Use this tag for questions about specific tensors (curvature tensor, stress tensor), or questions regarding tensor computations as they appear in multivariable calculus and differential/Riemannian geometry (specifically, when it is amenable to be treated as objects with multiple indices that ...

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1answer
24 views

Is tensor product commutative on orthonormal basis?

In general the tensor product $\varphi\otimes\psi$ is not commutative, but I was thinking that if I have tensor product on two orthonormal bases of Hilbert spaces are they commutative i.e is ...
2
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2answers
48 views

Cartesian & Tensor Product

What is the difference between a cartesian product and tensor product of two vector spaces $V_1$ and $V_2$ defined over same field $F$ ?
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0answers
28 views

how to make geometric figure with tensor, are tensors covariant or contravariant

Heloł dear Colegues! Im curious how to make some geometric figure ie. cube, simple hull of ship like half of fish or half of cylinder, with tensor, or in more mathematical language: how to make ...
2
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0answers
93 views

Prove the Curvature Tensor is a Tensor

For an affine connection $\nabla$, prove the curvature R $R(X,Y,Z,\alpha)=\alpha(\nabla_X \nabla_Y Z - \nabla_Y \nabla_X Z -\nabla_{[X,Y]}Z)$ with $X,Y,Z$ vector fields and $\alpha$ a co-vector, is ...
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1answer
31 views

derivation of rank of tensor from the product of two tensors

If $A^p$ is a first rank tensor and $A^pK^{qrs}$ is a 4th rank tensor we have to prove that $K^{qrs}$ is a tensor of rank three?.we can check here clearly that $A^p$ is first rank tensor and $K^{qrs}$ ...
2
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1answer
101 views

using the kronecker product and vec operators to write the following least squares problem in standard matrix form

I have a least squares problem with the following form: $$ \min_\mathbf{X} ~ \left\| \sum_{i=1}^n \mathbf{u}_i^\top \mathbf{X} \mathbf{v}_i - b_i \right\|^2 $$ where $\{\mathbf{u}_i\}_{i=1}^n$ and ...
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0answers
30 views

Isomorphism between $T^k_{l+1}(V)$ and $\mathcal{L}\left( (V^*)^k \times (V)^l\right)$.

V is a real $n$-dimensional vector space. I'm using the notation as in John Lee's Riemannian Manifolds: an Introduction to Curvature for the set of $\binom{k}{l}$ tensors and the set of multilinear ...
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0answers
17 views

degrees of freedom (df) of a third order tensor

Does it make sense to simply unfold the tensor into a matrix and apply the df metric used for matrices? That is, a $\ n_1\times n_2 $ matrix of rank $\ r$ has df =$\ n_1r + (n_2 - r)r$ and so, a ...
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0answers
43 views

Rotation of axes transformation as definition of vectors

Given a three-axes coordinate system ${1,2,3} $ by the right-hand rule, and a new coordinate system ${1',2',3'}$ , I know that one can define a vector $\vec{x}$ to be something that obeys the ...
2
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1answer
49 views

Tensors and Transformations

In Griffiths E&M book, he says that a second rank tensor transforms with two factors of some transformational tensor on each of its nine components-I'm not sure why that is. I thought a second ...
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0answers
54 views

The trace of a wedge product of matrices

I'm trying understand a computation on Besse's book (p. 371). I already know the curvature operator $R:\bigwedge^2\to\bigwedge^2$ may be written in block diagonal form relative to the direct sum ...
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1answer
55 views

Is it true to say that every tensor is an element of a monoid?

If we consider that: by definition, a tensor is an element of the tensor product of two algebraic structures the most abstract algrebraic structure on which the tensor product is defined are ...
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2answers
52 views

Is every tensor an element of a vector space?

As, the tensor product of two vector spaces $V$ and $W$ over a field $K$ is another vector space over $K$, is it true to say that every tensor is an element of a vector space ? (if we do not consider ...
4
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0answers
71 views

Number of isotropic tensors of rank N

Could someone please help me out with this problem? I would like to know what the number of distinct isotropic tensors of rank N is. I am new to the field and got confused by apparently contradictory ...
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0answers
19 views

Alternative operator is a homomorphism?

Let $V$ be a real vector space of dimension $n$, for a (real valued) tensor $f$ of order $r$, define the alternative operator $A$ by $$(Af)(v_1,\cdots, v_r)=\frac{1}{r!}\sum_{\sigma\in ...
1
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1answer
58 views

Partial derivative with respect to $ \left( \frac{dx^m}{ds} \right) $

I don't understand how the following $$ 2g_{ml} \frac{dx^l}{ds} $$ partial derivative was obtained below. It is supposedly the partial derivative of the value between the parenthesis. $$L = ...
2
votes
1answer
109 views

Inverse of a matrix

I am looking for a way to derive that the inverse of a matrix using Levi-Civita. I know that the final result looks like this for a $3 \times 3$ matrix: $$(A^{-1})_{ij} = \frac{1}{2!}\frac{1}{\det A} ...
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1answer
45 views

Why must metric tensor be invertible?

