Questions on the usage and meaning of words in mathematics, the names for mathematical entities, and other such questions.

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Enunciation of $\partial$ as the boundary map

How is $\partial$ typically pronounced when it is used as the boundary map in homology theory? The answer to this question provides some good information on the enunciation of $\partial$, but more ...
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3answers
47 views

Terminology: geometric sequences and geometric means

(I'll post my own answer to this one, but that should not deter others, since my answer is a surmisal.) Why are geometric sequences called geometric sequences? Whare are geometric means called ...
2
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3answers
149 views

Name the property $f(x) \ge x$

It's a really one of the simplest properties you could imagine for a function. But I haven't been able to find a name for it. What do you call a function $f$ with the following property: $$f(x) \ge ...
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0answers
28 views

what does “modular” mean?

I find some similarity of the concept "modular set functions" to the cardinality function. But I don't see the cardinality function is also called "modular" or something else. I wonder what "modular" ...
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30 views

“Advective”, “diffusive”, “dispersive”, and related terms in the realm of PDEs

Whenever I read a paper involving PDEs, the discussion inevitably refers to “the dispersive term” or “the advective term” or similar. From context it is usually possible to figure out the antecedent, ...
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0answers
25 views

What does “modular” in “modulr functions” mean?

From Wikipedia If $\Omega$ is a set, a submodular function is a set function $f:2^{\Omega}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, where $2^\Omega$ denotes the power set of $\Omega$, which satisfies one of the ...
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3answers
248 views

Translating text to functions

I am having problems understanding how to extract this information into a formula. ...
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2answers
65 views

Complete vs Perfect infomation in Combinatorial game theory

In their book "Winning Ways for Your Mathematical Plays", Berlekamp, Conway, and Guy used as the 7th condition for a combinatorial game "Both players know what is going on; There is complete ...
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24 views

Terminology in universal algbera

(Fix throughout a functional language $\Sigma$.) Given an algebra $A$ with underlying set $\vert A\vert$, there is an obvious surjective homomorphism from $A$ to the free algebra generated by $\vert ...
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2answers
62 views

Standard terminology for infinite limits with opposite sign on the two sides?

Consider the following limits: $$ \lim_{x\rightarrow0}\frac{1}{x^2}$$ $$ \lim_{x\rightarrow0}\frac{1}{x}$$ As far as I can tell, most authors say as a matter of terminology that these limits don't ...
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0answers
41 views

Addition, multiplication, exponentiation… What is next function of this series?

Addition can be (informally) defined as the application of successor function $S$ on $a$ $b$ times, i.e. $a+b=S\stackrel{b}{\cdots}S a$. Multiplication can be defined as the addition of $a$ with ...
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1answer
80 views

What is the difference between a calculus and an algebra? [duplicate]

You can have a lambda calculus, the calculus of the real numbers or a logical calculus but on the other hand you could also have an algebra of sets, a Lie algebra, or a linear algebra. Is there any ...
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41 views

A term for category where every loop of morphisms is an identity

"A category where composition of every loop of morphisms is an identity." Moreover, in the case I am thinking about, morphisms are bijective functions. Is there a name for this concept?
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1answer
40 views

Help to conceive a name

Filter $F$ is defined by the formula $$A\cap B\in F \Leftrightarrow A\in F\wedge B\in F.$$ Ideal $F$ is defined by the formula $$A\cup B\in F \Leftrightarrow A\in F\wedge B\in F.$$ In my book I ...
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1answer
28 views

$H^1(X) = [X,\mathbb{T}]$?

This is a stupid question, but here goes. I have a compact Hausdorff space $X$, and I am talking about $[X,\mathbb{T}]$, the group of homotopy classes of maps $X \to \mathbb{T}$, where $\mathbb{T}$ ...
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2answers
91 views

Why do some sources call calculus, “the calculus”?

No need to cite specific sources since I think it's a fairly common thing to see. What's up with that? Thank you Edit: I've seen it in several places. Here's where I'm currently looking at it at: ...
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0answers
104 views

Alternative to sin and cos

I was reading something on the Internet the other day, and I swear I came across a reference to an alternative sine function [which I now cannot find any mention of]. The usual sine function starts ...
5
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1answer
120 views

Does every mathematical principle have a proof?

