Questions regarding the Taylor series expansion of univariate and multivariate functions, including coefficients and bounds on remainders. A special case is also known as the Maclaurin series.

learn more… | top users | synonyms (1)

3
votes
3answers
278 views

Find an accurate value of $f(x)=\sqrt{4x^2+x}-2x$ for large values of x. Calculate $\lim_{x\to\infty}f(x)$

My works: $x^2$ can be very large if x is large, thus the function has lose-of-significance error and we need to reformulate it. $$ ...
3
votes
2answers
4k views

What is the Maclaurin series expansion for $\sqrt{x}$?

The derivative of $\sqrt{x}$ doesn't have a defined value at x = 0. How then do I find its maclaurin series expansion? Or can it only be approximated with a Taylor series at some value x != 0?
3
votes
3answers
225 views

Limit of $\dfrac{\tan^{-1}(\sin^{-1}(x))-\sin^{-1}(\tan^{-1}(x))}{\tan(\sin(x))-\sin(\tan(x))}$ as $x \rightarrow 0$

Find $\lim_{x \to 0} \dfrac{\tan^{-1}(\sin^{-1}(x))-\sin^{-1}(\tan^{-1}(x))}{\tan(\sin(x))-\sin(\tan(x))}$ I came across this limit a long time ago and could easily obtain a straightforward solution ...
3
votes
2answers
72 views

Coincidence of $x-\frac{x^3}{6}$ and $\sin x$ in an interval

Plotting $f(x)=x-\frac{x^3}{6}$ and $g(x)=\sin x$, one can see that these two function are coincide in an interval $I\subset(-\frac{\pi}{2},\frac{\pi}{2})$. On the other hand, Taylor series for $\sin ...
3
votes
4answers
230 views

Trigonometric Coincidence

I Know that using Taylor Series, the formula of $\sin x$ is $$x-x^3/3!+x^5/5!-x^7/7!\cdots,$$ and the unit of $x$ is radian (where $\pi/2$ is right angle). However, the ratio of the circumference ...
3
votes
2answers
93 views

How can we determine the number of terms which we have to take in a series to get a particular accurate?

As I remember , two days ago , there was a question ( here ) asks for calculating this limit $\displaystyle \lim \limits_{x\rightarrow \infty } \frac{x^3}{e^x}$ and the question was answered . of ...
3
votes
3answers
673 views

Finding the Taylor series expansion of $f(z)=\frac{e^{z}-1}{z}$ around $0$

Find the Taylor series expansion of $f(z)=\displaystyle\frac{e^{z}-1}{z}$ around $0$. I have no idea where to start.
3
votes
2answers
214 views

Expanding logarithm into series

How to expand $f(x)=\ln\left( x+\sqrt{1+x^2} \right)$ into series at $x_0=0$? I've tried using Taylor's formula but counting consecutive derivatives was inconvenient and I couldn't find the general ...
3
votes
2answers
183 views

Next term in $(1+a/n)^n \rightarrow \exp (a)$

Working on the generalized birthday problem, where you draw with replacement from $\{1,2,3, \ldots,d\}$ and look for the number of draws $n$ for which you have greater than $1/2$ chance of a match I ...
3
votes
2answers
58 views

Finding $\lim_{x\to0} \frac{\sin(x^2)}{\sin^2(x)}$ with Taylor series

Evaluate $$\lim_{x\to0} \frac{\sin(x^2)}{\sin^2(x)}.$$ Using L'Hospital twice, I found this limit to be $1$. However, since the Taylor series expansions of $\sin(x^2)$ and $\sin^2(x)$ tell us that ...
3
votes
2answers
139 views

Proving $\forall x\in\mathbb R : \dfrac{e^x + e^{-x}}2 \le e^{\frac{x^2}{2}}$ with Cauchy's MVT

Prove for all $x\in\mathbb R$: $$\dfrac{e^x + e^{-x}}2 \le e^{\frac{x^2}{2}}$$ Mclauren expansion: $$e^x=1+x+\frac{x^2}{2}+\frac{x^3}{3!}+R_4(x)$$ ...
3
votes
4answers
89 views

