Questions about evaluating summations, especially finite summations. For infinite series, please consider the (sequences-and-series) tag instead.

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3
votes
6answers
279 views

What is the limit of the following sum

$$\lim_{n\to\infty}\sum_{k=1}^n \ln\Big(1+\frac{k}{n^2}\Big)$$ According to me, the answer is $0$. I'm curious as to what answers might others come up with, as well as the method of reasoning.
1
vote
1answer
25 views

Prove the identity involving summation and Stirling numbers of the second kind

Prove the identity $$(e^z-1)^m=m!\sum_{n}^{}{n \brace m}\frac{z^n}{n!}$$ $n\brace m$ stands for Stirling numbers of the second kind. I'm not really sure if $z$ is some special number or just an ...
0
votes
2answers
26 views

Average length of a bitstring

I am trying to compute the average length of a bit string from all bit strings of $\{0,1\}^n$. By length n I mean a bit string of length n where the most significant bit is 1. I know there is $2^0$ ...
1
vote
0answers
70 views

Alternative view on integration?

The question is about an alternative view on formulating or arriving at the concept of the integral (in case this is possible of course). Let's say we want to add a series of values $f(x_i)$ occuring ...
2
votes
2answers
50 views

I need a set that enables me to identify specific containing elements by any summation of any of its subsets (see example to understand)

My question is more practically understood by example. I need a set A that behaves like the one below: Set A: {1,3,5} Set B (all subsets of A): {1}, {3}, {5}, {1,3}, {1,5}, {3,5}, {1,3,5} Set C ...
1
vote
2answers
36 views

Problem involving summation and binomial coefficient

I have been fighting with this but I'm really not getting anywhere. $$\sum_{0\leq2k\leq n}\binom{n}{2k}2^k\equiv0\pmod 3$$ $$iff$$ $$n\equiv2\pmod 4$$ Hint: Consider ...
3
votes
2answers
63 views

Evaluation of the sum $\sum_{i=1}^{\lfloor na \rfloor} \left \lfloor ia \right \rfloor $

Let $a$ be a positive proper fraction and $n$ is any integer then evaluate the following sum, $$\sum_{i=1}^{\left \lfloor na \right \rfloor\atop} \left \lfloor ia \right \rfloor $$ I think that ...
7
votes
1answer
109 views

Showing that $\sum_{i=1}^n \frac{1}{|x-p_i|} \leq 8n \left( 1 + \frac{1}{3} + \frac{1}{5} + \cdots + \frac{1}{2n-1} \right)$

I'm taking a summer analysis course and preparing for our final exam later this week. Our professor gave us the following problem on our mock exam, and I can't seem to get anywhere on it. Does anyone ...
2
votes
0answers
32 views

Solving the recurrence $T(n)=4T(\frac{\sqrt{n}}{3})+ \log^2n$ [on hold]

How we calculate the answer of following recurrence? $$T(n)=4T\left(\frac{\sqrt{n}}{3}\right)+ \log^2n.$$ Any nice solution would be highly appreciated.
3
votes
1answer
57 views

How should I prove that: $\sum_{i=1} ^{n}(\sin(\frac{i\pi}{n}))^2=\frac{n}{2}$

$$\sum_{i=1} ^{n}\Big(\sin\big(\frac{i\pi}{n}\big)\Big)^2=\frac{n}{2}$$ An interesting conclusion and checked for validity...holds for $n\geq 2$, but yet do not know how to prove it. Are there any ...
0
votes
1answer
51 views

find the sum of the series

If $a_1, a_2, \ldots, a_n$ are in arithmetic progression whose common difference is $d$,then find the sum: $$\sin(d) \cdot \left(\csc(a_1)\csc (a_2)+\csc(a_2)\csc (a_3)+\ldots+\csc(a_{n-1})\csc(a_n) ...
1
vote
2answers
42 views

How to show the identity relating to Matrix

Suppose that $$ A=\begin{bmatrix}a_{11}&a_{21}\\a_{21}&a_{22}\end{bmatrix}, \ \ B=\begin{bmatrix}d&-1\\1&0\end{bmatrix}. $$ and $$A=B^N$$ Show that $$a_{11}=\sum_{i=0}^{[N/2]}(-1)^i ...
1
vote
3answers
79 views

