Questions regarding the Taylor series expansion of univariate and multivariate functions, including coefficients and bounds on remainders. A special case is also known as the Maclaurin series.

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8
votes
3answers
519 views

Evaluating $\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{x^{3n}}{(3n-1)!}$

How can we obtain following formula? $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{x^{3n}}{(3n-1)!}=\frac{1}{3}e^{\frac{-x}{2}}x\left(e^{\frac{3x}{2}}-2\sin\left(\frac{\pi+3\sqrt{3}x}{6}\right)\right).$$ I think if we ...
56
votes
6answers
9k views

Connection between Fourier transform and Taylor series

Both Fourier transform and Taylor series are means to represent functions in a different form. My question: What is the connection between these two? Is there a way to get from one to the other (and ...
30
votes
13answers
26k views

What are the practical applications of the Taylor Series?

I started learning about the Taylor Series in my calculus class, and although I understand the material well enough, I'm not really sure what actual applications there are for the series. Question: ...
44
votes
2answers
1k views

Is there a function with the property $f(n)=f^{(n)}(0)$?

Is there a not identically zero, real-analytic function $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$, which satisfies $$f(n)=f^{(n)}(0),\quad n\in\mathbb{N} \text{ or } \mathbb N^+?$$ What I got so far: Set ...
9
votes
3answers
1k views

Is there a formula similar to $f(x+a) = e^{a\frac{d}{dx}}f(x)$ to express $f(\alpha\cdot x)$?

Using the Taylor expansion $$f(x+a) = \sum_{k=0}^\infty \frac{a^k}{k!}\frac{d^k }{dx^k}f(x)$$ one can formally express the sum as the linear operator $e^{a\frac{d}{dx}}$ to obtain $$f(x+a) = ...
8
votes
1answer
237 views

Real-analytic periodic $f(z)$ that has more than 50 % of the derivatives positive?

Im looking for a real-analytic function $f(z)$ such that for any $z$ $1) $$f(z+p) =f(z)$ With $p$ a nonzero real number and where $z$ is close to , or onto the real line such that $z$ is in the ...
13
votes
6answers
4k views

Intuition explanation of taylor expansion?

Could you provide a geometric explanation of taylor expansion?
9
votes
4answers
135 views

Bernoulli Number analog using Cosine

I know that Bernoulli Numbers can be found with the generating function $$\frac{x}{e^x-1}=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{B_n}{n!}x^n$$ I was wondering if any work has been done using a similar equation ...
6
votes
4answers
318 views

Why do the endpoints of the Maclaurin series for arcsin converge?

The series $$\sum_{n=0}^\infty {{-\frac {1} 2} \choose n} \frac{(-1)^n}{2n+1}$$ is an endpoint for the Maclaurin series for arcsin(x). (The other endpoint is just the negative of this one.) I played ...
3
votes
4answers
752 views

Formula for calculating $\sum_{n=0}^{m}nr^n$

I want to know the general formula for $\sum_{n=0}^{m}nr^n$ for some constant r and how it is derived. For example, when r = 2, the formula is given by: $\sum_{n=0}^{m}n2^n = 2(m2^m - 2^m +1)$ ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

Find the residue at $z=-2$ for $g(z) = \frac{\psi(-z)}{(z+1)(z+2)^3}$

Find the residue at $z=-2$ for $$g(z) = \frac{\psi(-z)}{(z+1)(z+2)^3}$$ I know that: $$\psi(z+1) = -\gamma - \sum_{k=1}^{\infty} (-1)^k\zeta(k+1)z^k$$ Let $z \to -1 - z$ to get: $$\psi(-z) = ...
1
vote
1answer
141 views

Integral remainder converges to 0

I want to show that $\displaystyle \log(1+x)=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}(-1)^{n-1}\frac{x^n}{n}$ for $-1<x\leq1$ i want to show it with the integral remainder of the taylor series that gave me: ...
21
votes
1answer
313 views

Are there always singularities at the edge of a disk of convergence?

