A topos (plural topoi, toposes) is a category that behaves like the category of sheaves of sets on a topological space. Topos theory consists of the study of Grothendieck topoi, used in algebraic geometry, and the study of elementary topoi, used in logic.

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How much set theory does the category of sets remember?

Question. Let $M$ be a model of enough set theory. Then we can form a category $\mathbf{Set}_M$ whose objects are the elements of $M$ and whose morphisms are the functions in $M$. To what extent is $M$...
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188 views

How does the internal language of a topos come to be?

There are several books and articles on topos theory which mention the internal language, but I can't manage to see the big picture from any of them. I would like a soft explanation of how the ...
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Category-theoretic properties of cardinals

Let $\kappa$ be a cardinal, let $\mathbf{H}_\kappa$ be the set of hereditarily $\kappa$-small sets, and let $\mathbf{Set}_{< \kappa}$ be the full subcategory of $\mathbf{Set}$ corresponding to $\...
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What does category theory say about chains of set inclusions $\dots\in c\in b\in a$?

I'm currently trying to understand to what extend a set theory like ZFC can be mirrored within category theory, i.e. topos theory. What appears as an obstacle to me is the axiom of regularity, which ...
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174 views

Why are injective $\mathscr{O}$-modules flasque?

Let $X$ be a topological space, and let $\mathscr{O}$ be a sheaf of rings on $X$. It is easy to verify that the functor $\Gamma (U, -) : \textbf{Mod}(\mathscr{O}) \to \textbf{Ab}$ is representable, ...
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104 views

Essential geometric morphism seen topologically

I know that any geometric morphism between toposes of sheaves on spaces $f^*\colon Sh(X)\leftrightarrows Sh(Y)\colon f_*$ comes from a continuous map $f\colon X\to Y$. But what does it mean for $f$ ...
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53 views

Notation for inhabited sets

A set $X$ is called inhabited if it has some element. In classical mathematics, this means that it is not the empty set, so that one usually writes $X \neq \emptyset$. However, in intuitionistic ...
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81 views

What are some topos-theoretic insights about $G$-sets?

Since a $G$-set is just a functor $G\longrightarrow \mathsf{Set}$, the category of $G$-sets seems to be a simple example of a topos. What are some topos-theoretic insights into $G$-sets? Insights ...
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Relationship between differential cohesion and synthetic differential geometry

I was wondering what is the relationship between differential cohesion and synthetic differential geometry? I know the basics of synthetic differential geometry from Kock's text, but I am not ...
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193 views

If one knows Homotopy Type Theory, what is the easiest way to learn Higher Topos Theory?

Just read Lurie's book? Do there exist any papers which explain higher topos theory with an audience of homotopy type theorists in mind?
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Freyd's Geometric Finiteness : An Example Computation

In his paper "Numerology in Topoi" available here: http://www.tac.mta.ca/tac/volumes/16/19/16-19abs.html Peter Freyd defines an object $A$ in a topos $\mathcal{E}$ to be geometrically finite if ...
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Equivalent definitions of regular categories?

maybe this is a stupid question, but I could not solve it after some time of meditation. There are four different notions of regular categories: 1) A cartesian category with coequalizers of kernel ...
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Presheaves in a quasi-topos.

I do believe it is a trivial question. But unfortunately I don't know where I can find an answer. Where could I find the answer to the following question? If $S$ is a small category and $X$ is a ...
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100 views

Defining “Penon Infinitesimals”.

In this lecture (which is accompanied by these slides), right near the end (so page 9 in the pdf of the slides; I don't think you have to watch the lecture), P. Johnstone refers to the "Penon ...
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82 views

Products of sites

Does the category of sites (i.e. small categories equipped with a Grothendieck topology) has products? Is there a connection to the product of locales (as discussed in Johnstone's Stone spaces, II.2....
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171 views

Where else has Proposition B1.3.17 in the Elephant been proved?

This is a sort of reference request. Proposition B1.3.17 in Johnstone's Elephant reads: Proposition 1.3.17 Let $\mathcal{S}$ and $\mathcal{T}$ be categories with pullbacks, $F \colon \mathcal{S} \...
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Is $(f_*A)\times B\to f_*(A\times f^*B)$ an iso in a elementary topos?

One can easily show by adjunction-nonsense that if we are given toposes $\cal E,F$ and a geometric morphism $f\colon \cal E\to F$ then there exist canonical arrows $$ \begin{gather} (f_*A)\times B\...
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38 views

Converse to pullback pasting and local diffeomorphisms

The nlab page on local diffeomorphisms gives the following two equivalent conditions for a smoonth function to be a local diffeomorphism. The derivative is an isomorphism of tangent spaces $df:T_xX\...
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51 views

Extra hypotheses in proposition in Sheaves in Geometry and Logic?