Finding the sum of $3+4\cdot 3+4^2\cdot 3+\dots +4^{\log n-1} \cdot 3$

I see this: $$A=3+4\cdot 3+4^2\cdot 3+\dots +4^{\log n-1} \cdot 3=3\cdot ([4^{\log n}-1]/3)=n^2-1$$ The base of logarithm is $2$, and $n$ is $2,4,8,\dots$ Anyone could describe me how this sum was ...
13
votes
1answer
148 views

A Gamma limit $\lim_{n\rightarrow+\infty}\sum_{k=1}^n \displaystyle \left( \Gamma\bigl(\frac{k}{n}\bigr)\right)^{-k}=\frac{e^\gamma}{e^\gamma-1}$

Show that $$\lim_{n\rightarrow+\infty}\sum_{k=1}^n \displaystyle \left( \Gamma\bigl(\frac{k}{n}\bigr)\right)^{-k}=\frac{e^\gamma}{e^\gamma-1}$$ where $\gamma$ is the Euler-Mascheroni Constant. ...
2
votes
1answer
108 views

Find sum of $n$ terms of the series $12+14+24+58+164+\cdots$

Find sum of $n$ terms: $12+14+24+58+164+\cdots$ I have tried my best but could not proceed
2
votes
3answers
61 views

Find partial sums of the series $12+105+1008+10011+\dots$

Find the sum of $n$ terms of this series- $$12+105+1008+10011+.....$$ I did not understand that how should I proceed with this problem.
4
votes
2answers
67 views

Summation of general series

One of the problems in Donald Knuth's Art of Programming is phrased as follows: Find and prove a simple formula for the sum $\sum\limits_{n=0}^k\frac{(-1)^n(2n+1)^3}{(2n+1)^4+4}$ I have very little ...
1
vote
1answer
49 views

Sum of the trigonometric series

I'm studying de Moivre's theorem's application on the summation of trigonometric series. Here's what I have so far: \begin{align*} \sum_{k=0}^n \cos(k\theta)&= \text{Re}\sum_{k=0}^n e^{ki\theta} ...
3
votes
3answers
104 views

Evaluation of a sum of $(-1)^{k} {n \choose k} {2n-2k \choose n+1}$

I have some question about the paper of which name is Spanning trees: Let me count the ways. The question concerns about $\sum_{k=0}^{\lfloor\frac{n-1}{2} \rfloor} (-1)^{k} {n \choose k} {2n-2k ...
3
votes
2answers
54 views

Which natural numbers can be represented as a sum of natural numbers raised to different powers?

Waring's problem asks about natural numbers that can be represented as a sum of natural numbers all raised to the same power $k$. I'm wondering which natural numbers can be represented as a sum of ...
2
votes
2answers
66 views

Why does this sum equal to (4^n -1)

How do I get to this solution? $\sum _{k=1}^n\left(\binom nk 3^{n-k}\right)=\left(4^n-1\right)$ I believe it's connected to this, which I know is true: $\sum \:_{k=1}^n\binom nk=2^n-1$
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Is there a name for sum over one set divided by the cardinality of another set?

What is the summation of one set real numbers divided by the cardinality of another set called? $$A \subset\mathbb R$$ $$\frac{\sum A}{|B|}$$ I will try and be specific to my problem because I lack ...
1
vote
0answers
111 views

The closed form of $\sum_{n=1}^{x}n!$

Let $$y=\sum_{n=1}^{x}n!$$ be the sum of consecutive factorials. What is closed form for $y$ in terms of $x$? Wolfram Alpha says that $$y=-(-1)^x\Gamma(x+2)(!(-x-2))-!(-1)-1$$ where $!x$ is ...
6
votes
0answers
61 views

Using Fourier Series to compute sums

I have just started learning the basics of Fourier series and have some doubts about it. I am aware that Fourier series can be used to compute infinite sums. For example, $\zeta(2)$ and $\eta(2)$ can ...
0
votes
1answer
19 views

Summation of indicator function

I need to calculate this summation. I have tried to solve it myself but can't seem to get anywhere. I know that the answer needs to be $2q+1-h$. $$\sum_{j, k=-q}^q 1_{(h+j-k=0)}$$
1
vote
2answers
50 views

