Questions about evaluating summations, especially finite summations. For infinite series, please consider the (sequences-and-series) tag instead.

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22
votes
21answers
13k views

Proof for formula for sum of sequence $1+2+3+\ldots+n$?

Apparently $1+2+3+4+\ldots+n = \dfrac{n\times(n+1)}2$. How? What's the proof? Or maybe it is self apparent just looking at the above? Does this problem have a name and maybe a presence on the net? ...
65
votes
17answers
4k views

Proving the identity $\sum\limits_{k=1}^n {k^3} = {\Large(}\sum\limits_{k=1}^n k{\Large)}^2$ without induction

I recently proved that $$ \sum_{k=1}^n k^3 = \left(\sum_{k=1}^n k \right)^2 $$ Using mathematical induction. I'm interested if there's an intuitive explanation, or even a combinatorial ...
35
votes
20answers
7k views

Proof that $\sum\limits_{k=1}^nk^2 = \frac{n(n+1)(2n+1)}{6}$?

I am just starting into calculus and I have a question about the following statement I encountered while learning about definite integrals: $$\sum_{k=1}^n k^2 = \frac{n(n+1)(2n+1)}{6}$$ I really ...
23
votes
9answers
2k views

why is $\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n} k^m$ a polynomial with degree $m+1$ in $n$

why is $\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n} k^m$ a polynomial with degree $m+1$ in $n$? I know this is well-known. But how to prove it rigorously? Even mathematical induction does not seem so straight-forward. ...
4
votes
2answers
103 views

Evaluating Combination Sums

Evaluate $$\sum_{k=0}^n{n+k\choose 2k} 2^{n-k}$$ So im not really sure how to begin with this. I would imagine we start with dividing out $2^{n}$, but not really sure much past that
8
votes
1answer
1k views

Finite Sum of Power?

Sorry for the remedial math but: Can someone tell me how to get a closed form for $$\sum_{k=1}^n k^x$$ For $x = 1$, it's just the classic $n(n+1)/2$. What is it for $x > 1$?
13
votes
4answers
3k views

What is the term for a factorial type operation, but with summation instead of products?

(Pardon if this seems a bit beginner, this is my first post in math - trying to improve my knowledge while tackling Project Euler problems) I'm aware of Sigma notation, but is there a function/name ...
11
votes
4answers
550 views

Proving $1^3+ 2^3 + \cdots + n^3 = \left(\frac{n(n+1)}{2}\right)^2$ using induction

How can I prove that $$1^3+ 2^3 + \cdots + n^3 = \left(\frac{n(n+1)}{2}\right)^2$$ for all $n \in \mathbb{N}$? I am looking for a proof using mathematical induction. Thanks
11
votes
4answers
1k views

Algebraic Proof that $\sum\limits_{i=0}^n \binom{n}{i}=2^n$

I'm well aware of the combinatorial variant of the proof, i.e. noting that each formula is a different representation for the number of subsets of a set of $n$ elements. I'm curious if there's a ...
4
votes
8answers
595 views

How to compute the formula $\sum \limits_{r=1}^d r \cdot 2^r$?

Given $$1\cdot 2^1 + 2\cdot 2^2 + 3\cdot 2^3 + 4\cdot 2^4 + \cdots + d \cdot 2^d = \sum_{r=1}^d r \cdot 2^r,$$ how can we infer to the following solution? $$2 (d-1) \cdot 2^d + 2. $$ Thank you
14
votes
8answers
2k views

How to determine equation for $\sum_{k=1}^n k^3$

How do you find an algebraic formula for $\sum_{k=1}^n k^3$? I am able to find one for $\sum_{k=1}^n k^2$, but not $k^3$. Any hints would be appreciated.
29
votes
3answers
3k views

The sum of an uncountable number of positive numbers

Claim:If $(x_\alpha)_{\alpha\in A}$ is a collection of real numbers $x_\alpha\in [0,\infty]$ such that $\sum_{\alpha\in A}x_\alpha<\infty$, then $x_\alpha=0$ for all but at most countably many ...
5
votes
3answers
2k views

Proving $\sum\limits_{k=0}^{n}\cos(kx)=\frac{1}{2}+\frac{\sin(\frac{2n+1}{2}x)}{2\sin(x/2)}$

I am being asked to prove that $$\sum\limits_{k=0}^{n}\cos(kx)=\frac{1}{2}+\frac{\sin(\frac{2n+1}{2}x)}{2\sin(x/2)}$$ I have some progress made, but I am stuck and could use some help. What I did: ...
7
votes
10answers
2k views

How to prove this binomial identity $\sum_{r=0}^n {r {n \choose r}} = n2^{n-1}$?

