Questions on symmetric polynomials, polynomials in several variables that are invariant under permutation of the variables.

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3
votes
2answers
303 views

Sum of cubes of roots of a quartic equation

$x^4 - 5x^2 + 2x -1= 0$ What is the sum of cube of the roots of equation other than using substitution method? Is there any formula to find the sum of square of roots, sum of cube of roots, and sum ...
6
votes
0answers
95 views

Specializations of elementary symmetric polynomials

Let $\mathcal{S}_{x}=\{x_{1,},x_{2},\ldots x_{n}\}$ be a set of $n$ indeterminates. The $h^{th}$elementary symmetric polynomial is the sum of all monomials with $h$ factors \begin{eqnarray*} ...
1
vote
0answers
28 views

Dimension of the Image of Young Projectors corresponding to Tensor factors.

Suppose I define the action of the symmetric group on abstract tensors as shuffling indices. I know this is very naive. I apologise, I am a physicist and working on a problem that involves tensors ...
-1
votes
0answers
43 views

How do you solv laguree problems involving polynomials

The problem says it all, how does one show that this forms a basis in P3? What is a basis?
2
votes
3answers
404 views

How to solve a system of three nonlinear equation in a simple way

Given the system: $$ \begin{cases} x^2y^2+x^2z^2=axyz & \\ y^2z^2+y^2x^2=bxyz &\\ z^2x^2+z^2y^2=cxyz \end{cases} $$ The solution could be gotten in a very tedious way. Is ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

Basic Manipulation of Adams operations in R(G)

This is part of an exercise in Serre's representation theory book I am self-studying, but mostly it is about manipulation of symmetric polynomials. Let $\rho$ be a representation of a finite group ...
1
vote
1answer
24 views

natural isomorphism of polynomial functions on $V$ and $S(V^*)$

In Humphreys, reflection groups and coxeter group book, Humphreys denotes $S(V^*)$ as the ring of polynomial function on the finite dim vector space $V$. Why we are considering $S(V^*)$ rather than ...
9
votes
1answer
152 views

Generalizing Newton's identities: Trace formula for Schur functors

We work over $\mathbb C$. A general linear group ${\rm GL}(V)$ acts diagonally on the tensor power $V^{\otimes n}$ as $$(A^{\otimes n})(v_1\otimes\cdots\otimes v_n):=(Av_1)\otimes\cdots\otimes ...
4
votes
0answers
64 views

Combinatorics and symmetric functions

(The actual questions in this posting are at the bottom.) Occasionally someone asks here how to show that every nonempty finite set has just as many subsets of odd cardinality as of even cardinality ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

Symmetric polynomials in some variables

Let $A_k$ be a set of polinomials $f(x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_n)$ in $\mathbb{Q}[x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_n]$ symmetric on $k<n$ variables: $$f(x_{\sigma(1)},\ldots, x_{\sigma(k)},x_{k+1}, ...
0
votes
1answer
44 views

Proving Newton's identities

Assume $F$ is a field of zero characteristic. Denote the elementary symmetric polynomials of $n$ variables by $e_k$, $\quad k=\overline{1,n}$. Let the symbol $\sum ax_1^{i_1}\dots x_n^{i_n}$ denote ...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

Derivation and application of Newton's identity

How is the following identity derived? $$\sum_{\ell =0}^{n-1}(-1)^\ell e_\ell s_{n-\ell}+(-1)^nne_n=0$$ Is there an example demonstrating the context in which this might be applied?
0
votes
1answer
40 views

Using elementary polynomials to solve system of linear polynomials

Problem Statement I am given a finite set of monic polynomials in t, parameterized by $r_i$ $X_i = t - r_i$ where the $r_i$ are guaranteed unique. Neither $t$ nor $r_i$ are known, only $X_i$. I ...
3
votes
2answers
41 views

An elementary symmetric polynomial question

If we have three complex numbers $a,b,c$ such that the three elementary symmetric polynomials $a+b+c$, $ab+ac+bc$, and $abc$ are all integers, what characteristics can one deduce about $a,b,c$? For ...
2
votes
1answer
33 views

