Questions about evaluating summations, especially finite summations. For infinite series, please consider the (sequences-and-series) tag instead.

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Sigma Notation Inequality

Given two sets of nonnegative real numbers: $$\{a_1, a_2, ..., a_N\}, \{b_1, b_2, ..., b_N\}$$ Are there any conditions for which the following inequality is true? $${1\over N} \sum_{i=1}^N ...
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1answer
56 views

Interesting combinatorial identities

Let $n$ be a strictly positive integer and let $j=0,\dots,n-1$. By using Mathematica I managed to guess the following identities: \begin{eqnarray} \sum\limits_{m=0}^{n-j-1} \binom{n-m-1}{j} ...
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7answers
111 views

Error in proving of the formula the sum of squares

Given formula $$ \sum_{k=1}^n k^2 = \frac{n(n+1)(2n+1)}{6} $$ And I tried to prove it in that way: $$ \sum_{k=1}^n (k^2)'=2\sum_{k=1}^n k=2(\frac{n(n+1)}{2})=n^2+n $$ $$ \int (n^2+n)\ \text d ...
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3answers
119 views

How to count the $r$-tuples of subsets of $\{1,\dots,n\}$ that are cyclically disjoint?

I want to count the following, $$\#\{S_1,S_2,\dots, S_r\subseteq[n]\;|\; S_i\cap S_{i+1}=\emptyset \text{ for } 1\leq i\leq r-1 \mbox{ and } S_1\cap S_r=\emptyset\}=A_{n,r},$$ Then $A_{n,1}=2^n$, ...
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0answers
49 views

Subset Sum Problem Variation?

There are $100$ cards with a unique number from $1$ to $100$ written over them. How many ways can someone pick exactly $5$ cards where the numbers on them sum to $100$? I am not sure but this could ...
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1answer
49 views

The Summation of x(log(log(x))

So I would like to know if it is possible to express this summation in terms of $n$: $$\sum_{x=2}^n x\log(\log(x))$$ For example the summation below is equivalent to $\frac12 n (n+1)$ in terms of ...
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2answers
105 views

Find a closed form for this infinite sum

How to find a closed form for the expression?? $$ 1+\frac 1 2 +\frac{1 \times2}{2 \times 5}+\frac{1 \times2\times 3}{2 \times5\times 8}+\frac{1\times 2\times 3\times 4}{2 \times 5\times 8\times ...
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1answer
25 views

summation of a series in which each term is product of nth term of two sequence

Is it possible to find the sum $\Sigma_{x=1}^n ((2x)(4x+1))$? If yes then can somebody please explain for me the formula?
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3answers
398 views

Simplifying this sigma notation [closed]

Is there any way I can simplify this sigma notation? $$\begin{align*} \sum_{k=1}^m(5^k) \end{align*}$$
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1answer
31 views

Trigonometric series problem: finding a second valid solution.

Given that I can do part of this question so here goes: Substituting $\theta=\frac{1\pi}{11}$ into LHS of given expression gives $$\cos\frac{1\pi}{11} + \cos\frac{2\pi}{11} + \cos\frac{3\pi}{11} ...
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0answers
80 views

conjecture about prime numbers and distance between them

is there a name for this conjecture? Conjecture: given $p_n$ a prime number sequence where $p_1=2,p_2=3,\cdots$, then for all $n\in\mathbb{N}^*$ and $k\in\mathbb{N}$, holds that $\displaystyle ...
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2answers
28 views

Problem involving summing exponential series:

I can show the first part (i) (a), but the second part (b) i think it should be $S=\infty$ since the denominator is zero with that value of $\theta$. However, this is not the answer, any ideas? ...
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1answer
23 views

Summation of infinte series

Sir, I have three infinite summation $A =J_1 \sum_{n=2}^\infty (n-1) f(n-2) \tag 1$ , $B =\sum_{n=0}^\infty f(n) \tag 2$ and $C =J_2\sum_{n=1}^\infty f(n-1) \tag 3$, with ...
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2answers
43 views

How to show: $\sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\sum_{n=1}^{k}P(X=k)=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\sum_{k=n}^{\infty}P(X=k)$

Can anyone explain why this equation is true. $$\sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\sum_{n=1}^{k}P(X=k)=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\sum_{k=n}^{\infty}P(X=k).$$
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2answers
32 views

How do I expand this summation?