I am trying to prove this binomial identity $\sum_{r=0}^n {r {n \choose r}} = n2^{n-1}$ but am not able to think something except induction,which is of-course not necessary (I think) here, so I am ...
2
votes
3answers
584 views

Vandermonde's Identity : Summations with binomial coefficients

(Presumptive) Source: Theoretical Exercise 8, Ch 1, A First Course in Pr, 8th ed by Sheldon Ross. Can someone help me solve this equation? How to prove that ...
5
votes
3answers
248 views

Given n $\in \mathbb N$, prove $\sum^n_{k=0}(-1)^k {n \choose k} = 0$

I tried to solve it using induction, but that got me no were, in the middle of the equation stat appearing ks that I don't see how to get out of the equation. I think the easiest way to prove it, it's ...
2
votes
2answers
18k views

How to get to the formula for the sum of squares of first n numbers? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: How do I come up with a function to count a pyramid of apples? Proof that $\sum\limits_{k=1}^nk^2 = \frac{n(n+1)(2n+1)}{6}$? Finite Sum of Power? I know that the sum ...
6
votes
7answers
732 views

I found this odd relationship, $x^2 = \sum_{k = 0}^{x-1} (2k + 1)$.

I stumbled across this relationship while I was messing around. What's the proof, and how do I understand it intuitively? It doesn't really make sense to me that the sum of odd numbers up to $2x + 1$ ...
5
votes
4answers
441 views

Proving a special case of the binomial theorem: $\sum^{k}_{m=0}\binom{k}{m} = 2^k$ [duplicate]

I want to know if I can get some help with this proof. I tried, but I just cannot seem to get $2^{k}$. It states that, For $k \in \mathbb{Z}_{\ge 0}$, $$\sum^{k}_{m=0}\binom{k}{m} = 2^k$$ Thank ...
22
votes
4answers
720 views

How find this sum $\sum\limits_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{1}{(3n+1)(3n+2)(3n+3)}$

Find this sum $$I=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\dfrac{1}{(3n+1)(3n+2)(3n+3)}$$ My try: let $$f(x)=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\dfrac{x^{3n+3}}{(3n+1)(3n+2)(3n+3)},|x|\le 1$$ then we have ...
18
votes
6answers
2k views

Induction: $\sum_{k=0}^n \binom nk k^2 = n(1+n)2^{n-2}$

I found crazy (for me at least) induction example, in fact it just would be nice to prove. (Even have problems with starting) Any hints are highly valued: ...
12
votes
1answer
8k views

Combinatorial proof of summation of $\sum_{k = 0}^n {n \choose k}^2= {2n \choose n}$

Can you guys help me prove this? There is a way of proving this logically but I was hoping to find a more "mathematical" proof, if possible. $$\displaystyle \sum_{k = 0}^n {n \choose k}^2= {2n ...
6
votes
2answers
884 views

How to find the sum of this series : $1+\frac{1}{2}+ \frac{1}{3}+\frac{1}{4}+\dots+\frac{1}{n}$

Problem : How to find the sum of this series : $1+\frac{1}{2}+ \frac{1}{3}+\frac{1}{4}+\dots+\frac{1}{n}$ This is a Harmonic progression : So is this formula correct to sum the series : ...
5
votes
4answers
247 views

factorial as difference of powers: $\sum_{r=0}^{n}\binom{n}{r}(-1)^r(l-r)^n=n!$?

The successive difference of powers of integers leads to factorial of that power. I think this is the formula $\sum_{r=0}^{n}\binom{n}{r}(-1)^r(l-r)^n=n!$ But I found no proof on internet. Please ...
7
votes
5answers
710 views

Proof of $\sum_{0 \le k \le t} {t-k \choose r}{k \choose s}={t+1 \choose r+s+1}$?