If $f$ is an anti-symmetric polynomial, then $f=g\prod_{1\leq i < j\leq n}(X_i-X_j)$ for some $g$ symmetric

So we have the situation that $f\in K[X_1,...,X_n]$ is anti-symmetric, which means that $\sigma (f)=\pm f$ where it is a plus if $\sigma$ is an even permutation on the $X_i$ and a minus if it is not ...
2
votes
1answer
69 views

Equation on $\mathbb{R}$ : $(x+y+z)^3=x^3+y^3+z^3$

How would i find all the $(x,y,z)\in \mathbb{R}$ verifying $(x+y+z)^3=x^3+y^3+z^3$ ?
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Non-symmetric polynomials, game

This is a game I thought was easy but appears to be too hard for me... I'm trying to find a polynomial in x,y,z (they commute) such that permutations of the variables only give rise to 2 different ...
4
votes
2answers
40 views

Prove or disprove the system about $n$th power has only one solution $x=y=1$

$$\begin{cases}x^n+y^n=2\\x+y=2\end{cases}\;,\;n\in\mathbb{N}\;,\;x,y\in\mathbb{R}\;,\;n>2$$ I have tried to show that $\displaystyle y'=-\frac{x^{n-1}}{y^{n-1}}=-1$ $$......$$ therefore $x=y=1$ ...
4
votes
2answers
237 views

Understanding the Fundamental Theorem of Symmetric Polynomials within the context of proving $\pi$ transcendental

I am currently studying the proof of the transcendence of $\pi$. There are a bunch of proofs scattered across the web (here, here, and here, to list some); some derive from the Lindemann-Weierstrass ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

size of orbit of a polynomial under the action of $S_n$

Given a polynomial $\Phi$ in the $n$ variables $X_1,\ldots,X_n$, the values of $\Phi$ are defined to be the polynomials in the orbit of $\Phi$ under the action of the full symmetric group $S_n$. For ...
1
vote
2answers
52 views

Constructing expressions

Suppose you are given all the elementary symmetric functions of $n$ variables $x_1,x_2,...,x_n$ and two rational functions $A(x_1,x_2,...,x_n)$ and $B(x_1,x_2,...,x_n)$ in the same $n$ variables that ...
0
votes
0answers
44 views

Unique “splitting fields” for infinite polynomials

When creating the splitting field of a polynomial we can without loss of generality assume it has constant coefficient $1$ and splits as $\prod_{k=1}^n(1-z_kT)$. The splitting field is obtained by ...
1
vote
0answers
53 views

Express symmetric polynomial $\prod_{i < j} (X_i+X_j)$ in terms of elementary symmetric functions

Exercise: Define a polynomial $\Sigma(X_1,\ldots,X_n)$ as \begin{align*} \Sigma(X_1,\ldots,X_n) = \prod_{i < j} (X_i+X_j) \end{align*} This is a symmetric polynomial, quite clearly. I want to ...
1
vote
3answers
81 views

Elementary Symmetric Polynomials, Roots of cubic polynomials

I'm given $a_1, a_2, a_3$ as roots of the equation $x^3 + 7x^2 - 8x + 3$ and need to find the cubic polynomials with roots $a_1^2, a_2^2, a_3^3$ and $\frac{1}{a_1}, \frac{1}{a_2}, \frac{1}{a_3}$. ...
5
votes
7answers
313 views

If $x+\dfrac{1}{x}=5$, find the value of $x^5+\dfrac{1}{x^5}$.