Taylor Series of $ \frac{1}{1-x^2} $ about x=2

I am trying to form a taylor series of the following: $ \frac{1}{1-x^2} $ about $x=2$ I tried factoring the equation such that it becomes the following: $ \frac{1}{{(1+x)}{(1-x)}} $ I tried to ...
3
votes
2answers
154 views

The integral $\int\ln(x-\ln(x))~dx$

The integral $f(y)=\int_0^y\ln(x-\ln(x))~dx$ is on my mind. I'm not sure if this has a closed form? Maybe we need to use the lambert-W function to solve this one? If it cannot be done in closed ...
3
votes
1answer
80 views

Find all $\alpha \in \mathbb{R}$ such that $\int_0^\infty \sin(x^\alpha)dx$ converges.

Find all $\alpha \in \mathbb{R}$ such that $\int_0^\infty \sin(x^\alpha)dx$ converges. There is an answer here that differs from mine (they claim for $-\infty<\alpha<-2$ and ...
3
votes
3answers
754 views

Trigonometric identities using $\sin x$ and $\cos x$ definition as infinite series

Can someone show the way to proof that $$\cos(x+y) = \cos x\cdot\cos y - \sin x\cdot\sin y$$ and $$\cos^2x+\sin^2 x = 1$$ using the definition of $\sin x$ and $\cos x$ with infinite series. thanks...
3
votes
1answer
57 views

manipulations with Taylor expansions for log and sinh

How could we derive the equality $$ \frac14 \sum_{m=1}^\infty \frac1m \frac{1}{\sinh^2 \frac{m\alpha}2} = - \sum_{n=1}^\infty n\log (1-q^n)$$ where $q=e^{-\alpha}$ ?
3
votes
2answers
98 views

Definite integral into indefinitie series

Convert $\displaystyle \int_0^1 e^{x^2}\, dx$ to an infinite series.
3
votes
2answers
179 views

Approximating the cosine by Taylor polynomial

Let $f:=\cos(x)$ I'm asked to find for which values of $x$ we can be sure the 4th degree Taylor polynomial will give an error lesser than $\frac{1}{1000}$. Now, ...
3
votes
5answers
200 views

Why don't taylor series represent the entire function?

Say, I have a continuos function that is infinitely differentiate on the interval $I$. It can then be written as a taylor series. However, taylor series aren't always completely equal to the function ...
3
votes
2answers
55 views

Maclaurin series of: $ f(x) = {x + 5\over1-x^2}$.

I'm trying to get the Maclauren series of: $ f(x) = {x + 5\over1-x^2}$. I am sure there is some trick here, the result according to Mathematica is: $5 + x + 5x^2 + x^3 + 5x^4 + x^5 + 5x^6 + \ ...$ ...
3
votes
2answers
214 views

Is there a closed form expression for the Taylor series of exp((f(z))?

Given a holomorphic function $f(z) = \sum_{k=0}^\infty f_k z^k/k!$, is there a readable formula for the Taylor series of $\exp(f(z))$? Using the chain and product rules, one can obtain $$\partial_z ...
3
votes
1answer
417 views

Is the Taylor series comparable to Fourier series and spherical harmonics?

I am currently trying to grasp spherical harmonics and try to digest that we proved that the sine and cosine functions are a basis for the $L^2$ space of the squared-integrable functions. So as far ...
3
votes
3answers
353 views

Taylor polynomial of $f(x) = 1/(1+\cos x)$

I'm trying to solve a problem from a previous exam. Unfortunately there is no solution for this problem. So, the problem is: Calculate the Taylor polynommial (degree $4$) in $x_0 = 0$ of the ...
3
votes
3answers
571 views

Remembering Taylor series

Could anyone suggest a good way of memorizing Taylor series for common functions? I have tried to remember them but never seem to be able to commit them to permanent memory.
3
votes
3answers
672 views

Prove that the Taylor series converges to $\ln(1+x)$.

