function with $x\in\mathbb{C}$. Then are the values $f(x)$ themselves transcendental, except perhaps for a "few" exceptions? For example, it is known that $f(x)=e^x$ is ...
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1answer
563 views

Irrational numbers, decimal representation

Can this even be proved? (Or disproved?) Any irrational number without a 0 (zero) in its decimal representation is transcendental. Not sure where to start on this one...
19
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1answer
493 views

Is the positive root of the equation $x^{x^x}=2$, $x=1.47668433…$ a transcendental number?

I can prove using the Gelfond–Schneider theorem that the positive root of the equation $x^{x^x}=2$, $x=1.47668433...$ is an irrational number. Is it possible to prove it is transcendental?
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339 views

Understanding the Fundamental Theorem of Symmetric Polynomials within the context of proving $\pi$ transcendental

I am currently studying the proof of the transcendence of $\pi$. There are a bunch of proofs scattered across the web (here, here, and here, to list some); some derive from the Lindemann-Weierstrass ...
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1answer
73 views

Operations with cardinals in transcendence base proof

I want to prove the theorem that two transcendence bases for a transcendental field extension have the same cardinality. I've come with this situation : if $A$ and $B$ are two transcendence bases for ...
10
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1answer
257 views

Existence of an entire function with algebraically independent derivatives

Let $\mathbb{A}$ be the algebraic closure of $\mathbb{Q}$ in $\mathbb{C}$. A collection of functions $F=\lbrace f_i:X \rightarrow\mathbb{C}\rbrace$ is said to be algebraically independent over ...
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1answer
240 views

Is it transcendental? Also normal?

The number we are considering is as follows: $0.a_1 a_2 a_3 \cdots $, where $a_{2n-1}=(n)_{(2)}, a_{2n}=(n)_{(3)}.$ So, the number is $$0.(1)(1)(10)(2)(11)(10)(100)(11)(101)(12)\cdots.$$ Is the ...
9
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1answer
456 views

Irrationality measure of the Chaitin's constant $\Omega$

What is known about irrationality measure of the Chaitin's constant $\Omega$? Is it finite? Can it be a computable number? Can it be $2$?
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1answer
89 views

Representing complex numbers with nested exponentiation of rationals

Define $L_0=Q$ $L_1=\lbrace x \in C; e^{x} \in L_0 \rbrace$ $L_{-1}=\lbrace x \in C; \ln{x} \in L_0 \rbrace$ $L_{n+1}=\lbrace x \in C; e^{x} \in L_n \rbrace$ $0$ is in $L_1$ and $L_0$. Do any ...
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1answer
85 views

Do the first differences of a b-normal number form a b-normal number? [Now with application!]

If it true that for every $b$-normal number (where the base $b,b^2,b^3,\ldots$ digits are asymptotically equiprobable) that the first differences of the base-$b$ digits, interpreted as a (signed) ...
135
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3answers
6k views

How to show $e^{e^{e^{79}}}$ is not an integer

In this question, I needed to assume in my answer that $e^{e^{e^{79}}}$ is not an integer. Is there some standard result in number theory that applies to situations like this? After several years, ...
3
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2answers
264 views

Is there a proof that there is no general method to solve transcendental equations?

Being motivated by this post, I was wondering if there is a proof (analogous to the case of Diophantine equations) that there is no general method for solving transcendental equations? It seems ...