The metric can be written as a matrix, but why must this matrix be invertible? At the points where the matrix is singular, why is the metric not defined?
3
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1answer
96 views

Transforming a matrix from cartesian to spherical coordinates

Consider a variable matrix $$\left[\begin{array}{ccc}a_{11}(x,y,z) \quad a_{12}(x,y,z) \quad a_{13}(x,y,z)\\ a_{21}(x,y,z) \quad a_{22}(x,y,z) \quad a_{23}(x,y,z)\\ ...
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0answers
51 views

Curvature tensor on the sphere

While reading R. Hamilton paper "Three-manifolds with positive Ricci curvature" I came across the sentence: For the sphere we have $$R(u,v,u,v)=R_{ijkl}u^{i}v^{j}u^{k}v^{l}>0,$$ which is the ...
2
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1answer
39 views

Calculating a certain tensor

Consider the $\mathbb{Z}$ module $\mathbb{Z}/n\mathbb{Z}$. What is $\mathbb{Z}/n\mathbb{Z} \otimes_{\mathbb Z} \mathbb{Z}/n\mathbb{Z}$?
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1answer
80 views

Tensor Einstein summation notation

I have two tensors $A^i$ and $B_j$ with components $(2,3,4)$ and $(1,2,3)$ respectively. What is the difference between $A^i B_i$ and $A^i B_j$? Is it just: $A^i B_i = 2+6+12 = 20$ $A^i B_j =$ $ ...
4
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1answer
64 views

Symmetry of the Riemannian curvature tensor

The Riemannian curvature tensor, in local coordinates, $R_{ijkl}$, has the following symmetries: $$R_{ijkl}+R_{jikl}=0;$$ $$R_{ijkl}+R_{ijlk}=0;$$ $$R_{ijkl}=R_{klij};$$ ...
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5answers
365 views

What, Exactly, Is a Tensor?

I've repeatedly read things that reference tensors, and despite reading the wiki page and other answers here on stackexchange I still don't know what a tensor is. I'm fine with hearing things in the ...
0
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1answer
27 views

Levi-Civita symbol identity: $\epsilon_{ijs}x_s L_i = -\epsilon_{ijs}x_i L_s$

I have the following identity I want to use but don't know whether it's correct or not (and if it is, why so): $$\epsilon_{ijs}x_s L_i = -\epsilon_{ijs}x_i L_s$$ Is this correct? How to arrive at ...
1
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0answers
26 views

Prove $\frac{1}{N!}\varepsilon_{i_1\dots i_N}\varepsilon_{j_1\dots j_N}A_{i_1 j_1}\dots A_{i_N j_N} = \det A$

Is there any simple way to prove the following: $$\frac{1}{N!}\varepsilon_{i_1\dots i_N}\varepsilon_{j_1\dots j_N}A_{i_1 j_1}\dots A_{i_N j_N} = \det A. \tag{$1$} $$
3
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2answers
77 views

What is the value of the 2-form $X(u(Y))-Y(u(X))-u([X,Y])$, is it $2du(X,Y)$?

Let $X,Y$ be two vector fields on a Riemannian manifold $(M,g,\nabla)$ where $\nabla $ is the symmetric metric connection on $M$ and let $u$ be a 1-form. I want to find the value or a simple form or ...
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0answers
46 views

Question about tensor product of homomorphisms

I've come to think about this problem when reading a proof in Commutative Algebra by N. Bourbaki. Say, let $R$ be a commutative ring, given 3 $R-$modules $A$, $B$, $C$, and the $R$-homomorphism $f:B ...
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1answer
27 views

Vanishing of 1-form

If $\theta \in \frak{X}^* \mathrm{(M)}$ and $\theta (X) = 0$ $\forall X \in \frak{X} \mathrm{(M)}$ then $\theta = 0$. How do I prove this statement? Consider a manifold $M$ with chart $x^1, \dots, ...
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0answers
26 views

Significance of bump function in the proof.

In the book Semi-Riemannian Geometry with applications to Relativity by Barrett O'Neill, in Chapter 2 (Tensors), he stated that: However, I don't get why he had to use a bump function in the proof. ...
1
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1answer
67 views

Why is this true: $\nabla \cdot (S\cdot \vec v )=S:(\nabla \otimes \vec v)+\vec v \cdot (\nabla \cdot S)$?

I am doing fluid mechanics and I don't understand a particular step that is being used. It is the following step which I don't understand: $\nabla \cdot (S\cdot \vec v )=S:(\nabla \otimes \vec ...
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3answers
248 views

Resources for properly developing a modern understanding tensors

I am currently learning about tensors as they come up in the mathematics behind continuum mechanics. I was fairly disappointed with my initial foray into tensors, as presented in the book Classical ...
6
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1answer
510 views

I feel that (physics) notation for tensor calculus is awful. Are there any alternative notations worth looking into?

