Questions regarding the Taylor series expansion of univariate and multivariate functions, including coefficients and bounds on remainders. A special case is also known as the Maclaurin series.

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$f(x)=e^x$ be approximated by Taylor's polynomial of degree $n$ at the point …

I am stuck on the following problem: Let $f(x)=e^x$ be approximated by Taylor's polynomial of degree $n$ at the point $x=\frac12$ and on the entire interval $[0,1]$. If the absolute error in this ...
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1answer
47 views

Where to stop a taylor expansion of a function of more than one variable?

I tried to taylor expand a function of three variables $f(x,y,z)$ around $y=0,z=0$ but I don't find a way to decide where to stop the expansion. Usually when one expands a function of one variable ...
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2answers
97 views

Show that $f(x)=e^x$

In this case $f(x)=1+x+x^2/2!+x^3/3!+x^4/4! + ... = \sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}$. I understand it conceptually in terms of the Taylor series, but I have no idea how to prove it rigorously.
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193 views

Limit of $\dfrac{\tan^{-1}(\sin^{-1}(x))-\sin^{-1}(\tan^{-1}(x))}{\tan(\sin(x))-\sin(\tan(x))}$ as $x \rightarrow 0$

Find $\lim_{x \to 0} \dfrac{\tan^{-1}(\sin^{-1}(x))-\sin^{-1}(\tan^{-1}(x))}{\tan(\sin(x))-\sin(\tan(x))}$ I came across this limit a long time ago and could easily obtain a straightforward solution ...
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1answer
41 views

Show that $|f'(x)| \le \frac{2M_0}{h} +\frac{hM_2}{2}$ and $M_1 \le 2\sqrt{M_0M_2}$

Let $f$ be a twice derivable function and $M_i =\sup_{x \in \mathbb{R}} |f^{(i)}(x)|$ and $|M_0|, |M_2|<\infty $. Preferably using the Taylor series on the interval $[x,x+h]$ show the following ...
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Why more smooth the function the more precise finite difference method?

As the title, Why more smooth the function the better finite difference method? I guess that if the function is smooth we can better approximate with Taylor series, but formally how this helps? ...
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24 views

Finding an upper bound error of a Maclaurin polynomial.

Using a 3rd order Maclaurin polynomial, find an upper bound on the error when log(1+x) is approximated by a 3rd order polynomial for |x|<= 0.1. For some reason I keep getting a different answer ...
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1answer
34 views

Prove the taylor series of $ \cos(2z)$

First i turned $$\cos(2z) = \frac{e^{2iz} + e^{-2iz}}{2}$$, then using the taylor series of $$e^{z}$$I calculated the taylor series of both arguments. $$\frac{e^{2iz}}{2} = \sum_{n=0}^{\infty ...
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1answer
59 views

Question about infinitely many times differentiable function.

Could you please give me some hint how to solve this problem: Suppose $f(x)$ is infinitely many times differentiable function on R, $f(0)=f'(0)=f''(0)=0$. Prove : for all $A>0$ exists some ...
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Using derivatives at 0 to define an inner product

Can the following define an inner product on a subspace of the set of functions that are infinitely differentiable on $[-R,R]$. If so, do we get a Hilbert space? $$<f, g> = \sum_{n=0}^\infty ...
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67 views

Taylor Series - general 'what' and 'why' questions

I am a little confused with the Taylor Series at the moment, so please forgive me for my very basic questions. If we were to approximate a function, say $cos(x)$, I let $f(x)=cos(x)$ And I have been ...
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1answer
58 views

Why is the series expansion of $\sin(x)$ at $x=n\pi$ different to the expansion of $\sin(2x)$ at $x=\frac{n\pi}{2}?$

I'm trying to do a series expansion of $\sin(2x)$ about the point $x=\frac{n\pi}2$ where is an integer. I thought that the expansion would be the same as for $\sin(x)$ about the point $x=n\pi$ but ...
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64 views

Taylor theorem remainder term

I'm having trouble applying the formula for the remainder in the Taylor's theorem. From Wikipedia we know that for $f(x)=f(a)+f'(a)(x-a)+…\frac{f^{(n)}(a)}{n!}(x-a)^{n}+R$ the remainder $R$ in the ...
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1answer
43 views

L'Hospital's rule vs Taylor series

One classical application of Taylor expansions is to obtain polynomial equivalents of complicated functions and use them to compute limits. For example, with Landau notations, we have ...
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25 views

Can one obtaining a mean value form of the Taylor series remainder using the integral remainder?

