Questions regarding the Taylor series expansion of univariate and multivariate functions, including coefficients and bounds on remainders. A special case is also known as the Maclaurin series.

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Taylor expansion of ln(1+x)

Find the Taylor expansion of $\ln(1+x)$ around $x=0$. I calculated: $f'(0)=1, f''(0)=-1, f'''(0)=1$, etc. $$T(3)=f(0)+f'(0)(x-0)+f''(0)(x-0)^2+f'''(0)(x-0)^3=0 + 1x-\frac{1}{2}x^2+\frac{1}{6}x^3$$ ...
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63 views

Finding the Maclaurin Series for $\sqrt{1+x^2}$

I can't find the Maclaurin series for $\sqrt{1+x^2}$. Every time it try to find it I get the Maclaurin series for $\sqrt {1+x}$. Can someone explain it to me? Thanks!
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16 views

Taylor Polynomial Variable Question

When you have a polynomial that you set your function equal to in the taylor polynomial (centered around $x = a$) $$function = c_0+c_1(x-a)+c_2 (x-a)^2+...$$ why is your variable $(x-a)$. Oddly ...
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235 views

Taylor Series of $\tan x$

I found a nice general formula for the Taylor series of $\tan x$: $$\tan x = \sum_{n\,=\,1}^\infty \frac {(-1)^{n-1}2^{2n} (2^{2n}-1) B_{2n}} {(2n)!} x^{2n - 1} $$ where $B_n$ are the Bernoulli ...
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Give the Maclaurin series for $f(x)=(3+e^{-x})^2$ and find values of $x$ for which this series converges.

Given is: $f(x)=(3+e^{-x})^2$ so I write: $$e^x=\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}=1+x+\frac{x^2}{2!}+\frac{x^3}{3!}+\dots$$ $$e^{-x}x=\sum_{n=0}^\infty ...
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75 views

Maclaurin series: $\frac{x^3}{3!}+\frac{x^4}{4!}+\frac{x^7}{7!}+\frac{x^8}{8!}+\frac{x^{11}}{11!}+\frac{x^{12}}{12!}+…$

The Taylor series of a real or complex-valued function ƒ(x) that is infinitely differentiable at a real or complex number a is the power series $$f(a)+\frac {f'(a)}{1!} (x-a)+ \frac{f''(a)}{2!} ...
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67 views

Proof of $(1-e^{ix})^{-1}$

In G.H. Hardy's book 'Divergent Series' there is a claim that $(1-e^{ix})^{-1} = \frac {1}{2} + \frac {1}{2} i \cot (\frac {1} {2} x) $ I, for the life of me, can't get past showing that ...
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49 views

Expanding functions to Taylor series

I need to expand the following functions to a Taylor series and find the radius, and I'm not sure how to do so: (already solved similar questions, but stuck with those.) $f(z) = {\frac{z-1}{3-z}}$ ...
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113 views

Complex Taylor and Laurent expansions

Let $f(z):=\dfrac{1}{2-z-z^2}, z\in\mathbb{C}\setminus\left\{ {1, -2}\right\}$. i) Express $f$ in the form $\dfrac{A}{1-z}+\dfrac{B}{2+z}$. [Answer to this is $\dfrac{1/3}{1-z}+\dfrac{1/3}{2+z}$]. ...
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66 views

Solving $\lim_{x\rightarrow0}\frac{\log(1+\sin{x})-\log(1+x)}{x-\tan{x}}$ (doubts with Landau notation)

I'm trying to solve the following limit: $$\lim_{x\rightarrow0}\frac{\log(1+\sin{x})-\log(1+x)}{x-\tan{x}}$$ It is pretty straightforward by substituting those expressions by their Taylors ...
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1answer
89 views

Taylor expansion of a not easily differentiable function

Context: I'm trying to find the period of a simple pendulum. As is well known, if the initial angle is small the period is approximately constant. I'm trying to do a second order expansion. I have ...
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2answers
92 views

Integration by expansion

Consider the integral \begin{equation} I(x)= \frac{1}{\pi} \int^{\pi}_{0} \sin(x\sin t) \,dt \end{equation} show that \begin{equation} I(x)= \frac{2x}{\pi} +O(x^{3}) \end{equation} as ...
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3answers
269 views

Take 2: When/Why are these equal?

