If iterated exponentiation (usually also called "Powertower") is understood as mathematical operator or as function depending on the iteration height, then this operator/operation/function is often called "tetration" and is assumed as next step in the operator hierarchy addition,multiplication, ...

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4
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1answer
219 views

Infinite tetration of $-2.5$

Let $a_n$ be the sequence $z, z^z, z^{z^z} ...$ for $z \in \mathbb{C}$. This is sometimes called the iterated exponential with base $z$. I am investigating the above sequence for $z = -2.5$. After ...
0
votes
1answer
50 views

Inverse operation of tetration and how it is computed?

If $c=a+b$, then $a=c-b$ and $b=c-a$. If $c=a\times b$, then $a=\frac{c}{b}$ and $b=\frac{c}{a}$. If $c=a^b$, then $a = \sqrt [b]{c} =c^{\frac{1}{b}}$ and $b=log_ac$. What are the analogous inverse ...
25
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3answers
4k views

What is this operator called?

If $x \cdot 2 = x + x$ and $x \cdot 3 = x + x + x$ and $x^2 = x \cdot x$ and $x^3 = x \cdot x \cdot x$ Is there an operator $\oplus$ such that: $x \oplus 2 = x^x$ and $x \oplus 3 = {x^{x^x}}$? ...
13
votes
1answer
1k views

Does an iterated exponential $z^{z^{z^{…}}}$ always have a finite period

Let $z \in \mathbb{C}.$ Let $t = W(-\ln z)$ where $W$ is the Lambert W Function. Define the sequence $a_n$ by $a_0 = z$ and $a_{n+1} = z^{a_n}$ for $n \geq 1$, that is to say $a_n$ is the sequence $...
-3
votes
1answer
67 views

Solve $(x+a)^{1/x} = b$ for $x$

Solve $(x+a)^{1/x} = b$ , for $x$ where $a$ & $b$ are real constant. Do not use Lambert W-function in solution. Instead of using Lambert W-function, there are solution steps look like "...
-2
votes
1answer
49 views

separate $a$ & $b$ in $ssrt(a^a*b^b)$ [closed]

It is already known that $ssrt(a^a*b^b)$ does not equal $ssrt(a^a)*ssrt(b^b) = a*b$ Is there any other method to separate $a$ and $b$? ****Please note that $ssrt$ is "super square root". and my ...
0
votes
2answers
53 views

$e^{e^{10^{10^{2.8}}}}$ changing $e$ with $10$

From Numberphile $$e^{e^{10^{10^{2.8}}}}$$ changing $e$ with $10$, is there a way to change only the top most number while keeping all other numbers 10? i.e what is x in : $$e^{e^{10^{10^{2.8}}}} = ...
1
vote
1answer
108 views

complex and decimal tetration

So recently in the blog post on tetration, it talked about tetration with nice clean powers (calling them these because I don't know the right term). But how does it work when given a complex power? ...
0
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0answers
38 views

question concerning tetration to infinity.

So I read on-line that \begin{equation} x^{x^{x^{x^{x^{x}}}}}=2 \end{equation} where number of x goes to infinity can be solved by solving \begin{equation} x^{2}=2 \end{equation} so by the same logic \...
0
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1answer
70 views

If $|t| = |W(-\ln z)| = 1$ and $t^n =1$ then $z^{z^{z^{…}}}$ is convergent

Let $z \in \mathbb{C}$ and $W$ be the Lambert W function. In this post I was told if $|t| = |W(-\ln z)| = 1$ and $t^n =1$ for some $n \in \mathbb{N}$ than the iterated exponential $z^{z^{z^{...}}}$ ...
2
votes
0answers
123 views

How to differentiate $(x!)\uparrow\uparrow(!x)$?