Take a function that is analytic at 0 and consider its Maclaurin Series. Here are some examples I'll refer to: $$\frac{1}{1-x} =\sum_{n=0}^\infty x^n$$ $$\frac{1}{1+x^2} ...
9
votes
1answer
585 views

The error term in Taylor series and convolution.

I've been wondering a lot why is the remainder of the Taylor expansion of a function, $R_n(x)$, expressed (in one of the many forms) as something very similar to aconvolution. Precisely: $$R_n(x) = ...
1
vote
1answer
181 views

An issue with approximations of a recurrence sequence

By trying to give an approximation to a given recurrence sequence I encountered a problem. To be more precise I have a method but it fails if the right condition is not met and I wonder how I should ...
3
votes
3answers
629 views

Taylor series for different points… how do they look?

I can't understand what it means to do the Taylor series at the point $a$. The best way would be showing me how it looks for different $a$ on a graph. Do I find those graphs on the Internet?
1
vote
3answers
1k views

How to expand $\tan x$ in Taylor order to $o(x^6)$

I try to expand $\tan x$ in Taylor order to $o(x^6)$, but searching of all 6 derivative in zero (ex. $\tan'(0), \tan''(0)$ and e.t.c.) is very difficult and slow method. Is there another way to ...
7
votes
3answers
270 views

How to prove $\int_0^1 \frac{1+x^{30}}{1+x^{60}} dx = 1 + \frac{c}{31}$, where $0 < c < 1$

This is an exercise from Apostol (p.285) that I'm having trouble with (in fact, I'm having trouble with the whole section): Prove that $\displaystyle{\int_0^1 \frac{1+x^{30}}{1+x^{60}} = 1 + ...
3
votes
1answer
549 views

Taylor series for logarithm converges towards logarithm

Is there a way to show that the Taylor series around 0 of $f(x) = \ln(1-x)$ converges towards $f$ on the interval $(-1,1)$, just by considering the remainder from the Taylor polynomial? I'm having a ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Generalized binomial theorem

Prove that: $$(1+x)^{\alpha}=\sum_{n=0}^{+\infty}{\alpha \choose n} x^n$$ for $x\in[0;1), \alpha \in\mathbb{R}$ based on Taylor's theorem with Lagrange remainder. I don't feel such proofs. ...
0
votes
1answer
98 views

Lagrange Bürmann Inversion Series Example

I am trying to understand how one applies Lagrange Bürmann Inversion to solve an implicit equation in real variables(given that the equation satisfies the needed conditions). I have tried looking for ...
8
votes
3answers
578 views

Weighted uniform convergence of Taylor series of exponential function

Is the limit $$ e^{-x}\sum_{n=0}^N \frac{(-1)^n}{n!}x^n\to e^{-2x} \quad \text{as } \ N\to\infty \tag1 $$ uniform on $[0,+\infty)$? Numerically this appears to be true: see the difference ...
1
vote
2answers
196 views

taylor series of ln(1+x)?

Compute the taylor series of $ln(1+x)$ I've first computed derivatives (upto the 4th) of ln(1+x) $f^{'}(x)$ = $\frac{1}{1+x}$ $f^{''}(x) = \frac{-1}{(1+x)^2}$ $f^{'''}(x) = \frac{2}{(1+x)^3}$ ...
0
votes
1answer
1k views

estimating the error of $\sin(x) = x$ with Taylor's Theorem

I want to calculate the numerical error in approximating $\sin(x)=x$ with Taylor's Theorem. Furthermore, what values of $x$ will this approximation be correct to within $7$ decimal places? Here is ...
7
votes
4answers
1k views

How many smooth functions are non-analytic?

We know from example that not all smooth (infinitely differentiable) functions are analytic (equal to their Taylor expansion at all points). However, the examples on the linked page seem rather ...
12
votes
3answers
947 views

Taylor expansion of $(1+x)^α$ to binomial series – why does the remainder term converge?