In chapter I, section 9, proposition 5 in Mac Lane and Moerdijk's Sheaves in Geometry and Logic, it is stated that if $f : B' \to B$ is a morphism in a complete category $\mathcal{C}$ and the category ...
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35 views

Moving from sheaves over spaces to sheaves over sites

The first example of a sheaf that I have consciously come across is the sheaf of continuous (real) functions on some topological space. The fact it is a sheaf is equivalent to the pasting lemma, which ...
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44 views

Is every topos equivalent to a full subtopos of U-small objects in another topos?

Let $\mathcal{E}$ be a topos, and $\mathcal{U}$ an $\mathcal{E}$-universe (as discussed on this nLab page). Let $\mathcal{E}_\mathcal{U}$ be the full subcategory of $\mathcal{U}$-small objects in $\...
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Examples of toposes in which the Axiom of Determinacy holds.

I just stumbled upon the Axiom of Determinacy which is an axiom in set theory - inconsistent with the Axiom of Choice, consistent with the Axiom of Dependent Choice, that states that for every subset $...
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105 views

Grothendieck Topology on the Category of Elements

We are given a site $(C, J)$ for a small category $C$ and a Grothendieck topology $J$. If $F\in Sh(C, J)$, we take the natural topology $J_F$ on its category of elements $el(F)$ induced by $J$. I am ...
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44 views

Equivalence of Modules

The category of modules over a ring can be viewed as an enriched version of an action of a monoid on a set (see nLab entry). Moreover, if $R$ is a commutative ring, the category of modules over it is ...
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Motivation of Strong Monics

Strong monics are defined as: A monic $m$ is strong iff every commutative square $mu=ve$, in $E$ with $e$ epi, has a diagonal i.e. there is a morphism $t$ such that $u=te$ and $v=mt$ in $E$. (where $E$...
3
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195 views

Does the restriction functor (big to small) commute with the inverse functor?

I would like to know whether the restriction functor commutes with the inverse image functor. (I basically follow the terminology in "Topological and Smooth Stacks".) Let $X$ be a topological space. ...
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19 views

Two questions on completely regular filters in locales

I'm reading the exposition of the Stone-Čech compactification for locales in Johnstone's book Stone Spaces. In Chapter IV Paragraph 2.2, Johnstone constructs the Stone-Čech compactification of a ...
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42 views

Gerbes and Brauer group

Let $µ$ be a sheaf of abelian groups on a site $C$. There is a bijection between isomorphism (equivalence) classes of µ-gerbes over $C$ and $H^2 (C, µ)$. Can someone give me a good reference for the ...
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104 views

What is the “internal language of a topos”?

What does the sentence "[...] these statements should be interpreted, of course, in the internal language of the topos $\mathcal{E}$" mean, in the context of, say, the definition of a groupoid in $\...
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85 views

About the relation between the categories $\text{Sch}$, $\text{LRS}$ and $\text{RS}$

I've been trying to find some useful categorical facts about the category of schemes, locally ringed spaces and ringed spaces (that I shall denote by $\text{Sch}$, $\text{LRS}$ and $\text{RS}$ ...
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45 views

Subobject classifier in $Sets^{Q}$

Let Q be the linearly ordered set of rational numbers considered as a category while $R^{+}$ is the set of reals with $\infty$. In $Sets^{Q}$,prove that the subobject classifier $\Omega$ has $\Omega(q)...
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72 views

When defining a Grothendieck pretopology,can we get away with less than the fibre product axiom?

$\newcommand\restr[2]{{\left.#1\right|_{#2}}}$ I'm fairly new to this whole area, so correct me if there are any technical errors in any of this. The base category for a classical sheaf is the ...
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37 views

The closure of the graph of a certain composite in a topos.

Let $\mathcal{E}$ be an elementary topos with subobject classifier $\Omega$ and let $j\colon \Omega\to\Omega$ be a Lawvere-Tierney topology on it. Assume that, for an object $C$ of $\mathcal{E}$, each ...
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90 views

dense generators and left Kan extensions

Here is an exercise from Borceux, Handbook of Categorical Algebra I, p 174: Consider a category $\mathfrak{C}$, a family $(G_i)_{i \in I}$ of objects of $\mathfrak{C}$ and the corresponding full ...
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131 views

Studying Galois Cohomology from Category Theory.

