Questions about evaluating summations, especially finite summations. For infinite series, please consider the (sequences-and-series) tag instead.

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0
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0answers
16 views

Notation sumation confusion

I am reading paper about additive schwarz preconditioner, where following notation is used in order to obtain matrix C $$C_i = \sum_k (I^k B^k (P^k u_i)R^k)$$ . My question is, what's dimension of ...
2
votes
2answers
42 views

Summation of a logarithmic series for $\ln(2(r^2 - 1)/r^2)$

Given that $$\sum_{r=2}^{n}\ln\frac{r^2-1}{r^2}=\ln\frac{n+1}{2n}$$ for $n >1$. Express $$\sum_{r=32}^{62}{\ln\frac{2(r^2-1)}{r^2}}$$ as $$A\ln 2 + B\ln3 + C\ln7$$ where $A$, $B$, $C$ are positive ...
4
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0answers
57 views

How is it that $\pi$ appears in so many formulas that seem to be in no way geometric. [duplicate]

When I first saw: $$\frac{\pi}{4}=1-\frac{1}{3}+\frac{1}{5}-\frac{1}{7}+\frac{1}{9}\mp\cdots.$$ I was puzzled that such an expression could have anything to do with circles. There are tons more and ...
3
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0answers
41 views

Reorder this series to change its sum [duplicate]

If in the series $1-\frac{1}{2}+\frac{1}{3}-\frac{1}{4}\cdots$ the order of the terms be altered, so that the ratio of the number of positive terms to the number of negative terms in the first $n$ ...
2
votes
2answers
81 views

Algebraic proof that $\sum\limits_{i=0}^n \binom{i}{k} = \binom{n + 1}{k + 1}$

I'm looking for an algebraic proof of this identity for $n, k \in \mathbb{N}$: $$\sum\limits_{i=0}^n \binom{i}{k} = \binom{n + 1}{k + 1}$$ So far, I've turned the left hand side of the equality into ...
3
votes
3answers
45 views

Proving $\sum_{i=1}^n\frac{1}{i(i+1)(i+2)}=\frac{n(n+3)}{4(n+1)(n+2)}$ for $n\geq 1$ by mathematical induction

Prove using mathematical induction that $$\frac{1}{1\cdot 2\cdot 3} + \frac{1}{2\cdot 3\cdot 4} + \cdots + \frac{1}{n(n+1)(n+2)} = \frac{n(n+3)}{4(n+1)(n+2)}.$$ I tried taking $n=k$, so it makes ...
3
votes
2answers
95 views

Some infinite series with Fibonacci numbers

An interesting problem is to prove that: $$ \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{F_{2n}}{n^2 \binom{2n}{n}}=\frac{4\pi^2}{25 \sqrt 5}. $$ I know the proof, which uses the fact that ...
3
votes
5answers
101 views

Proving that $1\cdot3+3\cdot5+5\cdot7+\cdots+(2n-1)(2n+1)={n(4n^2+6n-1) \over 3}$ by induction for $n\geq 1$

Prove using mathematical induction that $$1\cdot3+3\cdot5+5\cdot7+\cdots+(2n-1)(2n+1)= {n(4n^2+6n-1) \over 3}.$$ Step 1: If we assume that the equation is true for a natural number, $n=k$, ...
3
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1answer
33 views

An approach to approximating the harmonic series.

I would like to get help on the last step to approximating the harmonic series, here is my work: Consider the equation: $$f(x+1)-f(x)=g(x)$$ Through iteration one can come up with the solution: ...
11
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5answers
980 views

Sum of an infinite series $(1 - \frac 12) + (\frac 12 - \frac 13) + \cdots$ - not geometric series?