My question actually narrows down to the meaning of mathematical principle. While I'm looking for some principles, they usually have their proofs, so I thought "principle" has the same meaning as ...
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2answers
47 views

What is the difference of an n-tuple and a permutation of n elements

My understanding of n-tuple and a permutation of n elements is, that both are ordered sequences of n elements. Are there differences in the objects correlating to these two terms ? I guess it ...
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1answer
59 views

Writing a chain of implications in English

How to write a theorem of the form $A\Rightarrow B\Rightarrow C\Rightarrow D$ where every $A$, $B$, $C$, $D$ are formulated with words (English) rather than with formulas? One idea: The next item of ...
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2answers
57 views

What is meant by a “structure map”?

The title is the question. Somehow I should know the answer, but I am by no means sure what is meant exactly by it. Perhaps it doesn't have a definite meaning and only in context, could someone ...
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0answers
50 views

Name for a body that can be completely described using its silhouettes

I'm shooting blind over here because I have no background in this field of mathematics. I assume that if you have a body (in $\mathbb{R}^3$), you can call it convex if any segment from one point ...
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35 views

What is the sigmoid *squashing* function?

I've just read the following The basic unit ("neuron" i) performs the following computation to update its state $y_i$: it computes a weighted sum $v_i$ of its inputs $x:j$ which is passed ...
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1answer
69 views

Name for a property in a brutally elementary presentation of a monad

For evil reasons of my own, I'm trying to give a presentation of a monad in primitive terms, assuming only the notion of a category. More honestly, I looked at this post and got intrigued by the ...
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0answers
17 views

Name for “relative difference”

If we want to express that two numbers $x, y$ are not so far away from each other absolutely we use the absolute value function $|\cdot|$ with $0 < \epsilon \ll 1$: $$|x-y| < \epsilon$$ ...
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2answers
27 views

How do we emphasize that $\displaystyle x\mapsto\frac{1}{f(x)-y}$ “makes sense” if we know $y\notin\text{im }f$?

Please take a look at the following function $$x\mapsto\frac{1}{f(x)-y}$$ where $f$ is "some other function". Suppose we know $y\notin\text{im }f$, i.e. the expression in the denominator "makes ...
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2answers
26 views

Some basic terms from finite group theory, normalising and centralising

In a proof a read the following "Since $H$ and $N$ normalize each other, if follows that $H \subseteq C_G(N)$". I thought normalising just means that one subgroup is normal with respect to the other, ...
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1answer
16 views

Difference between $C_0^{\infty}(U)$ with support in $A$ and $C_0^{\infty}(A)$

Let $A \subseteq U$ be open sets of $\mathbb R^n$. Is it true that $$ \lbrace f \in C_0^{\infty}(A) \rbrace = \lbrace f \in C_0^{\infty}(U) : \text{support of } f \subseteq A \rbrace \quad ? $$ I ...
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1answer
26 views

Name for a generalized relation to be a multiset?

A relation between two sets $A$ and $B$ is a subset of $A \times B$. If taking a multiset subset of $A \times B$, e.g. allowing $(a,b)$ appears twice in the subset, is there a name for such a ...
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2answers
44 views

Fundamental confusion on set theory and permutations

I am confused on the following: A set does not have any order. Now I read that a permutation is a bijection of a set. But doesn't this imply an order? I mean a bijection is a one-to-one function from ...
6
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1answer
59 views

Closed and Open Set - History of Terms

I know very little in the way of math history, but I question that was bothering me recently is where the terms open and closed came from in topology. I know that it's easy to ascribe a sense of ...
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1answer
58 views

Sets that are equal to closure of its interior

Is there a standard name for set $M$ for which $M = \overline{M^0}$? $M^0$ is interior and $\overline{M}$ is closure. Often I work with well behaved sets and functions. I have in mind continuous ...
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1answer
17 views

Is there any special name for an algebraic structure (set, equivalence relation)?

I've seen the term "real multiset" but it doesn't seem to be very appropriate so i wonder whether there are any others. My second question is about multisets. In most sources i've seen one of the ...
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0answers
75 views

Has this property for algebraic structures got a name?