So I just started doing these today and this has me stuck (It's a beginner question and i'm upset I'm stumped). So I have $\sum_{k=1}^{4}9k\sin(\frac{k\pi}{2})$ which I turn into ...
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1answer
83 views

Evaluate $\sum_{k=0}^{511}\frac{\sin\frac\pi{2^{11}}}{\sin\frac{(4k+1)\pi}{2^{12}}\sin\frac{(4k+3)\pi}{2^{12}}}$

I need to evaluate $$\sum_{n=0}^{511}\frac{\sin\frac\pi{2^{11}}}{\sin\frac{(4n+1)\pi}{2^{12}}\sin\frac{(4n+3)\pi}{2^{12}}}$$ Please give me some hint! The final answer is $2^{10}$. By CuriousGuest's ...
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1answer
25 views

Question related to the sigma during expectation in probability [duplicate]

How is this below possible: $ \sum_{i=1}^\infty 1/i = \infty $
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2answers
61 views

Find a sum of $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}(-1)^{n+1}\frac{ch(n)}{3^n}$

Find a sum of $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}(-1)^{n+1}\frac{ch(n)}{3^n}$$ Could you give some some hint or some way to start this? I have tried representing ch(n) through its definition with e, but I ...
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1answer
64 views

Multiple sum involving binomial factors

Let $n$ and $m$ be positive integers and let $0 \le j \le n-m-1$. Show that: \begin{align} \sum\limits_{l=m}^{n-j-1} \binom{n-l-1}{j} \binom{l}{m} \binom{n+l}{j} &=\sum\limits_{p=0}^j ...
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2answers
34 views

Integral of a sum of complex exponentials

Let $$\hat{\varphi_n}(t)=\frac{1}{n}\sum_{j=1}^n{exp(i{t}Y_j)}\quad(t\in\mathbb{R})$$ denote the empirical characteristic function of the residuals $Y_j\,=\,S_n^{-\frac{1}{2}}(X_j-\bar{X}_n),\quad ...
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2answers
126 views

Inequality with $\frac{1}{n}+\frac{1}{n+1}+\cdots+\frac{1}{2n}$

Inspired by this recent question, I suggest this. Let $n=2,3,4, \ldots .$ Then $$ \frac{7}{12} < \cfrac 1 {1 + \cfrac {1^2} {1 + \cfrac {2^2} {\ddots + \cfrac \vdots { 1 + \, {n^2} \,}}}} \leq ...
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1answer
28 views

Symmetric Sum Notation

From here is the following excerpt Suppose one is given a homogeneous symmetric polynomial $P$ and asked to prove that $P(x_1, \ldots , x_n) ≥ 0$ How should one proceed? Our first step is ...
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1answer
72 views

A double sum with combinatorial factors

Let $n$, $p$ and $j$ be integers. As a byproduct of some other calculations I have discovered the following identity: \begin{equation} \sum\limits_{p=0}^{j} \sum\limits_{p_1=0}^j \binom{p+p_1}{p_1} ...
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8answers
185 views

Show that the inequality holds $\frac{1}{n}+\frac{1}{n+1}+…+\frac{1}{2n}\ge\frac{7}{12}$

We have to show that: $\displaystyle\frac{1}{n}+\frac{1}{n+1}+...+\frac{1}{2n}\ge\frac{7}{12}$ To be honest I don't have idea how to deal with it. I only suspect there will be need to consider two ...
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1answer
31 views

How to simplify recursive eq?

I know how to programatically calculate this, but im not sure how it can be simplified for documentation. Can someone help? $R = (X\cdot 1) + (X\cdot 2) + (X\cdot 3) + (X\cdot 4) + (X\cdot 5) + ...
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4answers
759 views

Why don't we indicate the variable to summed as we do for integrals?