If $x>0$ and $x+\dfrac{1}{x}=5$, find the value of $x^5+\dfrac{1}{x^5}$. Is there some other way to do find it? $$ \left(x^2+\frac{1}{x^2}\right)\left(x^3+\frac{1}{x^3}\right)=23\cdot 110. $$ ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Identity with symmetric rational functions

I am trying to prove this identity between rational functions involving symmetrization among variables. Let us consider a set of variables $\{p_1,\ldots,p_n\}$, which I indicate globally as ...
2
votes
3answers
168 views
2
votes
2answers
82 views

Uniqueness of a solution of the system of equations

A friend asked me the following question several days ago, and we still do not have a solution. Prove that the system of equations below has only the solution $(x, y, z)=(1, 1, 1)$. $$ \begin{cases} ...
2
votes
2answers
54 views

Have I done something wrong in solving the following pair of equations?

Question given: Solve,$3x^2-5y^2-7=0\\3xy-4y^2-2=0$ What I have done so far: $$ ...
2
votes
4answers
113 views

How to solve the following system of equations.

$2x^2-3xy+2y^2=2\frac{3}{4}\\x^2-4xy+y^2+\frac{1}{2}=0$ I tried all the methods that I know, but I could't isolate $x$ or $y$ to form one equation.
1
vote
1answer
81 views

Symmetric polynomial and vieta's formulas

Can you help me solve this problem: Express the following symmetric rational function $$\frac{x_1}{-6x_2^2 - 7x_3x_2 - 6x_3^2} + \frac{x_3}{-6x_1^2 - 7x_2x_1 - 6x_2^2} + ...
0
votes
2answers
87 views

Number of real solutions for the following set of equations? [closed]

How to solve the following set of equations for real values of $x,y$ and $z$? $$x^2-y^2=z$$ $$y^2-z^2=x$$ $$z^2-x^2=y$$ $(0,0,0)$ is an obvious one solution.
0
votes
0answers
48 views

Using Polya's Theorem to check positivity of a multivariate polynomial

I wish to check if a homogeneous polynomial of total degree 4 is positive definite. The polynomial is of the form $$P(u,v,x,y) = \sum_i\alpha_iu^{i_1}v^{i_2}x^{i_3}y^{i_4}$$ with $0 \le i_j \le 2$, ...
3
votes
1answer
137 views

Factoring $(a+b)(a+c)(b+c)=(a+b+c)(ab+bc+ca)-abc$

How to prove the following equality? $$(a+b)(a+c)(b+c)=(a+b+c)(ab+bc+ca)-abc$$ I did it $$\begin{aligned} a^2b + a^2c + ab^2 + cb^2 + bc^2 + ac^2 + 2abc &=a^2(b + c) + bc(b + c) + a(b^2 + ...
0
votes
0answers
32 views

Elementary symmetric polynomials: Why is this sufficient?

Let $x_1,\dotsc,x_n$ be algebraically independent over $K$. $S_n$ acts on $K(x_1,\dotsc,x_n)$ by permuting the $x_i$s, giving rise to distinct field automorphisms of $K(x_1,\dotsc,x_n)$, i.e. a ...
4
votes
2answers
106 views

Are the elementary symmetric polynomials “unique”?

The elementary symmetric polynomials are interesting in that they generate the set of symmetric polynomials, in the sense that every symmetric polynomial is some polynomial applied to the elementary ...
1
vote
0answers
45 views

Independent indeterminate roots and coefficients of a polynomial

Dummit and Foote, Section 14.6: "If the roots of a polynomial $f(x)$ are independent indeterminates over a field $F$, then so are the coefficients of $f(x)$." This is meant to complete the converse of ...
34
votes
2answers
532 views

What is the function space generated by addition and $(a,b)\mapsto (a+b)^{-1}\cdot a\cdot b$ of elements and their inverses?