How do I prove that $$\sum_{0 \le k \le t} {t-k \choose r}{k \choose s}={t+1 \choose r+s+1} \>?$$ I saw this in a book discussing generating functions.
7
votes
3answers
390 views

Evaluating $\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{x^{3n}}{(3n-1)!}$

How can we obtain following formula? $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{x^{3n}}{(3n-1)!}=\frac{1}{3}e^{\frac{-x}{2}}x\left(e^{\frac{3x}{2}}-2\sin\left(\frac{\pi+3\sqrt{3}x}{6}\right)\right).$$ I think if we ...
3
votes
5answers
314 views

Proving the total number of subsets of S is equal to $2^n$

Student here! Just reading Liebecks Introduction to pure mathematics for fun and I made an attempt at proving the total number of subsets of S is equal to $2^n$. I realized that the total number of ...
2
votes
5answers
2k views

Proof via Induction for A Summation

I'm starting to understand how induction works (with the whole $k \to k+1$ thing), but I'm not exactly sure how summations play a role. I'm a bit confused by this question specifically: $$ ...
19
votes
3answers
461 views

Closed form for $\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{(-1)^n n^4 H_n}{2^n}$

Please help me to find a closed form for the sum $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{(-1)^n n^4 H_n}{2^n},$$ where $H_n$ are harmonic numbers: $$H_n=\sum_{k=1}^n\frac{1}{k}=\frac{\Gamma'(n+1)}{n!}+\gamma.$$
25
votes
2answers
4k views

$\sum k! = 1! +2! +3! + \cdots + n!$ ,is there a generic formula for this?

I came across a question where I needed to find the sum of the factorials of the first $n$ numbers. So I was wondering if there is any generic formula for this? Like there is a generic formula for ...
10
votes
6answers
1k views

Proving $\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n}{\frac{1}{\sqrt{k}}\ge\sqrt{n}}$ with induction

I am just starting out learning mathematical induction and I got this homework question to prove with induction but I am not managing. $$\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n}{\frac{1}{\sqrt{k}}\ge\sqrt{n}}$$ ...
3
votes
4answers
8k views

Is the sum of all natural numbers $-\frac{1}{12}$? [duplicate]

My friend showed me this youtube video in which the speakers present a line of reasoning as to why $$ \sum_{n=1}^\infty n = -\frac{1}{12} $$ My reasoning, however, tells me that the previous ...
1
vote
2answers
686 views

Induction proof concerning a sum of binomial coefficients: $\sum_{j=m}^n\binom{j}{m}=\binom{n+1}{m+1}$

I'm looking for a proof of this identity but where j=m not j=0 http://www.proofwiki.org/wiki/Sum_of_Binomial_Coefficients_over_Upper_Index $$\sum_{j=m}^n\binom{j}{m}=\binom{n+1}{m+1}$$
11
votes
0answers
581 views

Are there unique solutions for $n=\sum_{j=1}^{g(k)} a_j^k$?

Edward Waring, asks whether for every natural number $n$ there exists an associated positive integer s such that every natural number is the sum of at most $s$ $k$th powers of natural numbers ...
4
votes
3answers
538 views

induction proof: $\sum_{k=1}^nk^2 = \frac{n(n+1)(2n+1)}{6}$

I encountered the following induction proof on a practice exam for calculus: $$\sum_{k=1}^nk^2 = \frac{n(n+1)(2n+1)}{6}$$ I have to prove this statement with induction. Can anyone please help me ...
3
votes
9answers
162 views
1
vote
2answers
761 views

Proving $\sum\limits_{i=0}^n i 2^{i-1} = (n+1) 2^n - 1$ by induction

I'm trying to apply an induction proof to show that $((n+1) 2^n - 1 $ is the sum of $(i 2^{i-1})$ from $0$ to $n$. the base case: L.H.S = R.H.S we assume that $(k+1) 2^k - 1 $ is true. we need to ...
17
votes
4answers
402 views

A sum containing harmonic numbers $\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{H_n}{n^3\,2^n}$

I'm trying to find a closed form for the following sum $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{H_n}{n^3\,2^n},$$ where $H_n=\displaystyle\sum_{k=1}^n\frac{1}{k}$ is a harmonic number. Could you help me with it?
4
votes
4answers
5k views

How does the sum of the series “$1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6\ldots$” to infinity = “$-1/12$”? [duplicate]

(I was requested to edit the question to explain why it is different that a proposed duplicate question. This seems counterproductive to do here, inside the question it self, but that is what I have ...
5
votes
4answers
2k views

How to show that this binomial sum satisfies the Fibonacci relation?