When integrating over a certain variable $x$, we make sure to end the integral with $dx$, like so: $$\int_{1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{x^2}dx$$ The reason for this of course becomes more clear as one goes ...
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1answer
37 views

How to simplify a sum with binomial coefficients multiplied by $k^3/2^k$?

The sum is $$\sum_{k=5}^{\infty}\binom{k-1}{k-5}\frac{k^3}{2^{k}} $$ The first thing I thought of was the binomial coefficient. So I re-indexed it ...
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1answer
19 views

A problem on orthonormality of a set of complex functions

The following is a problem of an undergraduate exam test:
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3answers
91 views

Simplifying $\displaystyle\sum_{k=0}^{20}(k+4)\binom{23-k}{3}$

In trying to simplify my answer to a problem posted recently, I am trying to show that $\displaystyle\sum_{k=0}^{20}(k+4)\binom{23-k}{3}=8\binom{24}{4}$. I know that ...
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3answers
51 views

$\sum_{(p,q) \in {\mathbb{N}^*}^2 and p \land q =1} \frac{1}{p^2 q^2} = \frac{5}{2}$ proof? [closed]

Can you give me a very precise demonstration of this result please because it's very difficult for me to understand the demonstration on the pic :( $$ \sum_{(p,q) \in {\mathbb{N}^*}^2 \text{, } p ...
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1answer
25 views

Simplify $S=\sum_{i=0}^{k}a_i (2n)^{2i+1}$

Can someone simplify this expression (or compute its supremum)? Thanks so much. $$S=\sum_{i=0}^{k}a_i (2n)^{2i+1}$$ where $a_i>0$ and $k>1$, and $\sum_{i=0}^{k}a_i=1$.
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0answers
48 views

A sum with binomial coefficients in the numerator and denominator.

I am struggling with a combinatorial sum as apart of a long statistical-mechanics derivation. I would appreciate any help. I seek the result of the following summation, for integer $\ell,n$, and ...
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1answer
23 views

Probability $\sum_{j=n+1}^{2n+1} {M \choose m+1}{M-m-1 \choose j-m-1}/{N \choose j} $

I have a prob. problem: A school has $N$ students in which $M$ students are leader (of each class in school), and $N>M$. There are $2n+1$ balls in the black box including $n+1$ blue balls and $n$ ...
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0answers
26 views

Find the closed-form of a series

Suppose that $x$ is positive number such that $x>0$. I just wonder is there existing a closed form of the series below $f(x)=\sum_{l=0}^{\infty}(2l+1)e^{-xl(l+1)}$. Is the well-known ...
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1answer
25 views

Transforming a power tower to a product

It is possible to write the product of a sequence of terms $a_i$ as a function of the sum of a sequence of functions of these terms: $$\prod_i a_i=f\left(\sum_i g(a_i)\right)$$ where $f=\exp$ and ...
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4answers
110 views

How to calculate $k^0+k^1+k^2 + k^3+…+ k^{n-1}$ [duplicate]

How to simplify below expression or convert it to something simpler like $k^{n-1}$? $$ k^0+k^1+k^2 + k^3+...+ k^{n-1} $$
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1answer
39 views

Random walks with finite chance of escape

In a recent answer I gave a combinatorial interpretation for the sum $\sum_{n=1} \binom{2n}{n}\frac{4^{-n}}{n+1}=1$: namely, that it corresponded to the probability of all outcomes adding to $1$. A ...
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1answer
54 views

An upper bound and simplification for expression

I would like to find the upper bound (or simplification) of this expression: $$\sum_{j=1}^{n+1}\sum_{i=0}^{j-1} a^{j+i} {j+i \choose i}{n+1\choose j}{n \choose i}/{2n+1 \choose j+i}$$ where ...
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2answers
157 views

How find this sum $\sum_{i=0}^{2n}\binom{2n}{2i}\binom{2i}{i}y^{2i}$

Find the sum close form $$f(x)=\sum_{i=0}^{2n}\dfrac{\binom{2n}{2i}\binom{2i}{i}x^{2i}}{2^{2i}}$$ if we let $$\dfrac{x}{2}=y$$ then $$f(y)=\sum_{i=0}^{2n}\binom{2n}{2i}\binom{2i}{i}y^{2i}$$ ...
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0answers
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Question about finite sums and integer recursions.