Can we show that $$(\exists \epsilon \in[0,x])\left(\int_{0}^x \frac{(x-s)^n f^{(n+1)}(s)}{n!}ds= \frac{x^{n+1}f^{(n+1)}( \epsilon)}{k!}\right)\text{ ?}$$ Thanks in advance!
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Find the first three terms of the taylor expansion of $\frac{cos(z)}{1 + z^2}$

The question is: Find the first three non zero terms for the taylor series for $\frac{\cos(z)}{1 + z^2} $ around $z_0 = 0$ What I've done so far is let $f(z) = \frac{\cos(z)}{1 + z^2}$ Then I let ...
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2answers
28 views

Complex functions and Taylor series

Find the Taylor series arround $z_0=0$ write radius of convergence a) $f(z)=\cosh(z)$ b) $f(z)=\log(z+1)$ I don't know how it works with the complex functions. Could you show me the workflow? I ...
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78 views

Is $\cos(\frac{\pi}{3})$ exactly equal to 0.5 or approximately equal to 0.5

We know that $\cos(\frac{\pi}{3})=\frac{1}{2}$, but the expansion for $\cos(x)$ is as follows: $$ \cos(x)=1-\frac{x^2}{2!}+\frac{x^4}{4!}-\frac{x^6}{6!}+\ldots$$ So this would make $$\begin{align} ...
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31 views

Proving an inequality using Taylor's Theorem

I need to show that $ x^{1/3} < \frac{1}{3}x + \frac{2}{3} \forall x \in (0,1)$. I have been given the hint to consider the expression $\frac{1}{3}x - x^{1/3}$, but the Taylor Series centred at ...
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1answer
53 views

How do I compute the Taylor Series for $\arctan(x)$?

I've just stumbled upon Taylor Series on Wikipedia and I've been trying to obtain an expansion for $\arctan(x)$, but I can't manage to see a pattern for the $n$th derivative . Can someone come up with ...
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Taylor development of $\arctan(\cos(x))$ near $0$

How would I find the "Taylor development of $\arctan(cos(x))$ near $0$ at order $5$?" I am translating that from french, so I am not sure how I have to call it it english. By order $5$ I mean that I ...
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27 views

What is the radius of convergence of the derivative of a smooth Taylor series?

On this website I found that the derivative of a Taylor series has the same radius of convergence as the Taylor series itselves. However, there is no reference added, and I seem to be unable to find ...
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25 views

Finding a function with a given Taylor expansion

Is there any function $f(x)$ which has the following Taylor series representation? $$ f(x) = \sum_{k=0}^{\infty}{c_{k} (1 + \frac{2x^{2}}{k})^{-k/2}}. $$ for some coefficients ...
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35 views

Taylor expansion of matrix function

Find the Taylor expansion of the following expression as a function of $C$ around $C_0$ $ GC(I+GC)^{-1}$ in which $G$ and $C$ are matrices of compatible dimensions.
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Taylor theorem and a $C^{3}$ function with the following property…

A function $f:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is $C^3$ with $$f(a+h)=f(a)+f'\left(a+\dfrac{1}{2}h\right)h$$ whenever $a \in \mathbb{R}$ and $h \geq 0$. By applying Taylors Theorem to $f$ and to ...
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23 views

Plank's first law expansion

I'm getting a little stuck on this question. The question is: show that for $KT \gg h\omega$, the first law of Planck: $\displaystyle U =\frac{h\omega}{e^{(h\omega/KT)}-1} \approx KT - ...
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Taylor Polynomials — $\cos(x)$ [closed]

Show that $$\forall x : \cos(x)=1-\frac{x^2}{2!}+\frac{x^4}{4!}-\frac{x^6}{6!}+\dots+\frac{(-1)^nx^{2n}}{(2n)!}$$ I know that this is true because it is one of the most common Taylor polynomials. ...
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34 views

Wynn-epsilon convergence

How could I use the Wynn-epsilon alghoritm in Matlab to accelerate the convergence of a Maclaurin series? I want to extimate the first derivative of $f(x)$, so $$f'(x)= \sum_{k=0}^\infty ...
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2answers
43 views

Taylor series of a division-by-zero equation

I need to calculate taylor series of $(\frac1{t^3}+\frac3{t^2})^{1/3} - \sqrt{(\frac1{t^2}-\frac2{t})}$ at $t = 0$ to calculate limit $(\frac1{t^3}+\frac3{t^2})^{1/3} - ...
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1answer
42 views

Error Estimation Using Taylor's Theorem

I missed the lecture on this and was wondering if someone could explain the steps involved with this problem. I think that what I have to do is evaluate the polynomial up to the second derivative ...
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47 views

Find the Taylor series generated by f at x=a.

$f(x) = \frac 1 {9 - x}, a = 3$. The answer in the book is $$\sum_{n = 0}^{\infty} \frac{(x - 3)^n}{6^{n + 1}}$$but I'm not sure how to get the above.
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1answer
27 views

Finite differences coefficients

I'm interested in deriving a forward finite difference approximation for the gradient of a function, $f(x)$, at the point $x = x_i$ using $k+1$ points. If the spatial domain is uniformly discretized, ...
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117 views

Remainder form of Taylor polynomial at $x_0$: $ \frac{1}{n!}f^{(n)}(x_0 +\theta(x-x_0))(x-x_0)^n$ with $\theta \to \frac{1}{n+1}$ as $ x \to x_0$

If the function $f: \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ is $n+1$ times differentiable at $x_0$ and $f^{(n+1)}(x_0) \neq 0$, then a form of the remainder in Taylor's Formula is supposedly $$r_n(x_0;x) = ...
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1answer
30 views

How is the Harris Corner detector derived from a Taylor Expansion?