The binomial sum $$s_n=\binom{n+1}{0}+\binom{n}{1}+\binom{n-1}{2}+\cdots$$ satisfies the Fibonacci relation. I failed to prove that $\binom{n-k+1}{k}=\binom{n-k}{k}+\binom{n-k-1}{k}$... Any ...
11
votes
3answers
3k views

How to prove Lagrange trigonometric identity [duplicate]

I would to prove that $$1+\cos \theta+\cos 2\theta+\ldots+\cos n\theta =\displaystyle\frac{1}{2}+ \frac{\sin\left[(2n+1)\frac{\theta}{2}\right]}{2\sin\left(\frac{\theta}{2}\right)}$$ given that ...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

Inductive proof that ${2n\choose n}=\sum{n\choose i}^2.$

I would like to prove inductively that $${2n\choose n}=\sum_{i=0}^n{n\choose i}^2.$$ I know a couple of non-inductive proofs, but I can't do it this way. The inductive step eludes me. I tried naively ...
4
votes
7answers
1k views

How do I come up with a function to count a pyramid of apples?

My algebra book has a quick practical example at the beginning of the chapter on polynomials and their functions. Unfortunately it just says "this is why polynomial functions are important" and moves ...
0
votes
2answers
860 views

Summation of series of product of Fibonacci numbers

What is the sum of following product of Fibonacci numbers $$\sum_{k=1}^{n-1} Fib(k)*Fib(n+3-k)$$ can anyone suggest only approach to find general term?
0
votes
5answers
150 views

Prove by induction: $2^n = C(n,0) + C(n,1) + \cdots + C(n,n)$ [duplicate]

This is a question I came across in an old midterm and I'm not sure how to do it. Any help is appreciated. $$2^n = C(n,0) + C(n,1) + \cdots + C(n,n).$$ Prove this statement is true for all $n ...
17
votes
3answers
407 views

How prove this sum $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\binom{2n}{n}\frac{(-1)^{n-1}H_{n+1}}{4^n(n+1)}$

show that $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\binom{2n}{n}\dfrac{(-1)^{n-1}H_{n+1}}{4^n(n+1)}=5+4\sqrt{2}\left(\log{\dfrac{2\sqrt{2}}{1+\sqrt{2}}}-1\right)$$ where ...
19
votes
4answers
501 views

How close can $\sum_{k=1}^n \sqrt{k}$ be to an integer?

How close can $S(n) = \sum_{k=1}^n \sqrt{k}$ be to an integer? Is there some $f(n)$ such that, if $I(x)$ is the closest integer to $x$, then $|S(n)-I(S(n))|\ge f(n)$ (such as $1/n^2$, $e^{-n}$, ...). ...
13
votes
3answers
313 views

$\sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac{(-1)^n}{(2n+1)^{2m+1}}=\frac{(-1)^m E_{2m}\pi^{2m+1}}{4^{m+1}(2m)!}$

I'm looking for a way to prove $$\sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac{(-1)^n}{(2n+1)^{2m+1}}=\frac{(-1)^m E_{2m}\pi^{2m+1}}{4^{m+1}(2m)!}$$ Since ...
12
votes
3answers
329 views

Show that $\sum_{k=0}^n\binom{2n}{2k}^{\!2}-\sum_{k=0}^{n-1}\binom{2n}{2k+1}^{\!2}=(-1)^n\binom{2n}{n}$

How can I prove this $$ \sum_{k=0}^n\binom{2n}{2k}^2-\sum_{k=0}^{n-1}\binom{2n}{2k+1}^2=(-1)^n\binom{2n}{n}? $$ Maybe can we expand $$ f(x)=(1+x)^{2n}? $$ Thank you.