For $α ∈ ℝ$ the function $g_α \colon B_1(0) → ℝ, x ↦ (1+x)^α$ is $C^∞$ and $g_α^{(n)}(x) = n! \tbinom{α}{n}(1+x)^{α-n}$, where $\tbinom{α}{n} = \frac{α(α-1)\cdots(α-n+1)}{n!}$ is the generalized ...
5
votes
3answers
678 views

Why does this infinite series equal one?

Why does $$\sum_{k=1}^\infty \binom{2k}{k} \frac{1}{4^k(k+1)}=1$$ Is there an intuitive method by which to derive this equality?
3
votes
2answers
235 views

Taylor Series of $\tan x$

I found a nice general formula for the Taylor series of $\tan x$: $$\tan x = \sum_{n\,=\,1}^\infty \frac {(-1)^{n-1}2^{2n} (2^{2n}-1) B_{2n}} {(2n)!} x^{2n - 1} $$ where $B_n$ are the Bernoulli ...
5
votes
5answers
197 views

Interpreting higher order differentials

I'm trying to understand Taylor's Theorem for functions of $n$ variables, but all this higher dimensionality is causing me trouble. One of my problems is understanding the higher order differentials. ...
2
votes
5answers
1k views

What's the Maclaurin Series of $f(x)=\frac{1}{(1-x)^2}$?

This function seemed to be pretty much straight forward, but my solution is incorrect. I have two questions: 1. Where did I make a mistake? 2. I learned that there are shortcuts for finding a series ...
4
votes
0answers
246 views

A late-diverging “approximating solution” for a system of functional equations

Peace be upon you, At the end of this question, I have shown that how computing MLE on an i.i.d Beta distributed data, results in the following system \begin{align*} &\begin{cases} ...
4
votes
1answer
105 views

Remainder term in Taylor's theorem

I'm trying to understand the remainder in Taylor's theorem from this source: https://proofwiki.org/wiki/Taylor%27s_Theorem/One_Variable/Integral_Version I don't understand the very last parts of ...
4
votes
0answers
219 views

Question about Big O notation for asymptotic behavior in convergent power series

Examples of such use of Big O notation can be found for instance on Wolfram Alpha here. More details on the Wikipedia page. The idea, as I understand it, is that the term between parenthesis in Big O ...
4
votes
2answers
175 views

How do I obtain the Laurent series for $f(z)=\frac 1{\cos(z^4)-1}$ about $0$?

I know that $$\cos(z^4)-1=-\frac{z^8}{2!}+\frac{z^{16}}{4!}+...$$ but how do I take the reciprocal of this series (please do not use little-o notation)? Or are there better methods to obtain the ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Proof of the “Radius of Convergence Theorem”

I can't figure out how it is valid to invoke the Absolute Convergence Theorem, whose hypothesis is "Let the power series have radius of convergence R", to establish case c of the Radius of Convergence ...
3
votes
3answers
1k views

General term of Taylor Series of $\sin x$ centered at $\pi/4$

What is the general term for a Taylor series of $\sin(x)$ centered at $\pi/4$? It should be $(-1)^{[??]} \times \sqrt{2}/2 \times \frac{(x-\pi/4)^n}{n!}$ What power is $(-1)$ supposed to be raised ...
2
votes
3answers
742 views

Do all polynomials with order $> 1$ go to $\pm$ infinity?

Background As background, I have found that taylor expansion provides poor estimates of a function at extreme parameter values. Indeed, the approximation at extreme values can get worse (more rapid ...
1
vote
1answer
24 views

How to find the order of accuracy of this implicit RK method (using Taylor series)?

