Questions about evaluating summations, especially finite summations. For infinite series, please consider the (sequences-and-series) tag instead.

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1answer
29 views

Proving Product of Transition Matrices is again a Transition Matrix.

Let $P = [p_{ij}]$ be an $n\times n$ transition matrix for an $n$-state markov chain. How do you prove that $P^2$, or even better, that $P^n$ is again a transition matrix? My approach leaves me ...
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1answer
48 views

A problem of sum floors

let $n$ be a positive integer, prove that $$\sum_{i=0}^{\left\lfloor\frac{n}{3}\right\rfloor}\left\lfloor\frac{n-3i}{2}\right\rfloor=\left\lfloor\frac{n^2+2n+4}{12}\right\rfloor.$$ It looks like we ...
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0answers
19 views

An inequality involving Möbius function [duplicate]

For any positive integer $n$ show the inequality holds : $$\left|\sum_{i=1}^{n}\frac{\mu(i)}{i}\right|\le 1$$ I tried induction. when $\mu(n+1)=0$ it is trivial. But what if $\mu(n+1)\ne 0$? I am ...
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1answer
23 views

$\prod_{i\in I}(1+x_i)=\sum_{J\subseteq I}\prod_{j\in J}x_j$

I have found this equality: $$\prod_{i\in I}(1+x_i)=\sum_{J\subseteq I}\prod_{j\in J}x_j$$ Do you think is it true?
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2answers
29 views

Proving that mean KDR in a videogame is one

This is not related to schoolwork. A friend of mine challenged me to prove that the mean KDR (assuming players can only die at the hands of other players) must always be equal to one. I have gotten ...
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1answer
23 views

A sum of Laguerre polynomials

I'm looking to find a closed-form expression for the sum $$S = \sum_{n=0}^N e^{-x/2} L_n^{0}(x),$$ where $L_n^{0}$ is the $n$th Laguerre polynomial. Using the formula $$L_n^{\alpha}(x) = \sum_{m=0}^n ...
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2answers
40 views

How to derive these inequalities?

I can derive the inequalities $$ n^p < \frac{(n+1)^{p+1} - n^{p+1}}{p+1} < (n+1)^p $$ for any positive integers $p$ and $n$. These actually follow from the identity $$b^p - a^p = (b-a)(b^{p-1} + ...
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3answers
283 views

Proving that $ \displaystyle \gamma = \int_{0}^{1} \!\!\int_{0}^{1} \!\frac{x - 1}{(1 - x y) \log(x y)} \, \mathrm{d}{x} \, \mathrm{d}{y} $.

In 2005, J. Sondow found a surprising formula for the Euler-Mascheroni constant $ \gamma $. The formula is $$ \gamma = \int_{0}^{1} \int_{0}^{1} \frac{x - 1}{(1 - x y) \log(x y)} ~ \mathrm{d}{x} ~ ...
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3answers
165 views

Infinite Sum of algebraic expression

Prove that $$\sum_{i=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{i(2i+3)} = \frac89 -\frac23\ln2$$ I tried using integration but failed miserably. Hints please.
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2answers
25 views

Sums Convergence tests

$ \sum_{k=1}^\infty k(\frac 14)^k $ i've tried to do the D'Alembert's criterion and i got $ \frac 14 $ but according to wolfram alpha the answer is 4\9 thanks
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2answers
19 views

How to obtain this upper bound on the summation from this inequality?

I can show that $$ \frac{1}{\sqrt{n}} < 2 (\sqrt{n} - \sqrt{n-1} ) $$ for $n \geq 1$. Now from this how to derive the following inequality? $$ \sum_{n=1}^m \frac{1}{\sqrt{n}} < 2\sqrt{m} - 1 $$ ...
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2answers
33 views

Samplification of a sum of multiplication

Supposing I have the following sequence based on two indexes: $a$ and $b$. For $a$ starting with $1$ and $b$ starting with $5$ we have the following sum: $$1 \cdot 5 + 2 \cdot 4 + 3 \cdot 3 + 4 ...
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1answer
48 views

An algorithm to find X numbers that sum up to a given value

I have this little problem and I was wondering if some mathematician here knew something useful about how to solve this or even how to approach this right. In the simplest terms I have a set of ...
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1answer
47 views

Finding the limit of an integral

Evaluate $$\displaystyle\lim_{j\rightarrow \infty} \displaystyle\int_{0}^{a} \frac{1}{j!} \left(\ln \left(\frac{A}{x}\right)\right)^{j}dx$$
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1answer
217 views

Is there a closed form expression for the sum of all the proper divisors of an integer?

