A topos (plural topoi, toposes) is a category that behaves like the category of sheaves of sets on a topological space. Topos theory consists of the study of Grothendieck topoi, used in algebraic geometry, and the study of elementary topoi, used in logic.

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Volume 3 of Johnstone's “Sketches of an Elephant”

Recently, I read the Chapter 8 of Johnstone's "Topos theory" and got interested in the homotopy and cohomology theory of Grothendieck toposes. So I'm looking for the textbooks expanding these ...
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Question on connected and locally connected geometric morphisms.

Is the property of a geometric morphism being both connected and locally connected (in the sense of Part C of the Elephant) stable under pullbacks? I know local connectedness is, I am not sure about ...
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ETCS set theory: Are empty sets isomorphic?

Just a quick question about ETCS: Are any two empty sets isomorphic? Here, a set $X$ is empty if there exists no $x \in X$, i.e. no functions $x: 1 \to X$. The reason I'm asking is that I need this ...
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Is the subobject classifier of the sheaves the sheaffication of the one from the presheaves?

maybe this is an idiot question, but I could not solve it. Let $\Omega$ be the suboject classifier in the category $\mathbf{PSh}(X, J)$ where $(X, J)$ is a site, I know that $\Omega(U) \cong Nat(h_U, ...
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Question about Lemma D1.4.4(iii) in the Elephant - possible typo?

Given a morphism $[\theta] \colon \lbrace \bar{x}.\phi \rbrace \rightarrow \lbrace \bar{y}. \psi \rbrace$ in the syntactic category $\mathcal{C}_{\mathbb{T}}$ of a (cartesian) theory, we are told, in ...
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W-types and inverse image functor

All sheaf topoi have W-types and in fact there's an explicit construction given by Benno van den Berg & Ieke Moerdijk, but the construction is quite involved. I would like to know whether the ...
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What's the best way to teach oneself both Category Theory & Model Theory?

I've done a bit of reading around both Category Theory & Model Theory (CT & MT) as a novice in each field. I'm interested in how they might combine, particularly when applied to Algebra. [So ...
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67 views

Transposition of arrows in toposes (or cartesian closed categories)

Suppose $\mathcal{E}$ is an elementary topos (take as a definition that of Mac Lane and Moerdijk "Sheaves in Geometry and Logic"). I have a problem with a fact concerning the cartesian closure of ...
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Elementary question about subpresheaves

I have encountered the following phrase which I do not understand. The letter $L$ is used for a locale but I guess (?) this holds for other categories as well. The terminal sheaf $1$ is such that ...
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Lifting of a comonad to the presheaf category

Suppose I have a comonad $G$ on a category $\mathbb{C}$. If $C$ is a preorder then I can define a comonad (i.e. interior operator) $\square$ on the set $\mathcal{P}\uparrow(C)$ of upwards closed ...
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Questions regarding a particular category with functors

I have two questions regarding categories and natural transformations. The first question is as follows. Say we have categories $A$, $B_1$ and $B_2$, with functors $F: A \to B_1$, $G: B_1 \to B_2$ as ...
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explicit proof of pullback stability of epics in a topos

As in Explicit construction of a initial object in a topos I'm looking an elementary proof of the fact that, in a topos, epimorphisms are stable under pullback or, equivalently, that images are ...
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Characterization of epimorphisms of sheaves on a site

I'm stuck with a detail in the proof of the characterization of epimorphism of sheaves on a site in the Mac Lane & Moerdijk book "Sheaves in Geometry and Logic". I want to prove that: "If ...
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Explicit construction of a initial object in a topos

Let $\mathcal E$ be a topos as in Mac Lane and Moerdijk. A initial object in $\mathcal E$ can be obtained as the domain of the equalizer of the morphisms $P!,\epsilon P1:P1\to P^31$, where $1$ is a ...
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Is there a topos in which the natural numbers object are the finite dimensional vector spaces?

I recall reading somewhere that there is a topos in which the Dedekind reals are exactly the measurable functions. Now vector spaces are prominently characterised by dimensionality. This prompted the ...
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Is the cartesian product of objects in an elementary topos cancellative?

My question is the internalization of this question to an elementary topos $C$. Is it true that: For objects $X,Y$ and $Z$ in an elementary topos $C$ with $X\times Y\cong X\times Z$, then also ...
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What is an object classifier and how does give a natural numbers object?

