Questions regarding the Taylor series expansion of univariate and multivariate functions, including coefficients and bounds on remainders. A special case is also known as the Maclaurin series.

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Effective ways to calculate multivariable taylor expansion

I need to calculate first 20 members of taylor series for $e^{x^7+y^{11} \cos{(x^{10}+y^8})}$. Are there any ways except the terrible direct way.
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121 views

What is the connection between Taylor series and Chebyshev polynomials?

Can somebody help me find some historical references for the connection between Chebyshev polynomials and the Taylor series for sine and cosine functions? We know that Chebyshev polynomials are used ...
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2answers
464 views

Exponential function-like Taylor series: what is it?

I have a series $$1+ x+\frac{x^2}{2}+\frac{x^3}{4}+\frac{x^4}{8}...=1+\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{x^n}{2^{n-1}}$$ that looks an awful lot like a Taylor series of some kind. If the denominator of the ...
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1answer
59 views

Ring of Infinitely Differentiable Functions

Denote the ring $\text{C}^{\infty}$ i.e. infinitely differentiable functions from $\mathbb{R}\mapsto\mathbb{R}$. I have managed to prove that this ring is a Principal Ideal Domain. I must also prove ...
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15 views

Taylor expanion of exponential matrix

I've been reading about Lie groups, and came across the following expansion that left me confused: Let $$ A = e^{i\lambda X_a} \text{ and } B = e^{i\lambda X_b} $$ for matrices $X_a$ and $X_b$, and ...
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3answers
30 views

Errors and Taylor Polynomials

For $g(x)=x^{1/3}$, $a=1$, degree $3$ I found the Taylor polynomial: $$p_3(x) = 1 + (x-1)/3 - ((x-1)^2)/9 + (5(x-1)^3)/81$$ How do I use the error formula for the Taylor polynomial of degree 3 to ...
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1answer
41 views

Show by comparison with an appropriate geometric series that, $e^x-1<\left(\frac{2x}{2-x}\right)$ for 0<x<2.

Show by comparison with an appropriate geometric series that, $e^x-1<\left(\dfrac{2x}{2-x}\right)$ for $0\lt x\lt2$. Can anyone help me with this?
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1answer
18 views

Evaluating irrational values of functions with Taylor series

Calculate the following using Taylor expansion such that the error will be smaller than $10^{-3}$. $\tan 46^\circ$ $(31)^{1/5}$ My problem is that I don't know if I can avoid to use ...
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1answer
44 views

Approximating $e^{\frac 1 {10}}$ with Taylor expansion

Approximate $e^{\frac 1 {10}}$ such that the error won't be larger than $10^{-3}$. I tried to use the expansion for $e^x$ but the error is too large even beyond order 4. So I think the only ...
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37 views

Estimating the error of $\sin x \approx x-\frac {x^3}{6}$ for $|x|\le \frac 12$

Estimate the error of $\sin x \approx x-\frac {x^3}{6}$ for $|x|\le \frac 12$ It seems too easy so I just want to make sure: Since $f(x)-p(x)\le R(x)$ and $R_5(x)=\cos (c) \frac {x^5} {5!}$ So ...
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1answer
34 views

Compute the 100th Bernstein polynomial for $e^x$

I need to find $$B_3 e^x = \sum_{k=0}^{100} e^{k/100}\binom{100}{k} x^k (1-x)^{100-k}$$ I can rearrange this to find $$\sum_{k=0}^\infty e^{k/100} \left(\frac{100!}{k!(100-k)!}\right) ...
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1answer
42 views

Taylor Series Clarification

For $\sin(x)$, $e^x$, $\cos(x)$... When we are building the $n$-th taylor polynomial, why is it that we always evaluate the functions first $k$ derivatives at $x=0$? In my textbook when they were ...
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4answers
132 views

Bernoulli Number analog using Cosine

I know that Bernoulli Numbers can be found with the generating function $$\frac{x}{e^x-1}=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{B_n}{n!}x^n$$ I was wondering if any work has been done using a similar equation ...
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1answer
35 views

Simple vs compound interest rates and Taylor expansion

I am having trouble deciphering a portion from my finance text. Let $i = \text{interest rate}$, $n = \text{Some arbitrary time period}$ and $C = \text{Cash invested}$ And also $C(1+i)^n$ ...
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4answers
73 views

Find a power series for this function

$$f'(x) = 2xf(x) + 4x$$ I need to find the power series for $f(x)$, any hints on how this should be approached?
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42 views

Proving substitution rule of taylor series

Given $f, g$ which are both nth differential-able. How do I show that $f(g)$ is also nth differentai-able ? I tried using chain rule to calculate, but it seems like a mess. Then how can I show that ...
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29 views

why does this power series converges to sinh(x)?

given the infinite sum $$\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{ x^{2n+1}}{(2n+1)!}$$ of course, by ratio test, it converges for reals. I know that the answer is $\sinh(x)$ and I've seen how this is derived from its ...
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1answer
30 views