I'm a bit confused as to this problem: Consider the infinite series: $$\left(1 - \frac 12\right) + \left(\frac 12 - \frac 13\right) + \left(\frac 13 - \frac 14\right) \cdots$$ a) Find the sum $S_n$ ...
1
vote
0answers
67 views

A Summation Challenge

I am trying to understand the solution of problem from its editorial by djdolls' answer,I am not able to understand a particulare step which is as follows: $$S(n)=\sum_0^D (-1)^i \cdot ...
3
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2answers
101 views

Prove $\sum\limits_{i=0}^{n}\binom{n+i}{i}=\binom{2n+1}{n+1}$ [duplicate]

I'm trying to prove this algebraically: $$\sum\limits_{i=0}^{n}\dbinom{n+i}{i}=\dbinom{2n+1}{n+1}$$ Unfortunately I've been stuck for quite a while. Here's what I've tried so far: Turning ...
-6
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3answers
69 views

Summing odd numbers [on hold]

$$1+3+5+7+ \cdots + (2n-1) = \, ??$$ Can you help me?
3
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0answers
100 views

Using a visual “proof” to show that $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \left(\frac 34 \right)^n =1$

The "proof without words" that $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \left(\frac 12 \right)^n =1$ is fairly well known: But why can't we apply the exact same logic to $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \left(\frac 34 \right)^n$ ...
0
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1answer
31 views

Converging Geometric Series of a a Bouncing Ball

A rubber ball was dropped from a height of 36m. and each time its strikes the ground it rebounds to a height of 2/3 from which it last fell. Find the total distance traveled by the ball before it ...
1
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1answer
29 views

Evaluate products and sums

Did I evaluate the following terms correctly? Does the set notation in example b) allow me to chose the order of the terms? $$ a) \sum_{i=1}^6 ix^{i+1} = x^2+2x^3+3x^4+4x^5+5x^6+6x^7 \\ b) \prod_{i ...
5
votes
3answers
73 views

If $\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{1^a+2^a+…+n^a}{(n+1)^{a-1}.((na+1)+(na+2)+…+(na+n))}=\frac{1}{60}$, Find the value of a

If $$\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{1^a+2^a+...+n^a}{(n+1)^{a-1}\cdot((na+1)+(na+2)+...+(na+n))}=\frac{1}{60}$$ Find the value of a. Attempt: I solved it using two methods each giving me different answers. ...
5
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1answer
178 views

$\sum_{i=1}^n \frac{x_i}{\sqrt[n]{x_i^n+(n^n-1)\prod _{j=1}^nx_j}} \ge 1$, for all $x_i>0$

Can you help with the following inequality? I found it experimentally. Prove that, for all $x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_n>0$, $$\sum_{i=1}^n\frac{x_i}{\sqrt[n]{x_i^n+(n^n-1)\prod _{j=1}^nx_j}} \ge ...
1
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3answers
41 views

Finding a sum involving roots of a quadratic equation

If $\alpha,\beta$ are roots of the equation $x^2-2x-7=0$ and $$S_r=\left(\frac{r}{\alpha ^r}+\frac{r}{\beta ^r}\right)$$ then find the value of $$\lim _{n \to \infty} \sum _{r=1} ^n S_r$$ I am unable ...
5
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1answer
68 views

How to compute the sum $\displaystyle\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}nP_{n}$

Following Problem is from probability theory:Define $G(n),P(n)\ge 0,n\in\mathbb{N}$,and such $$\begin{cases}G(n)=e^{-\lambda}\cdot\dfrac{\lambda^n}{n!},\lambda>0\\ ...
0
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1answer
164 views

Algebra question about inequalities [closed]

Let $n>0$ and let there be two positive integers $x,y$ such that $x^n+y^n=1$ Prove, $$\left(\sum_{k=1}^{n} \frac{1+x^{2k}}{1+x^{4k}}\right)\left(\sum_{k=1}^{n} ...
0
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2answers
40 views

Identity with complex numbers related to the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality

I have this equation $ a_j,b_j\in \mathbb{C} , j=1,2,...,n$ $$ \left| \sum\limits_{j=1}^n a_jb_j \right|^2 = \sum\limits_{j=1}^n |a_j|^2 \sum\limits_{j=1}^n |b_j|^2 -\sum_{1\leq i \leq j \leq n} ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

Can $\dfrac{b_0}{a_0} + \dfrac{b_1}{a_1} + \dfrac{b_2}{a_2} + \dfrac{b_3}{a_3} + … + \dfrac{b_n}{a_n}$ be represented as …

Is this correct? (Last step $\rightarrow$ After taking L.C.M.) $\large \dfrac{b_0}{a_0} + \dfrac{b_1}{a_1} + \dfrac{b_2}{a_2} + \dfrac{b_3}{a_3} + ... + \dfrac{b_n}{a_n} = \sum\limits_{k=0}^{n} ...
-3
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0answers
66 views

True or False: this series converges. [closed]

True or false: the series $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty\:}\cos\left(n\pi\right)$ converges.
1
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1answer
44 views

What does the sum of the reciprocals of composites run along?