According to a history of topos theory by McLarty, Blass (1989) showed that the existence of an object classifier over a given topos implies that the topos has a natural number object. What is an ...
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Is there a category whose internal logic is paraconsistent?

The internal language of topoi is higher-order typed intuitionistic logic. Now according to wikipedia, the dual of intuitionistic logic, in some sense is paraconsistent. They say Intuitionistic ...
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What was the Lawveres explanation of adjoint functors in terms of Hegelian Philosophy?

I was contemplating asking this question on Philsophy.SE but felt it was better directed here as there are a dearth of category theorists there. According to the wikipedia entry on Categorical Logic: ...
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Do 'nice' first order logics have universal models?

A first-order logic is interpreted in a model where sentences of the logic can be said to be true or false. There may be more than one model, and we can identify morphisms between models. Do we have ...
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392 views

Examples of mathematical statements made with adjoint functors

I am wondering if it is possible to use the adjoint functors in topos theory for statements in analysis. Any examples would be warmly welcomed. Though I would prefer simpler, atomic, lemmas or ...
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Can curvature be defined in Topos Theory?

I'm by no means an expert in either category theory or topos theory, but I'm trying to gain some perspective on traditional geometric ideas in this context. Topos theory claims that it is a geometric ...
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Does “cheap nonstandard analysis” take place in a topos?

Terence Tao's A cheap version of nonstandard analysis describes a way to do analysis halfway between ordinary analysis and nonstandard analysis which, if I'm not mistaken, cashes out to working in the ...
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Are lax kernel pairs stable under change of base?

The question is immediate for kernel pairs, but when we work in a category enriched in posets, like the category of locales is, are the lax kernel pairs stable under change of base, or since perhaps ...
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Definition of ordinals in Grothendieck toposes

What is a useful definition of an ordinal in Grothendieck toposes. Useful in this context means that I would like to construct fixed points of monotone maps on complete lattices using iteration from ...
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Projective Objects in a Topos

I'm working a problem in MacLane and Moerdijk, and am not sure how to proceed. The end goal is to show that if $Sh(X)$ has enough projectives and $X$ is $T_1$, then $X$ has a basis of clopen sets. I ...
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Showing that the sheaf-functor $\epsilon: \tilde{\sf C} \to \tilde{\tilde{\sf C}}$ is an equivalence

Let $(\mathsf C,J)$ be a site. Then we have the category of sheaves $\tilde{\mathsf C}$ and the category $\tilde{\tilde{\sf C}}$ of sheaves over $\tilde{\sf C}$ (both considered with the canonical ...
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What does category theory say about chains of set inclusions $\dots\in c\in b\in a$?

I'm currently trying to understand to what extend a set theory like ZFC can be mirrored within category theory, i.e. topos theory. What appears as an obstacle to me is the axiom of regularity, which ...
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120 views

Does this right adjoint of a geometric morphism preserve directed colimits?

Let $E$ be a sheaf topos $E=\operatorname{Shv}(C)$ and $\{x_i:\operatorname{Sets}\to E\}$ be a set of geometric morphisms $x_i:Sets\to E$ such that the morphism $$ x^*\colon E\to \prod_i ...
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Sites for étale $G$-spaces

This is a problem Sheaves in Geometry and Logic by MacLane and Moerdijk (problem 3.10) Suppose we have a space $X$ on which a discrete group $G$ acts by homeomorphisms. Given an étale space $p:E ...
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Is the internal language of a topos complete, sound and effective?

The internal language of a topos is higher order intuitionistic typed logic. Now according to this article in wikipedia higher order classical logic with full semantics is never complete, sound or ...
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Presheaves over sieves and posets

I'm looking for a proof of the claim that given a poset P, the topos of presheaves over P is equivalent to the topos of presheaves over the complete Heyting algebra of sieves on elements of P. I found ...
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Grothendieck topology on pre/sheaves

Given a Grothendieck topology $T$, say subcanonical, on a category $C$, we are able to talk about sheaves in $(C, T)$. Since pre/sheaves can be viewed as generalized objects of $C$ (via Yoneda ...
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What does a proof in an internal logic actually look like?

The nLab has a lot of nice things to say about how you can use the internal logic of various kinds of categories to prove interesting statements using more or less ordinary mathematical reasoning. ...
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Plus construction of a presheave factors every sheaf-valued morphism.