Summation of $(((2N+1).2 + 1).2 + 1)\cdots $

Is there a way to sum up this series: $(((2N+1).2 + 1).2 + 1)\cdots $ The actual question that I encountered was on a coding site (HackerRank) where it said that you had a tree which grows twice in ...
4
votes
2answers
160 views

Integral of the Von karman equation

What is the result of this integral, and how can I proceed: $$ \int_{-\infty}^{\infty}{c_{1} \over\left(1 + c_{2}\,x^{2}\right)^{5/6}}\, \cos\left(x\tau\right)\,{\rm d}x\,,\qquad c_{1}, ...
0
votes
1answer
47 views

Two trigonometric sums [closed]

How does one solve those ? I just came across them and I've got no clue on how to start working. A solution would be very appreciated, thanks in advance !
0
votes
3answers
36 views

How to write a summation function that counts the number of nodes in a tree?

I come from a programming background and am interested in learning how to represent some things as simple equations, as an entry into thinking mathematically. How do you represent a tree structure as ...
2
votes
2answers
65 views

Sum of floor of ratios

I need to compute, in a program at work, the sum, for $k = 2$ to $n-1$, of the floors of the ratios: $\frac{n}{k}$. Since n is a large integer in my case I would need a "closed form" formula for this ...
1
vote
2answers
70 views

An intergral with variable upper limit

Let $$\psi \left(x \right)=\int_{0}^{x}\frac{\ln(1-t)}{t}dt,x\in (0,1).$$ Show $$\forall x\in (0,1), \psi\left(x \right)=?$$ I return the old variable $t$ by the substitution $s=ln(1-t)$,and then ...
0
votes
2answers
25 views

Sigma notation: number columns with sum > 0 of binary matrix

I'm trying to formulate a Sigma notation formula which would yield the count (sum) of columns which themselves have a non-zero sum. $\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0\\ 1 & 1 ...
1
vote
0answers
42 views

Differentiation with respect to the index of the summation notion?

$$\sum_{t=1}^k \binom{N-1}{t-1} \int[1-F(s)]^{N-1}[F(s)]^{t-1}g(s)\,ds$$ $k\in\mathbb Z ^+$ If I want to find out the effects of changing $k$ (comparative statics), what can I do? Differentiation ...
2
votes
2answers
82 views

Proof of equality $\sum_{k=0}^{m}k^n = \sum_{k=0}^{n}k!{m+1\choose k+1} \left\{^n_k \right\} $ by induction

I have a problem with following equality: $$\sum_{k=0}^{m}k^n = \sum_{k=0}^{n}k!{m+1\choose k+1} \left\{^n_k \right\} $$ And I would like to use induction in following way: Base: $$ m = n $$ And: $$ ...
2
votes
0answers
29 views

Solving $n \int_{\mathbb{R}}{\left|\frac{1}{n}\sum_{j=1}^n{e^{(itY_j)}}-e^{-\frac{1}{2}t^2}\right|^2}\psi(t)dt$

I have to solve $$ n \int_{\mathbb{R}}{\left|\frac{1}{n}\sum_{j=1}^n{e^{(itY_j)}}-e^{-\frac{1}{2}t^2}\right|^2}\psi(t)dt $$ where $\psi(t)=(2\pi)^{-\frac{1}{2}}e^{-\frac{1}{2}t^2}$ is the density ...
4
votes
2answers
101 views

Integral $\int^1_0\frac{\ln{x} \ \mathrm{Li}_2(x)}{1-x}dx$

I would like to know how to evaluate the integral $$\int^1_0\frac{\ln{x} \ \mathrm{Li}_2(x)}{1-x}dx$$ I tried expanding the integrand as a series but made little progress as I do not know how to ...
0
votes
3answers
36 views

Solving the Riemann Sum $\sum_{i=1}^{n}(1+\frac{6i}{n})^3(\frac{2}{n})$?

So I have the Riemann sum. $\sum_{i=1}^{n}(1+\frac{6i}{n})^3(\frac{2}{n})$. From my understanding that turns into $(\frac{2}{n})\sum_{i=1}^{n}(1+\frac{6i}{n})^3$ and what is really perplexing me is ...
3
votes
1answer
72 views

Divisor function asymptotics

Define $\tau_{r}(n) = \sum_{d_1...d_r = n}1$. One exercise in a book on sieve theory asked for an elementary proof by induction of the fact that $$\sum_{n\le x}\tau_r(n) = \frac{1}{(r - 1)!}x(\ln ...
5
votes
4answers
100 views

What's $\sum_{k=0}^n\binom{n}{2k}$?