This didn't go right the first time, so I'm going to drastically rephrase the query. As per this previous question, I am wondering if the two series ...
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57 views

The Flat Function

I have to write an essay on the flat function $$\text{flat}(x) = \begin{cases} e^{-\frac{1}{x^2}} & \text{for } x \ne 0 \\ 0 & \text{for } x = 0 \end{cases}$$ and I want to prove ...
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2answers
36 views

Basic doubt on Taylor's polynomial

I have a doubt about a general situation in where I am asked to calculate $f(x)$ with a certain precision. How can I compute the number of terms of the Taylor polynomial needed for that? For example ...
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240 views

Approximating the cosine by Taylor polynomial

Let $f:=\cos(x)$ I'm asked to find for which values of $x$ we can be sure the 4th degree Taylor polynomial will give an error lesser than $\frac{1}{1000}$. Now, ...
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1answer
1k views

Remainder term of Lagrange Interpolation Polynomial

Suppose $x_0,x_1,\ldots,x_n$ are $n+1$ distinct numbers in the interval $[a,b]$ and $f\in C^{n+1}[a,b]$. Then for each $x$ in $[a,b]$, there is a number $\xi$ in $(a,b)$ such that $$f(x) = P(x) + ...
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Higher Order Derivative Proof .

I would appreciate if someone could check over my proof for this question and advise me if it is correct. My attempt so far; Now as $f$ is k times differentiable , it taylor series about $x_{0}$ ...
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30 views

Compostion of functions in taylor series

I was attempting to help answer a question, but I am curious about the following. Suppose we have an analytic function $f(z)\equiv\sum\limits_{k=0}^{\infty} a_k(z-z_0)^k $ on some suitable disk of ...
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99 views

Finding the Taylor Series of this function

I am trying to find a series expansion of the following function: $$\left(\frac{\log x}{x}\right)^n$$ I need hints or methods for going about doing this. Is it even possible? I am on to something ...
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42 views

differential equation as taylor series

Consider the equation $\frac{\mathrm{d} x(t)}{\mathrm{d}t} = g(x(t))$ , with $x(0) = x_0$, where g is function that admits derivatives of all orders.If the solution of the equation can be written as a ...
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70 views

Maclaurin Series for a natural logarithm

Can anyone please help me with this question? Find the Maclaurin series and the interval of convergence for $f(x) = \ln(1-7x^9)$ I thought the answer was $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} (-1)^n ...
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637 views

Approximating roots of the truncated Taylor series of $\exp$ by values of the Lambert W function

To everyone: don't bother writing up another answer, i'm giving this bounty Antonio's answer. It just doesn't let me yet (24 hours delay). If you map the nth roots of unity $z$ with the function ...
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1answer
61 views

Taylor's Theorem and inequalities on some interval of the domain?

From the following form of Taylor's Theorem and assuming that $|f(x)|\le 1$ and $|f''(x)|\le 1$ hold on $[0,2]$, $$f(a+h) = f(a) + hf'(a) + (1/2)h^2f''(a+θh),$$ some application of Taylor's Theorem ...
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1answer
63 views

Range of convergence for Taylor's series (about 0) for e^(sin x)

Is there anything wrong with my method below? Also, is there an easier method? For $sin\,x = \sum^{\infty}_{k=0}\frac{(-1)^kx^{1+2k}}{(1+2k)!}$, $L_1 = \lim_{k\rightarrow\infty} \left| ...
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0answers
81 views

Saddle point method: a rigorous proof?

I am trying to prove in a fully rigorous way the Saddle Point method for holomorphic functions of 1 complex variable. In books I find only complicated general statements or non-rigorous proofs. Hence ...
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80 views

Taylor series expansion and the radius of convergence

Hello I have some problems concerning Taylor series. Given the function $$f(x)=e^{\sin{x}} $$ I concluded that the Taylor series expansion would be $$f(x) = ...
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90 views

Remainder in taylor formula

I found on a book a version of Taylor's formula like this: ...
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137 views

Different Polynomial Expansions of Natural Logarithm

I was recently Taylor-expanding ln around $(1,0)$. I noticed that this polynomial will have a range of input that converges between $0$ and $2$ regardless of Taylor ...
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1answer
38 views

Computational complexity of expanding a MacLaurin/Taylor Series

What methods exist to computationally determine the first $k$ coefficients of a function (possibly polynomial or rational polynomial function)? How do Mathematica/MatLab/Maple/etc. solve this ...
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1answer
53 views

Expansion of Integration

Consider the integral \begin{equation} I(x)=\int^{2}_{0} (1+t) \exp\left(x\cos\left(\frac{\pi(t-1)}{2}\right)\right) dt \end{equation} show that \begin{equation} I(x)= 4+ \frac{8}{\pi}x +O(x^{2}) ...
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How to find inverse of $\sin(x) + \sin(2x) = y$?

I was wondering if there were any way to solve the equation $$\sin(x) + \sin(2x) = y$$ in terms of $x$. This of course would allow us to express the inverse for this function on $-\frac{\pi}{4}$ to ...
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1answer
45 views

Is there a more concise way?