Prove that $\cos(x^2)$ is analytic at $x = 0$

I can't figure out how to go about showing any of the properties required for analytic with such a messy derivative. This is for my real analysis class and I just want to see for this example so that ...
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1answer
30 views

N'th coefficient of two taylor series

So, I'm taking a course in Analytic Combinatorics, and the author asserts without proof that the n'th coefficient of $z^n$ for the taylor (Around 0) expansion, for nonnegative integer values of r in ...
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3answers
65 views

Finding $\sum\frac{1}{2^n(n+1)}$

What is the sum of $$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{1}{2^n(n+1)}$$ I've spent an insane amount of time on this problem. I checked on Wolfram and it gives $ln(4)$, which I assume you get from $2\ln(2)$. ...
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4answers
508 views

Taylor series of ln(1/(1-z)) around 0

One more taylor/maclurian series problem to which I know the answer of, I just have no idea how to get there (This is as a formal power series, so convergence is not an issue) $$\log \left(\frac 1 ...
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1answer
119 views

Evaluate $I=\int_{\gamma (0,1)}\frac{zdz}{(z^2-4z+1)^2}$ using Taylor's Theorem

I've shown that $f(z)=\frac{z}{(z^2-4z+1)^2}$ is holomorphic apart from at points $\alpha=2-\sqrt3$ and $\beta=2+\sqrt3$ and that the talyor coefficient of $g(z)=\frac{z}{(z-\beta)^2}$ centred at ...
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$\cos(x)$ approximation with taylor of second degree

There is an approximation to find $\cos(x)$ is $1 - x^2/2$, until $n = 2$ degree of Taylor, but I'm confuse how to find how good is its approximation, the one thing I know only I get its error is ...
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28 views

Expand a function in Maclaurin's series.

The function is given with: $$\ln(5\cos^{3}(x))$$ Need to be expanded: $$x^{4}$$ I have no idea what to do here and honestly, I don't really understand what a Maclaurin's series is. I know the ...
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2answers
51 views

function approximation using series

I was trying to approximate a function by another one using some kind of a series. Let $$ f(x) = m\cdot \left(1-\sqrt{\frac x2\biggm/\left(1+\frac x2\right)}\right) $$ I'm trying to approximate ...
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1answer
27 views

Taylor Series for $e^x(x^2 -x + 1)$

Find the Taylor Series for $e^x(x^2 -x + 1)$ about $x=0$. More importantly, find the COEFFICIENT (for nonzero terms) of the taylor series. The answer says: $$e^x(x^2 -x + 1) = 1 + ...
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1answer
19 views

For small x, Taylor Series to determine constants n and C in the approximation

cos(x) - e^(-(x^2)/2) I have tried writing the taylor expansion for cosine and e but do not know how to combine them in one. In addition to this, i do not know how to approach the problem whilst ...
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2answers
52 views

Taylor series of $x/(x^2-4x+5)$

I'm supposed to find the Taylor series of this function (I can choose to center it at any A I want): $$f(x)= x/(x^2-4x+5)$$ When I derivate, it only gets more and more confusing. How can I make any ...
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35 views

Why can you use the Maclaurin Series for certain cases of function not about 0?

Is it possible to use the Maclaurin Series in a problem like this one (AP Calculus BC Question 6 from a few years ago)? Write the first four nonzero terms and the general term of the Taylor ...
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64 views

Beyond taylor series?

Consider functions $f(z)$ that are analytic for $Re(z) > 0$ and are also analytic for $(Im(z))^2 > 0$. Let $n$ be a nonnegative integer. Now I define some series expansion of "order $n$" , ...
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1answer
50 views

Convenient notation, or something more?

A little while ago I happened across a curious formula that blew my mind (no idea what it's called): $e^{\frac{d}{dx}}f(x)=f(x+1)$ I played around with it a bit and managed to prove it using the ...
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1answer
31 views

Taylor Series to the Power 1/z

I am attempting to find the Taylor Series for $(\frac{\sin{z}}{z})^{\frac{1}{z^2}}$. While I can plug this into Wolfram and use the output, I want to understand how to calculate the Taylor Series ...
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1answer
37 views

Messing with the linear approximation… I don't get Taylor's formula??

Alright, so I was messing around with the linear approximation for a function; I wanted to see if I could get the formula for the 2nd degree approximation from it. I went about it like this: $$ f(x + ...
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2answers
22 views

Taylor Series with differentiator operator

Hi guys can anyone show me how the Taylor series can be converted from: $$f(x+h)= f(x)+hf'(x)+...$$ to: $f(x+h)=e^{hD}f(x)$, where $D$ is the differentiation operator. How does the differentiator ...
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A formal solution using Taylor series