I need help in differentiating the following expression with respect to x, which I recently came up with when trying to differentiate expressions involving subfactorials... $$(x!)\uparrow\uparrow(!x)$...
-1
votes
2answers
145 views

How to prove that $x\uparrow \uparrow 1/2 = \sqrt x_s$ [closed]

This may be a stupid question but when we work with exponentiation we can see that $x^{\frac 12}=\sqrt x$ because: $x^{\frac 12}\times x^{\frac 12}=x^{\frac 12+\frac 12}=x^1=x$ and $\sqrt x \times \...
14
votes
0answers
526 views

Prime factor of $2 \uparrow \uparrow 4 + 3\uparrow \uparrow 4$

I checked the prime factors of $$2 \uparrow \uparrow 4 + 3\uparrow \uparrow 4 = 2^{2^{2^2}} + 3^{3^{3^3}}$$ with trial division and found non below $8*10^9$ Nevertheless, the given number has still ...
2
votes
1answer
57 views

How can I show, that $N\uparrow\uparrow N$ is not “much larger” than $N$ for very large $N\ $?

Here : https://sites.google.com/site/largenumbers/home/3-2/knuth Saibian demonstrates that for very large numbers $N$, $N\uparrow\uparrow N$ is only "slightly larger" than $N$. I would like to ...
1
vote
1answer
113 views

How to evaluate or approximate this kind of recursion: $a(n+1) = m \cdot \exp\left(\frac{-K \cdot (m - a(n))}{m}\right),\ n \geq 1$?

Edit: In the original post, I put the function $$a(n+1) = m \cdot \exp(-K \cdot a(n) / m),\ n \geq 2$$ which is not the function I wanted to study. The correct one is the one given below I came up ...
8
votes
3answers
535 views

Convergence properties of $z^{z^{z^{…}}}$ and is it “chaotic”

$\DeclareMathOperator{\Arg}{Arg}$ Let $z \in \mathbb{C}.$ Let $b = W(-\ln z)$ where $W$ is the Lambert W Function. Define the sequence $a_n$ by $a_0 = z$ and $a_{n+1} = {a_0}^{a_n}$ for $n \geq 1$, ...
2
votes
2answers
154 views

Do we know the value of $3 \uparrow\uparrow\uparrow 3$

I was studying Graham's number and before we can even start calculating G1 which is $3\uparrow\uparrow\uparrow\uparrow 3$, I was wondering if we even have the actual value of $3 \uparrow\uparrow\...
3
votes
3answers
109 views

The smallest number $m$, such that $m\uparrow \uparrow (n+1)>n\uparrow\uparrow n$

A natural number $n\ge 3$ is given. Denote $a\uparrow\uparrow b$ to be a power tower of $b$ $a's$. Let $m$ be the smallest natural number , such that $m\uparrow\uparrow(n+1) > n\uparrow\uparrow n$ ...
3
votes
0answers
40 views

Tetration of a number giving a complex number

Giving this power equation: $$S=\lim_{n\to\infty} {^n}x=-i$$ where the symbol $^nx$ means the tetration operator, we can write in a form not formally correct: $${\ ^{n}x = \ \atop {\ }} {{\underbrace{...
5
votes
1answer
96 views

Equality of power towers : $a\uparrow\uparrow m=b\uparrow \uparrow n$

Suppose, $a,m,b,n$ are natural numbers greater than $1$. If we have $$a\uparrow\uparrow m=b\uparrow\uparrow n$$ can we conclude $a=b$ and $m=n$ ? $a\uparrow \uparrow m$ is a powertower of $m$ $a's$ ...
2
votes
2answers
134 views

A peculiar observation about infinity.

Let ${\sqrt2^\sqrt2}^{\sqrt2^...}=y$. Then $\sqrt 2^y=y$ $\implies \sqrt 2=y^{1/y}$ $\implies \sqrt 2 =1$ $\implies 2 =1$ !! but how come that be. Can anyone explain this and point out what is ...
1
vote
1answer
83 views

Tetration and Fractions

Recently I discovered Tetration, and was wondering about having tetration with fractional "tetronents", take the example $$^{7/2}3\;\Bbb{or}\;3\uparrow\uparrow{\frac72}$$Initially it seems difficult ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

What is a puiseux series and what is wolfram-alpha doing with this antiderivative?

I asked wolfram alpha to compute the antiderivative of the function $x^x$. It gave me some really large confusing polynomial-esque thing called a puiseux series. However, from what I can gather on the ...
2
votes
0answers
43 views

Last three digits of tetration

Find the last three digits of the number: $7^{7^{7^7...}}$ where there are 1001 sevens. I know how to do it for when there are 4 and 5 sevens. I get an answer of 343. But how do I find it for ...
-1
votes
2answers
139 views

Exponentiation and far too high numbers?