I have already found a summation formula here: http://math.stackexchange.com/a/22723, and also a very interesting recursive formula here: http://math.stackexchange.com/a/22744. Any ideas on how to ...
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1answer
44 views

Upper bound for the sum $ \sum_{k=1}^N \frac{1}{\varphi(k)}$

Is there an upper bound for the sum $$ \sum_{k=1}^N \frac{1}{\varphi^{\alpha}(k)} $$ where $\varphi(n)$ is the Euler totient function and $\alpha\geq 1$ a real constant? In particular, I'm interested ...
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0answers
17 views

Exponential Integral Function representation by sum

I have an expression for the Exponential Integral Function as the followings: $$ E_{L+1}(x) $$ where L is a positive integer larger than zero; and x is real number larger than zero. Now I have this ...
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0answers
84 views

What is the sum of Psi/Digamma-function of consecutive arguments? Is there a closed form?

In a consideration of summation of a series $$ s = a_0 + a_1 + a_2 + \cdots \tag 1$$ with $$\lim_{k \to \infty} a_k=0$$ but slowly decreasing, the coefficients $a_k$ are somehow related to $1/k^2$ ...
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1answer
17 views

Double sigma summation is in complexity calculation

Basically i was reading skiena and doing exercise of 2nd chapter.The result of my calculation got differed from the actual solution given on Solution site and there is one thing i don't understand how ...
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0answers
36 views

Area between [0, pi/2] of cosine curve (under) using a summation of cossine

Could you help me? I got this formula using Euler's Identity and now I have doubt how to use it. $$\sum_{k=1}^n\cos(k\theta)=\frac{\sin\frac{(n+1)\theta}{2}}{\sin\frac\theta2}\cos\frac{n\theta}{2}$$ ...
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4answers
111 views

Proving Combinatorical Summation: $n!=\sum_{k=0}^n(-1)^k\binom{n}{k}(n-k)^n$ [duplicate]

been stuck with this question for the last few hours, any help would be appreciated. $$ {\large n! = \sum_{k = 0}^{n}\left(-1\right)^{k}{\,n\, \choose \,k\,} \left(\,n - k\,\right)^{n}} $$ what I ...
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0answers
20 views

Solving sum of one variable with real exponents

I'm working with an annoying maximisation problem at the moment. I've spent a long time Googling, but I'm not having much success and I suspect it would be simple enough if I had the right tools. I ...
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1answer
38 views

Proving $\frac{1}{2}\left(e^{in\theta}-e^{-in\theta}\right) +\frac{1}{2}\left(e^{in\theta}+e^{-in\theta}\right)\\$

Prove that $$e^{i\theta}\cdot\frac{e^{in\theta}-1} {e^{i\theta}-1}=\frac{1}{2}\left(e^{in\theta}-e^{-in\theta}\right) +\frac{1}{2}\left(e^{in\theta}+e^{-in\theta}\right)\\$$ I tried to use $$ ...
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2answers
38 views

Proving that $\sum^n_{k=1} e^{ik\theta}=\sum^n_{i=1}\cos k\theta +i\sum^n_{k=1}\sin k\theta$.