Consider the following: $S_r(n)= 1^r+2^r+...+(n-1)^r$ where $S_r(n)$ satisfies: $S_r(n+1)-S_r(n+1)=n^r$ Now, also consider the Taylor series $f(x+h)=f(x)+hf'(x)+(h^2/2!)f'(x)+..$ which can be ...
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2answers
19 views

expand function, taylors series, combinatorics, generation functions

I have to expand $f(z)$ into a formal power series $f(z) = \sum\limits_{k=0}^\infty a_kz^k$ (for $z$ close to 0) $f(z)= \frac{z^3}{1-4z+3z^2}$ I know that: $\frac{1}{1-z} = \sum\limits_{k=0}^\infty ...
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1answer
14 views

Equality form of second order Taylor series

I am reading a book on optimization wherein a statement using Taylor's expansion is made without proof. \begin{equation} f(\mathbf{y}) = f(\mathbf{x}) + (\mathbf{y} - \mathbf{x})^T\nabla ...
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34 views

Need clarification on a Taylor polynomial question

$$f(x) = 5 \ln(x)-x$$ second Taylor polynomial centered around $b=1$ is $-1 + 4(x-1) - (5/2)(x-1)^2$ let $a$ be a real number : $0 < a < 1$ let $J$ be closed interval $[1-a, 1+a]$ find upper ...
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1answer
236 views

Erroneously Finding the Lagrange Error Bound

Consider $f(x) = \sin(5x + \pi/4)$ and let $P(x)$ be the third-degree Taylor polynomial for $f$ about $0$. I am asked to find the Lagrange error bound to show that $|(f(1/10) - P(1/10))| < 1/100$. ...
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52 views

first order approximation of scalar function of matrix ( Mahalanobis distance)

I have tried to compute the 1st order approximation using Taylor's expansion of the Mahalanobis distance: $f(\mathbf{X})=\mathbf{a^TXa}$, where $\mathbf{a}\in \mathbb{R}^N$. The function maps ...
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1answer
52 views

Complex Taylor Series Circles of Convergence

I am trying to find the Taylor Series and circles of convergence for three different functions. i) $\frac{\sin{z}}{z}$ which I determined the Taylor series to be $\sum_{n=0}^\infty ...
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1answer
32 views

What does the h mean within the Taylor expansion of $y(x_0 +h)$ and $y(x_0 -h)$?

I understand that the Taylor series formula is $$\frac{f^n(a)}{n!}(x-a)^n.$$ I also know that the Taylor series expansion of $$y(x_0 +h)=y(x_0) +hy'(x_0)+\frac{h^2}{2!}y''(x_0)+ ...
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1answer
29 views

Find Taylor Polynomial of degree $2$ about (2,1) where $f(x,y) = x^2y^3$ , $(x,y) \in \mathbb{R}$

Find Taylor Polynomial of degree $2$ about $(2,1)$ where $f(x,y) = x^2y^3$ $(x,y) \in \mathbb{R}$ My thoughts: $D_xf= 2xy^3$ and $D_{xx}f= 2y^3$ $D_yf= x^23y^2$ and $D_{yy}f= x^26y$ $D_{xy} = ...
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73 views

Gibbs Phenomenon and Fourier Series

a) Show the partial sum $$S = \frac{4}{\pi} \sum_{n=1}^N \frac{\sin((2n-1)t)}{2n-1}$$ which may also be written as $$ \frac{2}{\pi}\int_0^x\frac{\sin(2Nt)}{\sin(t)}dt$$ has extrema at $x= ...
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57 views

Using Taylor's Theorem and the Constancy Theorem, solve the following proof.

Using Taylor's Theorem and the Constancy Theorem prove that $\sqrt{1+x}=1+\frac{x}{2}+\sum_{n=2}^{\infty}(-1)^{n-1} \frac{1}{2n} \frac{(1- \frac{1}{2})(2- \frac{1}{2}) ... ((n-1)- ...
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1answer
94 views

Lagrange Bürmann Inversion Series Example

I am trying to understand how one applies Lagrange Bürmann Inversion to solve an implicit equation in real variables(given that the equation satisfies the needed conditions). I have tried looking for ...
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41 views

Substituting for the variable in a standard taylor series

I'm trying to show that 4/(3x+1)=1/(1+(3/4)(x-1)) so i can then find the taylor series for the function f(x)=4/3x+1 and determne an interval of validity I know 4/3x+1 is similar to 1/(1-x) for which ...
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22 views

Function approximation by various means

I know several ways to approximate a function: Taylor series, Fourier series, or polynomials, like e.g. Legendre polynomials. Is the only difference between those various methods the speed at which ...
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1answer
38 views

Laurent Series - when do singularities on the boundary of an annulus require a Laurent series instead of Taylor?

I need to find the Laurent Expansion of $F(z) = \dfrac{1}{(z-1)^2(z+2)}$ in the regions $A_1 = D(0,1)$ and $A_2 = \{z: 1 < |z| < 2 \}$. After doing partial fractions on $F(z)$, how do I know ...
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4answers
52 views

Write down each of the terms in the expansion of $\sin(x^2)-(\sin(x))^2$.

Write down each of the terms in the expansion of $\sin(x^2)-(\sin(x))^2$. Taylor's Theorem applies at the point $a=0$ and with $n=4$. Got no idea how to proceed. My lecture notes have one example ...