I love very, very, very, big numbers! You see, I'm working on powers of $2$ and I need to calculate the next expression in this sequence: $2^2=4$ $2\uparrow\uparrow2=216$ $2\uparrow\uparrow\uparrow2=...
3
votes
2answers
426 views

Proving that if $|W(-\ln z)| < 1$ then $z^{z^{z^{z^…}}}$ is convergent

Let $z \in \mathbb{C}$ and let $W$ be the Lambert $W$ function. In this post it is shown that if $|W(-\ln z)| > 1$ then the infinite power tower $z^{z^{z^{z^...}}}$ does not converge, that is $|W(-\...
2
votes
2answers
372 views

Convergence or divergence of infinite power towers of complex numbers $z^{z^{z^{z{…}}}}$

Let $s$ be any complex number, $t = e^s$ and $z = t^{1/t}$. Define the sequence $(a_n)_{n\in\mathbb{N}}$ by $a_0 = z $ and $a_{n+1} = z^{a_n} $ for $n \geq 0$, that is to say $a_n$ is the sequence $z$...
0
votes
0answers
51 views

Sum of the reciprocal of tetration?

Let $$f(x)=\sum^\infty_{n=1}\frac{1}{{}^xn}$$ where ${}^xn$ is n tetrated to the xth. What are f(2) and f(3), and could you please also explain how you reached these answers?
3
votes
1answer
56 views

Solving $x^{1/x}=y^{1/y}$ iteratively by power towers, convergence

Suppose we have no idea that $x^{1/x}=\exp \left( \frac{1}{x} \ln x \right)$ or don't know anything about exponents and logarithms. But we can certainly compute roots, for example by this method. ...
2
votes
0answers
47 views

Derivation of tetration by iteration

I was screwing around a bit differentiating tetrations and was trying to write some rules for them. I came up with this recursive definition: $$ \frac{d\ ^nt}{dt} =\ ^nt \cdot log(t)\frac{d\ ^{n-1}t}{...
0
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0answers
50 views

Showing that a Hermitian matrix can have eigenvalues that correspond to arbitrary numbers does not prove the Hilbert-Polya conjecture, does it?

I read in Wikipedia about the Hilbert-Polya conjecture that: " ...a physical reason that the Riemann hypothesis should be true, and suggested that this would be the case if the imaginary parts $...
3
votes
2answers
77 views

How fast does this sequence grow?

I have the following recursive definition of a sequence of numbers: $$a_{n+1}=(a_n)^{(a_{n-1})}$$ And $a_0=a_1=2$. The first few terms are: $$a_2=4$$ $$a_3=16$$ $$a_4=65536$$ $$a_5=1.1579209 \...
3
votes
1answer
137 views

Why is exponentiation right associative? [duplicate]

From Wikipedia: In order to reflect normal usage, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division operators are usually left-associative while an exponentiation operator (if present) is ...
2
votes
1answer
122 views

How do I write Grahams number

I found that graham's number is :enter image description here So, can we say that it is equal to $3^x$ with $x$ is a power tower of 63 3's?
2
votes
1answer
71 views

How would you define non-integer tetration? [duplicate]

Tetration is defined for all $n\in \Bbb{N}$ by $$ {^1}a = a \\ {^{n+1}}a = a^{\left({^n}a\right)} $$ Thus ${^3}a$ means $a^{a^a}$. Here $a$ could be any real (or indeed even complex) value, but only ...
14
votes
3answers
2k views

How to evaluate fractional tetrations?

Recently I've come across 'tetration' in my studies of math, and I've become intrigued how they can be evaluated when the "tetration number" is not whole. For those who do not know, tetrations are the ...
1
vote
2answers
166 views

Could you solve $x↑^n2=x↑^m2$?