It looks more like an assumption about local linearity of the function when the shifts u and v are small. This description of ...
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3answers
47 views

Convergence of Taylor Series

My professor made this claim about Taylor Series convergence in my Complex Variables class and I am still not entirely convinced (he said it's explained in the textbook and textbook states, "we will ...
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24 views

Somehow “mirroring” the Taylor-expansion of some $g(x)$

In proceeding with an older discussion of a summation-procedure for divergent series using the matrix of Eulerian numbers I came to a rather general formulation but cannot/do-not-know-how-to make ...
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65 views

Why does $\arctan(\frac{\tan \theta}{2}) \approx \frac{1}{2 - \theta} - \frac{1}{2 + \theta}$ for small $\theta$?

In answering this question, I needed to show that $\arctan \left( \frac{\tan \theta}{2} \right) \approx \frac{\theta}{2}$ when $\theta$ was small. So, naturally, I computed the first few terms of the ...
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1answer
23 views

Taylor series remainder question

Let $f(x)=\frac{\sin(x)}{x}$ when $x\neq 0$ and $f(x)=1$ when $x=0$. Starting with the Taylor polynomial of degree $2n+1$ for $\sin(x)$ and the estimate for the remainder term, show that ...
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28 views

Analytic Function Derived From Recursive Reverse Taylor Series?

Given the following recursive relation: $a_0 = 1,$ $a_n = a_{n-1}(p-2q)+2(-p)^n$ is there a simple function that has this as its Taylor series, i.e. $f(x) = \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{a_n}{n!}x^n$ ...
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34 views

Proof with Lagrange Remainder Theorem

I'm trying to prove that $$1+ \frac{x}{3} - \frac{x^2}{9}<(1+x)^{1/3}<1+\frac{x}{3}$$ if $x>0$. Using the Lagrange remainder theorem, I have that $$(1+x)^{1/3}= 1+ \frac{x}{3} - ...
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32 views

Taylor Remainder proof for $e^x$

Prove that if $x\leq 0$ then the remainder term $R_{n,0}$ for $e^x$ satisfies $|R_{n,0}|\leq \frac{|x|^{n+1}}{(n+1)!}$. First, $P_{n,0}(x)=1+x+\frac{x^2}{2!}+\cdots+\frac{x^n}{n!}$ with ...
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1answer
41 views

Taylor series of $e^{(x-1)^2}$ about $x=1$

How would we find the Taylor series of $e^{(x-1)^2}$ about $a=1$? I tried finding the answer using the Taylor series of $e^x$ about $a=1$ which I was able to do correctly. When I substituted ...
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2answers
66 views

Taylor Series Substitution $e^{x^2-1}$

If I'm using substitution to find a Taylor series about $x=1$ for $e^{x^2-1}$, but I'm given the Maclaurin series for $e^x$, how come the fact that the Taylor series is about $x=1$ doesn't matter when ...
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Maclaurin series for (cosx-1)/(x^2)

The solution for this is -1/x+x^2/4!-x^2/6!......, but I'm not sure how to derive this Maclaurin series from cos x. The solution just divided each term in the Maclaurin series for cos x by x^2, and ...
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36 views

Proving Remainder of Taylor Series of 1/(1-x) approaches 0

It is well known that the Taylor (Maclaurin) series of $f(x) = \frac{1}{1-x}$ is $\sum_{n=0}^\infty x^n$ on $(-1,1)$. I am having difficulty proving the equality of these two. The error term is ...
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77 views

Evaluate the limit with Taylor series

How one can evaluate following limit: $\lim_{x\to\infty} x(\frac{1}{e}-(\frac{x}{x+1})^x)$ ? I've found this exercise in the chapter about Taylor series, but I have no idea how to solve it.
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Find secondary taylor poly and error value.

Question. (1) Find the second Taylor polynomial $P_{2}(x)$ for the function $f(x)=e^{x}cos x$ about $x_{0}=0$. (a) Use $P_2(0.5)$ to approximate $f(0.5)$. Find an upper bound for error ...
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1answer
30 views

A question about Maclaurin polynomial

Could you please give me some hint how to find 3-th degree Maclaurin polynomial of f(x) given f(0)=1 and for all $0<x<\lambda$ $f'(x)=1+f(x)^{10}$. If $\lim_{x\to0}f(x)=f(0)=1$ then $\lim_{x\to ...
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2answers
36 views

Using Taylor's Theorem to show $|x-tan(x)|\leq 1/300$ for $0\leq x \leq 1/10$

Using Taylor's Theorem deduce that for $0\leq x \leq 1/10$ $|x-tan(x)|\leq 1/300$ So my attempt; to get the taylors theorem about $x_0=0$ $f(x)=x-tan(x)$ $f'(x)=1-sec^{2}(x)$ ...
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2answers
55 views

Approximating the erf function

I was trying to find an approximate solution to the following: $\DeclareMathOperator\erf{erf}$ $$\frac12 \sqrt{\pi} \erf\left (\frac{x-2}{\sqrt{10}}\right) + \frac12 \sqrt{\pi} \erf ...