I am reading through Fung and Tong's "Classical and Computational Solid Mechanics", and feel that the Einstein summation convention saves a few symbols, at the expense of a lot of clarity. Along with ...
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2answers
25 views

Multilinearity of the exterior derivative of a one-form.

I wish to show that the exterior derivative $d \theta$ of a one-form $\theta$ is $\frak{F} \mathrm{(M)}$-multilinear, therefore, a tensor. Let $X, Y, V, W \in \frak{X} \mathrm{(M)}$ and $f, g, h, k ...
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0answers
49 views

Metric on an open subset of $\mathbb{R}^d$ and Christoffel symbol of the second kind under diffeomorphisms

This is a follow-up question to this question I proved the following identity. $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^d$ is open and $g$ is a metric field on $\Omega$. Further $\Gamma_{\,kl}^j$ denotes the ...
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0answers
87 views

Stress Tensor and the ubiquitous cube: a misrepresentation?

So I'm just learning about Stress Tensors and have had an on going confusion and I'm wondering if the cube diagrams may to be blame. Usually when a stress tensor is introduced they show a cube and ...
3
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0answers
78 views

Intuition about the Riemann and Ricci tensors

I have started an attempt to self-study Riemannian Geometry. I well understand all the algebraic properties of the Riemann tensor (With a symmetric connection), and how it gradually becomes less and ...
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2answers
182 views

Multiplication of 3 matrices - Index vs. Matrix notation

i'm having a problem multiplicating 3 matrices in index notation. I know this should be trivial but i just can't figure it out. Is there any formula like $\ A'_{\mu\nu} = M_{\mu}^{\ ...
2
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1answer
55 views

Tensor Product definition (help with certain step)

I'm going over some notes I took from the blackboard, and reached a slight hitch. I thought that maybe someone could help. Let $E,F$ be vector spaces over a field $\mathbb K$. A tensor product of $E$ ...
2
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1answer
48 views

Why is it true that ${(\nabla Y)'^i}_j = {Y'^i}_{,j} + {\Gamma'^i}_{jk}Y'^k $?

I do not understand why this equation transforms as it does : ${(\nabla Y)'^i}_j = {Y'^i}_{,j} + {\Gamma'^i}_{jk}Y'^k $ Could someone give me a detailed explanation of why this is true please? I ...
0
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1answer
240 views

Christoffel Symbols and the change of transformation law.

I have seen it written that the change of co-ordinate form is given by the following: $$ \tilde \Gamma^{i}_{jk} = {\partial \tilde x^i \over \partial x^\alpha} \left [ \Gamma^\alpha_{\beta ...
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1answer
56 views

Metric tensors. Have I got the correct understanding?

My course is covering metric tensors in a slap-dash way, so I want to ensure I have understood correctly how they are described. I hope you can confirm this! So, I believe that a metric tensor is a ...
0
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1answer
81 views

Derivation for affine connection formulas on differentiable manifolds (General tensors)

Let $p\in U\subseteq M$ be a point in some neighborhood of a finite-dimensional differentiable manifold, $\{x^i\}$ a set of local coordinates with respect to $U$, and ...
1
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1answer
290 views

Riemann tensor in terms of the metric tensor

The Riemann tensor is a function of the metric tensor when the Levi-Civita connection is used. Most tensor notation based texts give the Riemann tensor in terms of the Christoffel symbols, which are ...
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1answer
78 views

Tensor product and valence of a tensor?

Given a vector space $V$, its dual vector space $V^{*}$ and a tensor $\mathbf{T}$: $\mathbf{T} \in \underbrace{V \otimes\dots\otimes V}_{n\text{ copies}}\otimes \underbrace{V^{*}\otimes\dots\otimes ...
2
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2answers
152 views

Using the Levi-Civita alternating tensor and suffix notation to concisely write the vector product rule.

I am reading through a section on vector calculus in an electromagnetism book and it has started to use suffix notation and the Levi-Civita alternating tensor in order to prove some identities. Some ...
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0answers
32 views

A tricky tensor

There's this question from Schaum's Outlines-Tensor Calculus: If the $a_{ij}$ are constants, calculate the partial derivative $\partial\over\partial x_k$$(a_{ij}x_ix_j)$. We use the product rule and ...
3
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1answer
94 views

Why the space of skew-symmetric tensors $\Lambda^{n}V$ is a one dimensional if $dim(V)=n$

While reading Liviu Nicolaescu Lectures on the geometry of manifolds, I came accross the notion of "determinant line": Definition: Lev $V$ be an n-dimensional R-vector space. The one dimensional ...
4
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1answer
103 views

Tensor basis change

I have a question regarding tensors and basis changes, however upon searching the web I've found an infinity of definitions for tensors so I'll have to give the one I know first: Given a vector space ...
0
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1answer
28 views

choosing indices in tensor notation

I have the following operator, where $\rho$ is a scalar and $u$ is a vector: $$ \nabla (\rho u) - (\nabla \rho)u - u(\nabla \rho) $$ My book writes this in index notation as $$ \partial_\alpha(\rho ...