(the motivation section turned out a little long, the mathematical question is at the end) I need to work with electrical circuts at the moment, computing effective impedances etc. From ...
6
votes
2answers
527 views

Number of distinct $f(x_1,x_2,x_3,\ldots,x_n)$ under permutation of the input

$\alpha _n ^n-1=0$ $\alpha _n=e^{2 \pi i/n}$ $$f(x_1,x_2,x_3,\ldots,x_n)=(x_1+\alpha _n x_2+ \alpha _n ^2 x_3+\cdots+\alpha _n ^{n-1} x_n)^n$$ I have read in Jim Brown's paper on page 5 that ...
4
votes
0answers
119 views

The close form expression of a Pfaffian

Recall Schur's Pfaffian identity: $$ \mathrm{Pf}\left(\frac{x_j-x_i}{x_j+x_i}\right)_{1\le i,j\le 2n} = \prod_{1\le i<j \le 2n}\frac{x_j-x_i}{x_j+x_i}. $$ Here $x_1,x_2\cdots x_{2n}$ are $2n$ ...
0
votes
3answers
120 views

Find all $x,y,z$ satisfying $xy=z-x-y$ and cyclic permutations

Find all ordered pairs $(x,y,z)$ real numbers, which satisfy the following system of equations: $$xy=z-x-y\\xz=y-x-z\\yz=x-y-z$$
0
votes
3answers
142 views

How to solve system equation $\left\{\begin{matrix}x^3+y^3+z^3=x+y+z&\\x^2+y^2+z^2=xyz&\end{matrix}\right.$ , $x,y,z\in\mathbb{R}$ ?

How to solve system equation $\left\{\begin{matrix}x^3+y^3+z^3=x+y+z&\\x^2+y^2+z^2=xyz&\end{matrix}\right.$ , $x,y,z\in\mathbb{R}$ ?
1
vote
1answer
71 views

symmetric polynomial inequality?

I put $n\ge 2$ balls of various sizes into an urn. I draw two balls (without replacement) from the urn. With each draw, I draw any given ball with probability proportional to its size. Can you ...
1
vote
1answer
99 views

Discriminant is zero iff $f\in K[X]$ has repeated roots

I have to prove the statement in the title. Proving from right to left is easy. Now from left to right: $D=(\alpha_1-\alpha_2)^2(\alpha_1-\alpha_3)^2\cdots(\alpha_{n-1}-\alpha_n)^2$ where $\alpha_i$ ...
6
votes
3answers
680 views

Three-variable system of simultaneous equations

$x + y + z = 4$ $x^2 + y^2 + z^2 = 4$ $x^3 + y^3 + z^3 = 4$ Any ideas on how to solve for $(x,y,z)$ satisfying the three simultaneous equations, provided there can be both real and complex ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Sum of cubed roots

I need to calculate the sums $$x_1^3 + x_2^3 + x_3^3$$ and $$x_1^4 + x_2^4 + x_3^4$$ where $x_1, x_2, x_3$ are the roots of $$x^3+2x^2+3x+4=0$$ using Viete's formulas. I know that ...
4
votes
3answers
76 views

Finding value of equation without solving for a quadratic equation

How do I go about solving this problem: If $α$ and $β$ are the roots of $x^2+2x-3=0$, without solving the equation, find the values of $α^6 +β^6$. In my thoughts: I commenced by expanding $(α ...
8
votes
0answers
204 views

Basis for $\Bbb Z[x_1,\cdots,x_n]$ over $\Bbb Z[e_1,\cdots,e_n]$

I'm reading the introductory bits in Procesi's Lie Groups, and on p. 22 we have (paraphrasing) Theorem 2. $\mathcal{B}=\{x_1^{\large h_1}\cdots x_n^{\large h_n}: 0\le h_k\le n-k\}$ is a basis for ...
1
vote
1answer
39 views

Can we represent a symmetric curve by a parameter with symmetry?

Question : Can we represent the following curve $C$ by one parameter $t$ as $x=f(t),y=g(t),z=h(t)$ with symmetry? The curve $C$ in the $xyz$ space is defined as $$\begin{cases} x^2+y^2+z^2=1 ...
13
votes
11answers
1k views

How to prove $(a-b)^3 + (b-c)^3 + (c-a)^3 -3(a-b)(b-c)(c-a) = 0$ without calculations

I read somewhere that I can prove this identity below with abstract algebra in a simpler and faster way without any calculations, is that true or am I wrong? $$(a-b)^3 + (b-c)^3 + (c-a)^3 ...