As my title asks, could you solve $x^2=2^x$? But that's the worrisome part, as I noticed $x↑^n 2=x↑^m 2$ and $2↑^p x=2↑^q x$ will always have a solution at $x=2$. However, there is bound to be at ...
3
votes
1answer
51 views

Question concerning comparison of different tetration functions

Let $a_{1}=2$, $a_{n+1}=2^{a_{n}}$ for $n \geq 1$ Let $b_{1}=3$, $b_{n+1}=3^{b_{n}}$ for $n \geq 1$ Is is true that $a_{n+2}>b_{n}$ for all $n \geq 1$? If so, is the proof elementary? (Use only ...
2
votes
2answers
232 views

Integrate $x$ to the power $x$… to the power $x$… infinitely

This came across my mind, integrating $x$ to the power $x$ infinitely, I couldn't find anything on it. $$\Large \int x^{x^{x^{x\,\cdots}}} \, dx$$ How would you go about this?
2
votes
3answers
191 views

Will $a^a$ ever out-grow $9^{9^{^\ldots}}$?

I am trying to come up with the largest finite number that can be made using a set number of characters. I have two expressions which are calculated and printed out by a program (theoretically - they ...
19
votes
4answers
502 views

An obvious pattern to $i\uparrow\uparrow n$ that is eluding us all?

Start with $i=\sqrt{-1}$. This will be $a_1$. $a_2$ will be $i^i$. $a_3$ will be $i^{i^{i}}$. $\vdots$ etc. In Knuth up-arrow notation: $$a_n=i\uparrow\uparrow n$$ And, amazingly, you can ...
6
votes
2answers
247 views

Last digits of power towers $7$, $7^7$, $7^{7^7}$, $7^{7^{7^7}}$, … don't change, and generalisation

While playing around with Wolfram Alpha, I noticed that the last four digits of $7^{7^{7^{7^7}}}, 7^{7^{7^{7^{7^7}}}},$ and $7^{7^{7^{7^{7^{7^7}}}}}$were all $2343$. In fact, the number of sevens did ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

What the minimum of infinite tetration divided by $\sqrt{x}$?

For some values of $x$ the limit of infinite tetration converges. For example when $x=\sqrt{2}$ this is fixed point $$\lim_{n\rightarrow \infty} \sqrt{2} \uparrow \uparrow n = \sqrt{2}^{\sqrt{2}^{\...
5
votes
4answers
350 views

Tetration limit

For each $n$, define $f_n:\mathbb R^+\rightarrow \mathbb R^+$ by $f_n(x) = \underbrace{x^{x^{x^{...^{x^x}}}}}_n$ Is it true that $\lim\limits_{n \to \infty} f_n(\frac{n+1}{n}) = 1$ ? A few ...
3
votes
3answers
127 views

Infinite exponentials

We can read a lot of about convergence of series or Infinite products. E.g. for series. Following series $$\sum_{i=1}^\infty a_i$$ is convergent when $$\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}a_n=0$$ and D'...
1
vote
1answer
100 views

Infinite tetration of $i$

Proof Euler's identity; $$e^{i\pi} + 1 = 0$$ can be manipulated in order to obtain the result: $$e^{i\pi} = -1$$ Raising both sides of the equality to the power of $i$ gives, after simplification:...
6
votes
3answers
465 views

Algorithm for tetration to work with floating point numbers

So far, I've figured out an algorithm for tetration that works. However, although the variable a can be floating or integer, unfortunately, the variable ...
3
votes
4answers
297 views

Mathematical fallacy of $x^{x^{x^{x^x…}}}$ = 2

Suppose we have an equation with an infinite number of $x$'s as an exponent: $$x^{x^{x^{x^x...}}} = 2$$ $$x^{(x^{x^{x^x...}})} = 2$$ because there are infinity $x$'s in the parentheses, which we've ...
0
votes
3answers
90 views

Finding the function that would describe this:

I'm not going to go into detail why I am interested in the next iteration of these functions, but here they are: 1: 6/(x+1) 2: 8/(2^x) 3: 10/(?) The question is, which one is next? I will say that ...
1
vote
1answer
155 views

Graham's number of layer 1 tetration explanation?

I have a question on how the number of the first layer of the Graham's number ($g_1$) is computed. From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graham%27s_number#Magnitude $g_1 = 3\uparrow\uparrow\...