This is fairly straight forward: $$\sum_{p\space\text{prime}}^x \frac{1}{p_x} \sim \ln(\ln(x))$$ And if $$\sum_{c\space \text{composite}}^x \frac{1}{c_x}\sim f(x)$$ Then what is $f(x)$?
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4answers
73 views

Finite product of sums [closed]

I am looking for a formula to transform this product into a sum $$\displaystyle \prod_{i = 1}^n (a_i + b_i) = \sum_{i}^N c_i,$$ where $a_i, b_i\in \mathbb{R}$. Any suggestions on the expression of ...
3
votes
4answers
146 views

Prove this inequality: $\frac n2 \le \frac{1}{1}+\frac{1}{2}+\frac{1}{3}+…+\frac1{2^n - 1} \le n$

$\dfrac{n}{2} \le \dfrac{1}{1}+\dfrac{1}{2}+\dfrac{1}{3}+...+\dfrac{1}{2^n - 1} \le n $ I've Tried for hours but didn't got any striking idea. I don't have any efforts to show rather than induction. ...
0
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1answer
40 views

Convergent conjecture: What is the proof?

Lets say that $\def\nn{\mathbb{N}}$$\def\rr{\mathbb{R}}$$K : \nn \to \rr$ and $\displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^\infty \frac{K(i)}{K(i+1)}$ is a convergent sum. My conjecture is that the function $K$ must be ...
5
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2answers
200 views
+100

Finding a recurrence for a sum

I am trying to implement the following sum using a programming language: $$\sum_{i=1}^N a^i i^r$$ where $N$, $a$ and $r$ are integers. The problem is, I cannot find a suitable way to do this. ...
2
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3answers
336 views

Why does this sum converge?

I know that the following sum converges to 2 via WolframAlpha, but I am not sure why. $$\sum_{k=1}^\infty k \left[\frac{2}{k} - \frac{4}{k+1} + \frac{2}{k+2}\right] = 2$$ WolframAlpha gives the ...
1
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1answer
34 views

Doubling sequences of the cyclic decimal parts of the fraction numbers

Is there any theory, why and when doubling sequences of the decimal part of the fraction numbers occur? Take for example these small numbers: ...
0
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0answers
41 views

Sum involving binomial $\sum_{k=0}^{n} \binom{3n}{3k}$ [duplicate]

The main question is to evaluate: $$\sum_{k=0}^{n} \binom{3n}{3k}$$ There is a standard technique but I cannot split the sums apart and then add them together. Could you help with this step?
1
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2answers
157 views

Proof of the reciprocal of all semiprimes diverging?

$$\sum_{\text{semi-primes}}\frac{1}{s}=\frac{1}{4}+\frac{1}{6}+\frac{1}{9}+\frac{1}{10}\cdots$$ I almost positive that this sum diverges, but I would really like to see a very thorough proof. Thank ...
0
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2answers
26 views

How to compute the following double sum $\sum_{z_1,z_2 \in [-N,..N]: z_1 \neq z_2} z_1^2-2z_1z_2$

How to compute the following double summation \begin{align*} \sum_{z_1,z_2 \in [-N,..N]: z_1 \neq z_2} z_1^2-2z_1z_2 \end{align*} I was thinking I can do the following \begin{align*} \sum_{z_1,z_2 ...
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0answers
48 views

Prove FTC using limit of summation

It is not hard to show $$\int_a^bx^2\,dx=\lim_{n\to\infty}\left[\frac{b-a}{n}\sum_{k=1}^n\left(a+(b-a)\frac kn\right)^2\right]=\frac{b^3}{3}-\frac{a^3}{3}.$$ With some effort one can also show ...
0
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2answers
47 views