Given a binary operation $*:M\times M\rightarrow M$. I define the extension of $*$ to the subset of $M$ in the usual way (with $A,B \subseteq M$) $a*A:=\{a\}*A$and $A*a:=A*\{a\}$, ...
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0answers
25 views

Is there a term for extending a finite magma by adding coefficients from fields?

For example, the Quaternion numbers at their base have the Cayley table: $ * = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & i & j & k \\ i & -1 & k & -j \\ j & -k & -1 & i \\ k & j ...
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2answers
408 views

Use of the word “solve”?

This is not a mathematical question, but just a matter of terminology. I don't understand why so many people (especially on MSE) want to solve integrals. It makes sense for me (linguistically ...
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1answer
40 views

Question about nonisomorphic polynomial rings.

Let $n,k > 1$ be positive integers. Define the reduced polynomial rings : $g^k_n = \Bbb R[X_n]/(G^k_n(X_n))$ where $G^k_n$ is a real polynomial of degree $n$ (that keeps the ring reduced). (k is ...
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2answers
29 views

What's this equation called (one more each iteration, find total for given iteration)?

Say you have +1 on first iteration, +2 on second, and so on until N, and you want to know the total. That's easily calculate using (N * (N + 1) ) / 2. What's that equation or technique called?
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1answer
51 views

Has this topology a name?

let $(X,\tau )$ be the topological space where $\tau =\{\emptyset, X, \{x\}, X-\{x\}\}$ , $ x \in X$. Does this topology have a name? Thanks in advance!
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0answers
46 views

“Algebraic indistinguishability” [duplicate]

When people talk about Galois theory they often say that the basic idea behind it is that certain numbers are "algebraicaly indistinguishable". I never really understood what this means in a way that ...
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0answers
46 views

Is there a term for this property of magmas?

There exists an element of the magma c such that for all x: $ x*x=c $ The consequence of this is that the elements on the diagonal of the Cayley table are all the same, e.a: $ * = \begin{bmatrix} 1 ...
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0answers
56 views

Why are frames called “frames”?

Definition: A frame $F$ is a suplattice such that for any $x_{i}, y\in F$ (for $i\in I$, $I$ a set), we have $$y\wedge\left(\bigvee_{i\in I}x_i\right)=\bigvee_{i\in I}(y\wedge x_i).$$ Why are ...
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1answer
40 views

Is there a term for an algebraic structure with two binary operators that are closed under a set?

For example, let's say we're using the operators +, and *, and the set {0,1,2} The Cayley tables look like this: ...
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0answers
19 views

Is there a name for the corresponding notion of inductive subset in the context of well-ordered sets?

This is a question of terminology. I can't avoid being a little verbose before getting to it. The principle of mathematical induction states that, for any subset $e$ of $\omega$ (the set of natural ...
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1answer
344 views

Term for: There Exists a Rational between every two Rationals?

The integers and the rationals have the same cardinality, but the rationals satisfy the property that: $$ \forall p,q\in\mathbb{Q},\quad \exists r\in\mathbb{Q}\quad \textrm{s.t.}\quad p<r<q, $$ ...
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1answer
35 views

What are the terms for the elements in the Euclidean algorithm $a = qb + r$?

In a ring $R$ with a Euclidean norm $N$, given $a,b \in R$ with $b\neq 0$, there are elements $q, r$ such that $a = qb + r$. Is there any special terminology for the elements $a,b,q,r$ in this ...
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1answer
16 views

What to call the Euclidian norm divided by a constant

I'm using the Euclidian distance $d_{2}$ divided by a constant $T$, i. e. $\frac{d_{2}}{T}$. However, I'm not sure what to call this. I'd like to keep things simple so I thought maybe "scaled ...
1
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1answer
38 views

Any name for a special matrix with only non-zero entry

Consider an $n\times n$ matrix $\mathbf{E}_{ij}$ which is 1 at entry $(i,j)$ and zero everywhere else. Is there any special name for this kind of matrices?
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1answer
103 views

Must different constant symbols denote different objects?

In first-order theory with equality and >=2 constant symbols (let's denote two of them by c and d), does it always happen that $\neg(c=d)$ is derivable (possibly stated as an axiom)? In other words, ...
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36 views

A graph with single circle

Is there a name for a (directed) graph that has exactly one circuit that goes through all of its vertices (in the same direction)? If so, what is it called? Example is as follows: $$A\to B, B \to C, ...