Prove: $$\sum^n_{k=1} e^{ik\theta}=\sum^n_{i=1}\cos k\theta +i\sum^n_{k=1}\sin k\theta$$ Thanks a lot!! I tried: With Euler's identity I can get $\sin x= \dfrac{e^{ix} - e^{-ix}}{2i}$ and the ...
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1answer
23 views

Average sum of seria

I need some help with the next question in probability: In the range {1,2,...,100}, someone picks randomly 15 different numbers, with the same probability for each number. What is the average sum ...
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1answer
490 views

Evaluating the sum $\lim_{n\to \infty}\sqrt[2]{2+\sqrt[3]{2+\sqrt[4]{2+\cdots+\sqrt[n]{2}}}}$

The following nested radical $$\lim_{n\to \infty}\sqrt{2+\sqrt{2+\sqrt{2+\cdots}}}$$ is known to converge to 2. We can consider a similar nested radical where the degree of the radicals increases: ...
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1answer
45 views

$\sum_{x=a}^{b-1}\frac{1}{x}$ and $\sum_{x=a+1}^b\frac{1}{x}$

I have to prove the following relations: $\sum_{x=a}^{b-1}\frac{1}{x}\geq\log b - \log a $ $\sum_{x=a+1}^{b}\frac{1}{x}\leq\log b - \log a $ I tried to use the relation that $\int_a^b \frac{1}{x} ...
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2answers
24 views

Convergence of sum using D'Alembert.

I have to find the convergence of this series: $$\sum \limits_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{(1+{\frac 1n})^n}{2^n}$$ I started by using D'Alembert: $\lim \limits_{n \to \infty} \frac{a_{n+1}}{a_n}$, So : ...
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0answers
34 views

statements about summation

Could you help me prove this statements about summation? I know that the second prove is easy of be written, but can I put that summation before cos(theta) and sin(theta)? yes. But why? Do you ...
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1answer
28 views

Multiplying infinite sums

Is that true for infinite sums that $c\cdot \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} a_n=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} c\cdot a_n$?Or it only applies when the sum is finite($\sum a_n \lt \infty$)?
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0answers
42 views

Derivative of Log of Summation of exponential function (base e)

A financial formula that I am implementing requires that I find the first derivative of a function to find a local maxima, from scratch. Can someone please help me with finding the first derivative of ...
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3answers
104 views

Why is $\frac{\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} n}{\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} n}$ indeterminate?

We all know that $\dfrac{f(x)}{f(x)} = 1$ (where $f(x) \neq 0$) and that $\sum_{n=1}^{x} n = \dfrac{x(x+1)}{2}$. So, given $f(x) \stackrel{\text{def}}{=} \sum_{n=1}^{x} n$, we show that ...
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1answer
26 views

Discrete math: Sum of Geometric series on a problem - Notes make little sense.

I've been reading a PDF of slides from my Discrete Math I professor. The title is Sums, Products and Asymptotic Estimations. He gives us a problem to fire off the lecture, which is the following: ...
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1answer
24 views

Prove summation related to cycles

Let $b_r(n,k)$ be the number of n-permutations with $k$ cycles, in which numbers $1,2,\dots,r$ are in one cycle. Prove that for $n \geq r $ there is: $$ \sum_{k=1}^{n} ...
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2answers
45 views

Summation closed form.

I have tried to figure out how to get the close form of: $$\sum_{k=0}^n k^22^{n-k}.$$ I tried to write down each number of the summation but couldn't find any thing to do with that.. can please ...
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0answers
28 views

Weighted sum of $\cos(nx)$ series

This is a follow up question to Prove $\frac{1}{2} + \cos(x) + \cos(2x) + \dots+ \cos(nx) = \frac{\sin(n+\frac{1}{2})x}{2\sin(\frac{1}{2}x)}$ for $x \neq 0, \pm 2\pi, \pm 4\pi,\dots$ I am looking ...
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5answers
75 views

Refresh summation formulas

I am trying to refresh on algorithm analysis. I am looking for a refresher on summation formulas. E.g. I can derive the $$\sum_{i = 0}^{N-1}i$$ to be N(N-1)/2 but I am rusty on the and more complex ...
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1answer
81 views

How Find the sum $\sum_{n=2}^{\infty}\left(\sum_{j=1}^{n}\frac{1}{(2j-1)^2} \binom{2n}{n}\frac{1}{2^{2n}(2n+1)}\right)$