I am a masters student with background in Category Theory - I also know some Topos Theory. I would like to ask if you think it would be possible to start studying Galois Cohomology without any ...
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57 views

Why $F^{+}$ is a monopresheaf?

I'm having difficult in proving that given a site $(C, J)$, then $F^{+}(c) = colim_{R \in J(c)} R $ is a monopresheaf, in the sense that there exists at most one lifting of $R \longrightarrow F^{+}$ ...
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Is there a topos in which the natural numbers object are the finite dimensional vector spaces?

I recall reading somewhere that there is a topos in which the Dedekind reals are exactly the measurable functions. Now vector spaces are prominently characterised by dimensionality. This prompted the ...
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Are lax kernel pairs stable under change of base?

The question is immediate for kernel pairs, but when we work in a category enriched in posets, like the category of locales is, are the lax kernel pairs stable under change of base, or since perhaps ...
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41 views

“External” Lawvere-Tierney Topologies?

Suppose I have a map $j : \text{Sub}(1) \to \text{Sub}(1)$ from subterminal objects of a topos to themselves which satisfies analogous axioms to those of a Lawvere-Tierney topology, namely $j(1) = 1$, ...
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Does there exist a topos whose terminal object is not a generator, and every injective morphism is monic?

Say that a morphism $f : X \to Y$ in a category is injective if, for each pair of parallel morphisms $x, x^\prime : 1 \rightrightarrows X$ from the terminal object, if $f \circ x = f \circ x^\prime$, ...
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62 views

Is there a reasonable Grothendieck topology on the category of modules over a ring?

How about over a field (i.e. f.d vector spaces)? Can these categories be considered as a site?
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I want to prove that $\text{Sh}(C_{\mathbb{T}},J)$ is the classifing topos for the theory of $\mathbb{T}$-local algebras.

Let $\mathbb{T}$ be a essentially algebraic theory, $C_{\mathbb{T}}$ be its syntactic category and $J$ be a subcanonical coverage on $C_{\mathbb{T}}$ Then, I want to understand why "$\text{Sh}(C_{\...
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43 views

'Smooth' p-adic analysis (perhaps via toposes)

There are sensible theories of analytic functions on non-Archimedean fields (rigid analytic spaces, Berkovich spaces), but these are modeled after complex analysis. I'm curious to what extent there ...
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Is the reflector $\mathcal{E} \rightarrow \text{Sep}_j \mathcal{E}$ left exact? (j is a local operator)

According to Mac Lane & Moerdijk, Ch V, Ex 4, the left adjoint $\mathcal{E} \rightarrow \text{Sep}_j\,\mathcal{E}$ of the inclusion is left exact, but the proof is left as an exercise for the ...
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Can I define a site as a category endowed with a pretopology instead of a topology?

If $K$ is a pretopology on a category $\mathcal{C}$ and $J$ the topology it induces, are the Grothendieck toposes $\text{Sh}(\mathcal{C},K)$ and $\text{Sh}(\mathcal{C},J)$ the same in general? As I ...
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51 views

Subobjects(A) $\cong \operatorname{Hom}(A,\Omega)$ in a topos is a natural transformation?

Let $C'$ be the category with objects $C$ and morphism the monic morphisms of $C$. In any topos, $\phi_A: \operatorname{Sub}(A) \cong \operatorname{Hom}_C(A,\Omega)$ and $\phi_A(m) = \chi_m$. This ...
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51 views

Subobject classifier in $Set^{C^{op}}$

I'm reading "Sheaves in geometry and logic" and I'm not sure if i'm understanding some definitions. We have our functor $\Omega$ defined on objects by $\Omega(C)$$=\{$$S|$ $S$ is a sieve on C in $...
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123 views

Compare étale morphisms in Top and Schemes

Perhaps because I find the algebraic definition of étale morphisms (of schemes) hard to approach, I'm trying to bootstrap from my understanding of étale morphisms of topological spaces. In topological ...
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137 views

Plus construction of sheafification as a colimit of presheaves.

In Sheaves in Geometry and Logic, Moerdijk and Mac Lane construct the associated sheaf on a site $(\mathcal C, J)$ of a presheaf $P$ as $$ a(P) = (P^+)^+ ,$$ where $P^+$ is defined pointwise as $P^+(...
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99 views

Equivalence of groupoids induced by a G-torsor

I'm struggling again with Joyal-Tierney's "Strong stacks & classifying spaces", and in the proof of the main theorem of the paper, where stacks are characterized as internal groupoids $\mathbb G$ ...