Prove the following statement. For $0 \leq x \leq 1$, the Taylor Series, $\displaystyle x - \frac{x^2}{2} + \frac{x^3}{3} - \cdots$ converges to $\ln(1+x)$ Any help will be greatly appreciated! ...
3
votes
1answer
120 views

Series around $s=1$ for an integral

Consider the function $$F(s)=\int_{1}^{\infty}\frac{\text{Li}(x)}{x^{s+1}}dx$$ where $\text{Li}(x)=\int_2^x \frac{1}{\log t}dt$ is the logarithmic integral. What is the series expansion around $s=1$? ...
3
votes
2answers
64 views

Analogy to the purpose of Taylor series

I want to know an analogy to the purpose of Taylor series. I did a google search for web and videos : all talks about what Taylor series and examples of it. But no analogies. I am not a math geek and ...
3
votes
2answers
39 views

Other ways to evaluate $\lim_{x \to 0} \frac 1x \left [ \sqrt[3]{\frac{1 - \sqrt{1 - x}}{\sqrt{1 + x} - 1}} - 1\right ]$?

Using the facts that: $$\begin{align} \sqrt{1 + x} &= 1 + x/2 - x^2/8 + \mathcal{o}(x^2)\\ \sqrt{1 - x} &= 1 - x/2 - x^2/8 + \mathcal{o}(x^2)\\ \sqrt[3]{1 + x} &= 1 + x/3 + \mathcal{o}(x) ...
3
votes
4answers
52 views

Taylor polynomial of $\frac{1}{2-x}$

Can someone show how to find the Taylor polynomial of $\frac{1}{2-x}$? I tried this: $\frac{1}{2-x}=\frac{1}{1-(x-1)}$ and then use that $ \ T_n(\frac{1}{1-x})=1+x+\dots +x^n.$ But this gives ...
3
votes
3answers
64 views

Show $\forall x>0:\ln(1+x) > x - \frac{x^2}{2} + \frac{x^3}{3} - \frac{x^4}{4}$

I'm reading a proof which aim to show that: $$\forall x>0:\ln(1+x) > x - \frac{x^2}{2} + \frac{x^3}{3} - \frac{x^4}{4}$$ the Taylor expansion of $\ln(1+x)$ is (not by chance): $$x - ...
3
votes
1answer
93 views

Why does $\arctan(\frac{\tan \theta}{2}) \approx \frac{1}{2 - \theta} - \frac{1}{2 + \theta}$ for small $\theta$?

In answering this question, I needed to show that $\arctan \left( \frac{\tan \theta}{2} \right) \approx \frac{\theta}{2}$ when $\theta$ was small. So, naturally, I computed the first few terms of the ...
3
votes
2answers
550 views

How to calculate Taylor expansion of $\cos(\sin x)$

I know that Taylor expansion of $\cos x = 1 - \frac{x^2}{2!} + \frac{x^4}{4!} + O(x^6)$ and that of $\sin x = x - \frac{x^3}{3!} + \frac{x^5}{5!} - O(x^7)$. But how do I calculte the Taylor Expansion ...
3
votes
1answer
57 views

Counterexample: For real functions existence of all higher order derivatives doesn't imply analycity.

In the lecture we had an example for a function $f: \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$, which is not analytic. We defined, that a function is said to be analytic at some point $x_0$ if a Taylor series expansion ...
3
votes
1answer
188 views

Taylor series with Fibonacci coefficients

Let $\{a_n\}$ be the Fibonacci numbers given by $a_0=0,a_1=1,a_{n+2}=a_{n+1}+a_n$ for $n\geq 0$. Prove that $f(z)=a_0+a_1z+a_2z^2+\ldots$ is a rational function, and determine which rational ...
3
votes
4answers
195 views

Taylor series of $\arctan(x+2)$ at $x=\infty$

The simple question is: what is the correct way to calculate the series expansion of $\arctan(x+2)$ at $x=\infty$ without strange (and maybe wrong) tricks? Read further only if you want more details. ...
3
votes
1answer
108 views

Approximating the logarithm of a Laplace transform

Suppose $X$ is a random variable on $\mathbb R_+$ with finite mean, i.e. $\mathbb E X <+\infty$. Let $F_X(t)$ be its c.d.f. and $\mathcal{L}_X(\cdot)$ its Laplace transform, i.e. ...
3
votes
3answers
1k views

Showing that the Taylor series of $f(x)=\frac{1}{\sqrt{1+x}}$ converges to $f$ on (I think) the interval (-1,1].