Prove or disprove $$I=\sum_{n=2}^{\infty}\left(1+\dfrac{1}{3^2}+\dfrac{1}{5^2}+\cdots+\dfrac{1}{(2n-1)^2}\right) \binom{2n}{n}\dfrac{1}{2^{2n}(2n+1)}=\dfrac{\pi^3}{48}-\dfrac{1}{6}$$ My ...
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2answers
21 views

Sequences and Series - neither an AP or a GP, how do I solve it

Find the sum of the first n terms of a series given $T_r = 2^r +2r - 1$ I've worked out the first six terms and found them to be; $3, 7, 13, 23,41$ and $75.$ Working out their differences we get ...
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5answers
87 views

How could I find the partial sum of this function?

$$\displaystyle\sum_{k = 0}^{n}\dfrac{k^2}{2^k}$$ What are the steps to finding the partial sum formula?
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3answers
35 views

Sum of combination equilvalence

Could someone explain to me why the identity $$ \sum_{i=0}^n\binom{i+k-1}{k-1}=\binom{n+k}{k} $$ holds?
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1answer
36 views

Limit of an unusual function?

First, I define the function, $f(k)=1$ if the sum of the factors of $k$ (excluding $k$) is greater than $k$, $f(k)=-1$ if the sum of the factors of $k$ (excluding $k$) is less than $k$, and $f(k)=0$ ...
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0answers
63 views

What's the interpretation of $\sum_{i,j} i \cdot j \cdot \binom{2n}{i}\cdot \binom{2n}{j} \cdot \binom{2n}{3n-i-j}$?

I'm having problems with finding the combinatorial interpretation of this sum: $$\sum_{i,j} i \cdot j \cdot \binom{2n}{i}\cdot \binom{2n}{j} \cdot \binom{2n}{3n-i-j}$$ Can anyone help, please?
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3answers
93 views

Prove: $\sum_{x=0}^{n} (-1)^x {n \choose x} = 0$

Is there a quick, fancy, way of proving sums such as this? Prove that: $$\sum_{x=0}^{n} (-1)^x {n \choose x} = 0$$ A recent homework assignment I turned in had a couple problems similar to the ...
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1answer
48 views

Proving Hermite's identity using induction

Can someone help me? This should be easy but I couldn't find it on any book or the internet. $$ \sum_{k=0}^{n-1}\left\lfloor x + \frac{k}{n}\right\rfloor = \lfloor nx \rfloor $$
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1answer
33 views

Frequency of Words in Document

I'm trying to figure this out: Would someone care to explain how one would go about using this function? More specifically, I don't understand the interval part, how does one count the intervals? ...
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2answers
53 views

Expectations and variance with rolling a dice 10 times

Let's say you roll a fair dice 10 times and X is the number of sides that never show up. (i.e. Roll 1 - 10 = 1424145221, X = 2 because 3 and 6 never show up) Values of $N=0,1,2,3,4,5.\\ P(N=6) = 0$ ...
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2answers
42 views

How does this summation hold?

How does $$ \sum_{r=0}^{m+n} \left( \sum_{k=0}^{r} \binom{n}{k} \binom{m}{r-k} \right) \ x^{r} = \sum_{r=0}^{m+n} \sum_{k=0}^{m+n} \binom{n}{k} \binom{m}{r} \ x^{r+k} $$ hold? RobJohn helped me, ...
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2answers
97 views

Value of the given limit

I need to calculate the value of : $$\lim_{n\to \infty}\frac{1}{n}\sum_{r=1}^{2n}{\frac{r}{\sqrt{n^2+r^2}}}$$ I had been trying to use Cesàro summation but somehow, I might be messing up. The ...
4
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2answers
99 views

Evaluating $\sum_{n=1}^{99}\sin(n)$ [duplicate]

I'm looking for a trick, or a quick way to evaluate the sum $\displaystyle{\sum_{n=1}^{99}\sin(n)}$. I was thinking of applying a sum to product formula, but that doesn't seem to help the situation. ...