I want to get the order of accuracy (local truncation error - LTE) of this implicit 2-step method. The first step is Backward Euler to determine an approximation to the value at the midpoint in time, ...
1
vote
2answers
65 views

What is the coefficient of $(z-\pi)^2$ in Taylor series expansion of $\sin (z)/ (z-\pi)$

I want to determine the coefficient of $(z- \pi)^2$ in Taylor series expansion of $f(z)=\sin (z)/ (z-\pi)$ if $z \neq \pi $, $-1$ if $z=\pi$ around $\pi$. How can this be done? I don't know how to do ...
1
vote
2answers
38 views

Taylor Series approximation

Let $f(x) = (1-x)^{-1}$ and $x_0=0$. Find the $n$-th Taylor polynomial $P_n(x)$ for $f(x)$ about $x_0$. Find a value of $n$ necessary to approximate $f(x)$ within $10^{-6}$ on $[0,0.5]$. I am ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

Find a formula for Taylor series of $\left(\frac{1}{1+z^2}\right)^n$

So the way I think I should approach this is by getting a result for $n=1,2,3...$ and then examine them. I could easily get the Taylor series expansion for $n=1$, but then I don't really know how to ...
1
vote
4answers
142 views

Two ways to show that $\sin x -x +\frac {x^3}{3!}-\frac {x^5}{5!}< 0$

Show that: $\large \sin x -x +\frac {x^3}{3!}-\frac {x^5}{5!}< 0$ on: $0<x<\frac {\pi}2$ I tried to solve it in two ways and got a little stuck: One way is to use Cauchy's MVT, define $f,g$ ...
1
vote
1answer
63 views

Range of convergence for Taylor's series (about 0) for e^(sin x)

Is there anything wrong with my method below? Also, is there an easier method? For $sin\,x = \sum^{\infty}_{k=0}\frac{(-1)^kx^{1+2k}}{(1+2k)!}$, $L_1 = \lim_{k\rightarrow\infty} \left| ...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

Why is the Taylor expansion of $\cos$ decreasing?

Why is the Taylor expansion of $\cos$ decreasing ? $\cos(t)=1-\frac{t^2}{2!}+\frac{t^4}{4!}-\frac{t^6}{6!}+...$ such that one can estimate $\cos(t)<1-\frac{t^2}{2!}+\frac{t^4}{4!}$ I ...
1
vote
1answer
405 views

Laurent expansion of $\csc^2(\frac{\pi}{z})$ about $\frac{1}{3}$ for $|z-\frac{1}{3}| \lt \frac{1}{12}$

The question is: Find the Laurent expansion of $\csc^2(\frac{\pi}{z})$ about $\frac{1}{3}$ for $|z-\frac{1}{3}| \lt \frac{1}{12}$. In particular what is the coefficient of $(z-\frac{1}{3})^{-2}$. I ...
0
votes
2answers
80 views

Taylor series expansion and the radius of convergence

Hello I have some problems concerning Taylor series. Given the function $$f(x)=e^{\sin{x}} $$ I concluded that the Taylor series expansion would be $$f(x) = ...
0
votes
5answers
1k views

Proof of a binomial identity $\sum_{k=0}^n {n \choose k}^{\!2} = {2n \choose n}.$

Prove that $$\sum_{k=0}^n {n \choose k}^{\!2} = {2n \choose n}.$$ The exercise provides the following hint: $\,\,\displaystyle{n \choose k}={n\choose n-k}$. Any help?
0
votes
3answers
54 views

A simple series

I don't do math a long time, so I completely don't remember how to prove that: $$ \sum_{i=1}^\infty \frac{i}{2^i} = 2 $$ Can anybody help me?
-1
votes
3answers
106 views

Proof using Taylor's theorem

Use Taylor's theorem to prove that $\displaystyle\lim_{n \to \infty} n \ln\left(1+\frac{1}{n}\right)=1$ I don't understand how to apply Taylor's theorem to a limit, especially one with a product of ...
21
votes
0answers
597 views

This one weird thing that bugs me about summation and the like

Most of us know $$\sum_{n=a}^b c_n=c_a+c_{a+1}...+c_{b-1}+c_b$$ Some of us know $$\prod_{n=a}^b c_n=c_a \cdot c_{a+1}...c_{b-1} \cdot c_{b}$$ A few of us know ...