Summation of a series of Positive Prime numbers

Is there a way to find the sum for a set of positive prime numbers (e.g., the first $25$ prime numbers) without just arbitrarily adding them up shorthand?
4
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1answer
47 views

Recurrence relation in terms of another sequence

How do I solve a recurrence of the form $$nd^{n-1}a_n+a_{n+1}d^{n+1}=b_n$$ for $a_n$, where $b_n$ is another (known) sequence and $d$ is a constant? My only idea was to use a generating function and ...
2
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1answer
26 views

Eulers proof sum of natural numbers

I've to recheck Eulers proof of the sum of the natural numbers, but I dont now exactly what it is? It has something to do with the $\zeta(s)$? Thanks in advance
1
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1answer
31 views

Clever way to simplify sum?

Is there a clever way to rewrite the sum $$\sum_{i=2}^{n} (x_i-x_{i-1})\left(\frac{(x_i-x_{i-1})}{2}-x_i \right) ?$$ I haven't been able to come up with anything useful thus far.
6
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2answers
82 views

Do the sum of all prime reciprocals with the digit $3$ converge or diverge?

$$\frac{1}{3}+\frac{1}{13}+\frac{1}{23}+\frac{1}{31}+\frac{1}{37}+\frac{1}{43}\cdots$$ Intuitively, I feel that this sum converges, but I really don't know why, (or if I am correct). Can I have a ...
0
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0answers
45 views

Question on how to manipulate terms in this expression

sorry for the vague title, i dont know how else to express what i mean with this question. But what i need to do is find out which terms on the RHS of the expression are constants. It is clear that it ...
1
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3answers
31 views

Switching the order of summations of a certain function

I am looking to switch the order of the summations of the following function: $$ \lambda = -\sum_{c=1}^{n-1} \sum_{k=c}^n {k \choose c} \frac{(-1)^k}{k!} f^{k-c}U(-c,k-2c+1,-f)\phi(n,k) $$ I don't ...
0
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0answers
49 views

Finding closed form for this summation

recently i have beeen asking alot of questions about summations, But this one is actually quite interesting: $$ \sum_{j=k}^n j! 2^{k-2j} \left({2j-k-1 \choose j-1} - {2j-k-1 \choose j}\right){n \brack ...
1
vote
3answers
91 views

If the sum of $f(n)$ diverge, then does the sum of $\sqrt{f(n)}$ diverge?

Lets say that $$\sum_{n=a}^\infty f(n)$$ diverges. Does $$\sum_{n=a}^\infty \sqrt{f(n)}$$ necessarily diverge?
1
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2answers
37 views

Expected value and the standard simple regression model

Given the standard simple regression model: $y_i = β_0 + β_1 x_i + u_i$ What is the expected value of the estimator $\hat\beta_1$in terms of $x_i, \beta_0$ and $\beta_1$ when $\hat\beta_1=\sum x_i ...
3
votes
1answer
258 views

Using only the ratio test…

Using only the ratio test, determine whether or not the series: $$\sum_{k=1}^{\infty} a_k\Longrightarrow\sum_{k=1}^{\infty} \frac{k}{5^k}$$ converges, diverges, or yields no conclusion.
1
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1answer
43 views

Find the Sum using bijection

Find the sum of $S=\displaystyle\sum_{i,j,k \ge 0, i+j+k=17} ijk$. I am looking for a solution that uses some bijection. I couldn't find any bijection. I am able to do the problem by other method by ...
2
votes
0answers
46 views

Finding a closed form for this summation

I have been trying to derive a few identities using some bell polynomials and a technique i have come up with and i came across this summation: $$ \rho(n,k) = \sum_{j=0}^k {k \choose j} {\frac{-j}{2} ...
3
votes
2answers
581 views

Summation stuck under radical sign

I am trying to evaluate the following sum, but I'm unable to solve it in any general way. $$S=\sum_{k=1}^n\sqrt{1+\frac{1}{(k)^2}+\frac{1}{(k+1)^2} }$$ How can I do it?
2
votes
1answer
41 views

Why is the average of a sum equal the sum of the averages?

I came across this website showing the proof of the above question in the Expected Value section. However, I do not quite understand why the probability of $xy$ becomes the probability of $x$ (or $y$) ...