How do you calculate $\displaystyle \sum_{k=0}^n\binom{n}{2k}$? And doesn't the sum terminate when 2k exceeds n, so the upper bound should be less than n? EDIT: I don't understand the negging. Have ...
5
votes
5answers
257 views

Prove that the sequence with $T(0)=1$ and $T(n) = 1 + \sum_{j=0}^{n-1}T(j)$ is given by $T(n)=2^n$

$T(0)=1 \\ T(n) = 1 + \sum_{j=0}^{n-1}T(j) \\ $ Show that $T(n) = 2^n$. I know how to prove this by induction, but I would like to know how to show this using first principles. Edit: The way I want ...
2
votes
2answers
26 views

Help in explaining this sigma notation breakdown

I will appreciate some breakdown help which explains each step in the picture below to the last expression and the rules that applied to the changes. I am new to Sigma notations and thus confused.
2
votes
2answers
43 views

Help finding a summation using CAS

While approximating an integral by midpoint rule, I ended up with $$\iint_R f(x, y)\hspace{1mm}dA\approx \dfrac{1}{n^2}\sum_{i=0}^{n-1}\sum_{j=0}^{n-1} f\left[\dfrac{1}{2n}+\dfrac{i}{n},\hspace{3mm} ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Summation of series- substitution

If we have $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}nf(n)=C, C\ne0\tag 1$, C is a constant, can we find a closed form for f(n)?. NB : Given condition is that $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}f(n)$ converges to a constant value $K$ ...
-4
votes
2answers
97 views

What does this infinite sum converge to?: $\sum_{n=1}^\infty \dfrac{1}{n^k} = \dfrac{1}{1^k} + \dfrac{1}{2^k} + \dfrac{1}{3^k} + …$

$$\sum_{n=1}^\infty \dfrac{1}{n^k} = \dfrac{1}{1^k} + \dfrac{1}{2^k} + \dfrac{1}{3^k} + \dfrac{1}{4^k} + \dfrac{1}{5^k} + ...$$ I've found that: when $k=1$, it diverge to infinity when $k=2$, it ...
1
vote
0answers
67 views

Sum of a Sequnce

How to find this sum $$ \sum_{i+j+k=n} \ G_i \cdot G_j \cdot G_k \ for \ all \ i,j,k > 0, $$ $$ G_i = i \cdot F_i, $$ where Fi - ith number Fibonacci, F0=0, F1=1
1
vote
2answers
64 views

Summation of infinite series

If we know the series sum given below converges to a value $C$(constant) $$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}a_n =C \tag 2$$ Can we generate following in terms of C. values of $a_n$ will tend to zero as n goes to ...
2
votes
2answers
46 views

Sum of products of binomial coefficients

In a proof I've come across the following identity: $$ \sum_{l=0}^{n-j} \binom{M-1+l}{l} \binom{n-M-l}{n-j-l} = \binom{n}{j} $$ I see that it's right, when plugging in numbers, but I don't see the ...
0
votes
1answer
55 views

Brackets with a summation

$$(\sum_{i=1}^6 x_i + 9) $$ Hey guys! For above, do you think the $9$ would be part of the summation (i.e $x_1+x_2+x_3+x_4+x_5+x_6+54$) or would it be separate (i.e. $x_1+x_2+x_3+x_4+x_5+x_6+9$) ...
0
votes
3answers
27 views

Finding the sum of a sequence of terms

$$1/1(2) - 1/3(2^3) + 1/5(2^5) - 1/7(2^7)$$ This is equal to $$\sum_{n=0}^\infty(1/2)^{2n+1}(-1)^n/(2n+1)$$ Differentiating this leads to: $$\sum_{n=0}^\infty(-1/4)^n$$ Which is equal to $4/5$ Thus, ...
-1
votes
0answers
24 views

Is there a name for this operation: $x_k = \sum_{ij} y_{ij} a_{ik} b_{jk}$?

Is there a name for this operation: $x_k = \sum_{ij} y_{ij} a_{ik} b_{jk}$ ?