I'm having some trouble understanding the correctness of some proof in Sheaves in Geometry and Logic (Mac Lane, Moerdijk). It concerns the lemma III.5.3 : If $F$ is a sheaf and $P$ a presheaf, ...
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Commuting square of functors

Let $\mathcal{E}$ be a complete and cocomplete category. Given a functor $i: \mathcal{C} \to \mathcal{D}$ between small categories, there is a triple of adjoint functors between their respective ...
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Commutativity of a sheaf of groups from an epimorphism

Let $F$ and $G$ be sheaves of groups $\mathcal{S}^{op}\to Groups$ and $f:F\to G$ an epimorphism (of sheaves of sets). If $F$ is a sheaf of commutative groups, is $G$ also a sheaf of commutative ...
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Pullback of sheaves and pullback of schemes

Let $\mathbb{G}_m$ the multiplicative group, with coordinate ring $\mathbb{C}[x^{\pm 1}]$, and considered as a sheaf of abelian groups over $\mathrm{Spec}\,\mathbb{C}$ in the Zariski topology. Let $X$ ...
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Two questions about monomorphisms and pullbacks in a Grothendieck topos

Let $\mathbf{C}$ be a Grothendieck-topos and $f:Y\to X$ a morphism. Is the pullback $W\times_X Y\to Y$ of a split monomorphism $g:W\to X$ along $f$ again a split monomorphism? I don't think this ...
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Plus construction of sheafification as a colimit of presheaves.

In Sheaves in Geometry and Logic, Moerdijk and Mac Lane construct the associated sheaf on a site $(\mathcal C, J)$ of a presheaf $P$ as $$ a(P) = (P^+)^+ ,$$ where $P^+$ is defined pointwise as ...
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What functors preserve subobject classifiers?

My question is exactly that of the title. Given a topos $T$, is there a natural sufficient condition for a functor $f$ from $T$ to another topos, $S$, to the subobject classifier? (By this I mean of ...
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A locally constant sheaf on a locally connected space is a covering space; Proof?

As part of my hobby i'm learning about sheaves from Mac Lane and Moerdijk. I have a problem with Ch 2 Q 5, to the extent that i don't believe the claim to be proven is actually true, currently. Here ...
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Equivalence of groupoids induced by a G-torsor

I'm struggling again with Joyal-Tierney's "Strong stacks & classifying spaces", and in the proof of the main theorem of the paper, where stacks are characterized as internal groupoids $\mathbb G$ ...
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Elephant: how do I prove Lemma 2.1.7, section C2.1?

I'm referring (also for notations and terminology) to P. Johnstone, Sketches of an Elephant. A Topos Theory Compendium. Volume I. Clarendon Press. Oxford, 2002. The Lemma can be found at page 540. I ...
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Glueing sheaves on Grothendieck sites

Let $X$ be a topological space and $\{V_i\}$ a cover of $X$. Let $F_i:\mathsf{Open}(V_i)^{\mathrm{op}}\to \mathsf{Sets}$ be a family of sheaves. One can glue this family to obtain a sheaf ...
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Essential geometric morphism seen topologically

I know that any geometric morphism between toposes of sheaves on spaces $f^*\colon Sh(X)\leftrightarrows Sh(Y)\colon f_*$ comes from a continuous map $f\colon X\to Y$. But what does it mean for $f$ ...
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Products of sites

Does the category of sites (i.e. small categories equipped with a Grothendieck topology) has products? Is there a connection to the product of locales (as discussed in Johnstone's Stone spaces, ...
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Joyal-Tierney definition of locally isomorphic objects

I am struggling with Joyal-Tierney's paper Strong stacks and classifying spaces, (appeared in "Category Theory (Como, 1990)", volume 1488 of LNM, pp. 213–236, Springer 1991). In particular one of the ...
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If $\mathcal F$ is a sheaf, then is $\mathcal F (- \times X)$ a sheaf?

Let $\mathcal F$ be a sheaf of sets on a site. Fix an object $X$ of the underlying category of the site, which is assumed to contain a final object and have products. Define a presheaf $\mathcal G$ ...
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Natural numbers objects in topoi: Recursion in a parameter

I am currently trying to prove an exercise from Sheaves in Geometry and Logic: A First Introduction to Topos Theory by Mac Lane and Moerdijk about natural numbers objects. First, we have the ...