Let $f(x)=\frac{1}{(1+x)^{1/2}}$. Supposed to find the Taylor series $Tf$ of $f$ around $0$, and show that it converges to $f$ on $[-1,1)$, (although I suspect there's a misprint in the book, and that ...
3
votes
1answer
189 views

Bernoulli and Euler numbers in some known series.

The series for some day to day functions such as $\tan z$ and $\cot z$ involve them. So does the series for $\dfrac{z}{e^z-1}$ and the Euler Maclaurin summation formula. How can it be analitically ...
3
votes
1answer
943 views

Generalized binomial theorem

Prove that: $$(1+x)^{\alpha}=\sum_{n=0}^{+\infty}{\alpha \choose n} x^n$$ for $x\in[0;1), \alpha \in\mathbb{R}$ based on Taylor's theorem with Lagrange remainder. I don't feel such proofs. ...
3
votes
4answers
639 views

Formula for calculating $\sum_{n=0}^{m}nr^n$

I want to know the general formula for $\sum_{n=0}^{m}nr^n$ for some constant r and how it is derived. For example, when r = 2, the formula is given by: $\sum_{n=0}^{m}n2^n = 2(m2^m - 2^m +1)$ ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

Proof of Taylor's series expansion with two terms

I am looking for a simple direct proof of the fact that $$ \frac{\frac{f(x + \Delta x) - f(x)}{\Delta x} -f'(x)}{\Delta x} \stackrel{\Delta x \to 0}{\to} \frac{1}{2}f''(x), $$ or, ...
3
votes
2answers
822 views

Using Taylor series expansion as a bound

I have a function $f(x)$ that has convergent Taylor series expansion around $x=0$ in the following form: ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Truncation error using Taylor series

How can we use Taylor series to derive the truncation error of the approximation $$f^\prime(x)\approx\frac{f(x+h)-f(x-h)}{2h}$$
3
votes
5answers
1k views

Maclaurin polynomial of $\ln(\cos(x))$

I want to write down $\ln(\cos(x))$ Maclaurin polynomial of degree 6. I'm having trouble understanding what I need to do, let alone explain why it's true rigorously. The known expansions of ...
3
votes
3answers
77 views

If all derivatives of $f$ are uniformly bounded by a common constant and $f(1/n) = 0$ for all $n$, is $f$ identically zero?

$$ f: \Re \longrightarrow \Re \ \in C^{\infty} \\ \exists \ L>0: \ \forall x \in \Re, \forall n\in N \\ |f^{(n)} (x)| \le L \\ f(\frac{1}{n})=0 \ \forall n\in N \\ f(x) \equiv 0 $$ Good morning, ...
3
votes
1answer
92 views

If f ' = 0, then f is constant?

I'm a little confused. After finishing the online multi-variable calculus course from the MIT OCW offerings (I wanted to brush up on the subject more concretely, after my Analysis II course), I ...
3
votes
2answers
47 views

Showing that the integral remainder of the Taylor expansion of $f(x)=-\log(1-x)$ goes to $0$

Let $|x|<1$. Define $R_n(x):=\int_{0}^{x}\frac{(x-t)^{n-1}}{(1-t)^n}dt$. How do we prove that $\lim_{n\to \infty}R_n(x)=0$? This is actually the integral remainder of the Taylor expansion of the ...
3
votes
1answer
88 views

Understanding the proof of Taylor's theorem

I'm trying to understand the proof of Taylor's theorem from here: I already made a question about the remainder part of the theorem and got an answer for it here: Remainder term in Taylor's ...
3
votes
2answers
88 views

Integration by expansion

Consider the integral \begin{equation} I(x)= \frac{1}{\pi} \int^{\pi}_{0} \sin(x\sin t) \,dt \end{equation} show that \begin{equation} I(x)= \frac{2x}{\pi} +O(x^{3}) \end{equation} as ...
3
votes
1answer
78 views

How to show that $e^{x+y} = e^x e^y$ by series expansion [duplicate]

I know that $e^xe^y=e^{x+y}$ but I want to show it by expanding the exponentials in MacLaurin Series. $$ \left(\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{x^n}{n!}\right) \left(\sum_{m=0}^{\infty} ...