I am currently trying to prove Taylor's Theorem, this is the proof I am given: I am finding this very long and hard to follow, can anyone give me a more concise, clear proof? Thanks
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Evaluate an integral $\int_{\gamma } z^{n}e^{\frac{1}{z}}dz$ maybe laurent series or taylor expansion?

Please help me with this one guys, I am stuck like a truck trying to get out of thick mud. Evaluate: $\int_{\gamma } z^{n}e^{\frac{1}{z}}dz$ $\gamma$ is the circle f radius 1 centered at 0 and ...
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1answer
116 views

Laurents Series Expansion Complex Analysis

So here is the problem, I am having a lot of trouble with laurents expansions and if you guys even know any sources where I can learn these really well and very simply then that would be a great help. ...
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1answer
60 views

proof of property of exponential distribution, using taylor polynomial

I want to prove that if we have an exponential distribution with parameter $\lambda$, we have that $P(X \le x)=\lambda x + o(x)$. I want to do this by using Taylor-series and the lagrange remainder ...
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72 views

Approximation of $x\log(x/a)$ for $x$ near a

I'm trying to see where the approximation $$(x-a) + ((x-a)^2)/2a$$ of $x\log(x/a)$ comes from (for x near a). Might be missing something very trivial but I've already tried the usual expansions ...
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3answers
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Taylor error approximation

So a Taylor polynomial is given by the Taylor formula, but how do I approximate the error? I see on wikipedia: $$R_k = \frac{f^{(k+1)}(s)}{(k+1)!} (x-a)^{k+1}$$ Do I just pick any $s$ between $x$ ...
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3answers
110 views

Taylor expansion for a multivariable function

\begin{align} T(x_1,\dots,x_d) &= \sum_{n_1=0}^\infty \sum_{n_2=0}^\infty \cdots \sum_{n_d = 0}^\infty \frac{(x_1-a_1)^{n_1}\cdots (x_d-a_d)^{n_d}}{n_1!\cdots n_d!}\,\left(\frac{\partial^{n_1 + ...
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2answers
230 views

High Order Derivative Using Maclaurin Series

Use the Maclaurin series to solve the following: $$ \frac{d^6}{dx^6}(x^4e^{x^2}) $$ I got about halfway through the problem before getting stuck. I am not sure how to solve it... Any advice? Also, ...
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1answer
131 views

Taylor series convergence with natural logs

I am working on this problem. Find Taylor series of function $f(x)=\ln(x)$ at $a = 6$. $$f(x) =\sum_{n=0}^\infty c_n (x- 6)^n$$ I seem to be having trouble with the interval of convergence can ...
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1answer
56 views

Taylor Series & complex analysis

I am taking complex analysis. There's a question in the book when trying to prove the theorem, and the theorem goes like this: If $f$ is analytic in the disk $|z-z_0|<R$,then the taylor ...
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149 views

Taylor series of an integral function

Problem $$I(x) = \int_{1}^x \frac{e^t - 1}{t}$$ Find $I'( \sqrt{x} )$. Solution We know that $F'(x) = f(x)$ by the fundamental theorem of calculus so $$I'(x) = \frac{e^t -1}{t}$$ And so $$I'( ...
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1answer
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A Taylor series question

The Taylor series for $cos(x)$ about $x=0$ is $1-x^2/(2!)+x^4/(4!)-x^6/(6!)+...$ If $h$ is a function such that $h'(x) = cos(x^3)$, then the coefficient of $x^7$ in the Taylor series for $h(x)$ about ...
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59 views

Taylor's approximation

Our lecturer once showed us that it is possible to approximate the value of 'e' with Taylor's approximation of order - whatever, lets say 3. How would. The result was something like this: $$ ...
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Question about Taylor's series

Is there an example of a function whose taylor series converge at every point but does not equal the value of the function at every point?
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50 views

Approximation of $\frac{1}{2^{N}} \binom{N}{\frac{1}{2}(N + s)} $ for big N

I have the following function that I have to approximate for big N and I really have no clue what to do - I hope that anyone can help me out: $$P_N(s) = \begin{cases} \frac{1}{2^{N}} ...
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1answer
2k views

Taylor Series of Hyperbolic Cotangent Coth(x)

Expanding about 0 gets me a divergence on the first term, and the wikipedia article says nothing about how to derive it other than taylor series. It makes me think I'm supposed to use Laurent Series, ...
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1answer
40 views

Partial derivatives + Taylor's Formula in several variables

Given a function $f(x) = (x_1+...+x_n)^k$, how do we show that $$D_1^{j_1}\cdots D_n^{j_n}f(x) = k!$$ if $j_1+...+j_n = k$?
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Question about Big O notation for asymptotic behavior in convergent power series

Examples of such use of Big O notation can be found for instance on Wolfram Alpha here. More details on the Wikipedia page. The idea, as I understand it, is that the term between parenthesis in Big O ...