Let $n$ be a positive integer and let $g(n)$ be a given strictly increasing integer function such that $0<g(n)<n$ for all $n$. Also the sequence $ |g(n) - n|$ is unbounded as $n$ grows. Let ...
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2answers
63 views

Simplify the expression of binom

Any one knows how to simplify this expression or finding upper bound of this expression: $$\sum_{j=1}^{n+1}\sum_{i=0}^{j-1} a^{j+i} {j+i \choose i}$$ where $0<a<1$ is constant. Thanks a lot.
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0answers
27 views

Simplifying a combinatorial sum

Show that \begin{align} y\sum\limits_{i=1}^dx^iz^i\sum\limits_{j=1}^iq^{i-j}G_d(x,y,q\mid j) = y\sum\limits_{i=1}^d(x^iz^i+\cdots+x^dz^dq^{d-i})G_d(x,y,q\mid i) \end{align} where \begin{align} ...
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2answers
64 views

Compound interest with a compounding interest rate

I have an investment which pays 3% interest (r) annually but it also increases the interest rate every year by 5% (g). I re-invest all interest payments at the start of each year. How many years (t) ...
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3answers
560 views

How do you calculate this sum?

How to find the value of $S(\infty)$, where $S(n)$ is the following $$S(n)=\displaystyle\sum_{k=1}^{n} \dfrac{k}{n^2+k^2}$$ Wolfram alpha is unable to calculate it. This is a question from a ...
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1answer
33 views

Extracting the coefficient of $x^n$ from a fraction

I need help extracting the coefficient of $x^n$ from a $\frac{1-x}{1-2x}$. So far I have that \begin{align} \frac{1-x}{1-2x} &= \frac{1}{1-2x} - x\frac{1}{1-2x}\\ &= \sum\limits_{k=0}(2x)^k ...
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1answer
30 views

Upper bound of $\sum\limits_{j=1}^{n+1} \sum\limits_{i=0}^{j-1}{n+1 \choose j}{n \choose i}$

I would like to find max (or sup.) of the sum: $$S=\sum\limits_{j=1}^{n+1} \sum\limits_{i=0}^{j-1}{n+1 \choose j}{n \choose i}.$$ I found $S\le \frac{1}{\sqrt{\pi n}}.2(n+1).4^n$ but It seems it's ...
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1answer
67 views

Help on a tough summation from Rudin?

I'm having a tough time deriving (4) from the bracketed expression in (3) shown in the photo. I've been futzing with partial sums of geometric series and binomial expansions for a while now with no ...
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0answers
27 views

A question about the differentiability of two Weyl sums

Consider the following functions, associated with certain trigonometrical sums: $$ f_{\alpha,\beta}(x) = \sum_{n=1}^{+\infty}\frac{\cos(n^{\alpha+\beta}x)}{n^{\alpha}},\qquad g_{\alpha,\beta}(x) = ...
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0answers
27 views

Finding alternating series for Power series

Given data and conditions I have a power series, $PS(x) = \sum_{n=0}^\infty R_nx^n$. I have a infinite GP,something like G(x) = $\sum_{k=0}^\infty ax^k = \frac{a}{1-x} $ . Never take G(x),such ...
7
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4answers
154 views

A closed form of $\sum_{k=0}^\infty\frac{(-1)^{k+1}}{k!}\Gamma^2\left(\frac{k}{2}\right)$

I am looking for a closed form of the following series \begin{equation} \mathcal{I}=\sum_{k=1}^\infty\frac{(-1)^{k+1}}{k!}\Gamma^2\left(\frac{k}{2}\right) \end{equation} I have no idea how to ...