A stochastic, or random, process describes the correlation or evolution of random events. It is used to model stock market fluctuations and electronic/audio-visual/biological signals. Among the most well-known stochastic processes are random walks and Brownian motion.

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314 views

Expected value of the distance square

Given two points $X,Y$ on two sides of square $[0,1]\times [0,1]$ ($X:(0,1/2),Y:(1,1/2)$ (PS: My original question is $X,Y$ on opposite of a square, but I think that's not the real case) )and $n$ ...
9
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157 views

Removing deterministic discontinuities from semi-martingales

Let $X:=(X_t)_{0 \le t \le T}$ be a solution of the SDE $$ X_t = X_0 + \int_0^t \sigma(s,X_s) dW_s + \sum_{i=1}^n f_i(X_{t_i^-}) 1_{\{t > t_i\}}$$ where $t_1,\cdots,t_n \in [0,T]$ and $(f_i)_{1 \le ...
7
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127 views

How well can the maximum of a Gaussian process be approximated by a finite-dimensional Gaussian variable?

Consider a compact set $K$ in $\mathbb{R}^p$, and let $W$ be a mean zero continuous Gaussian process on $K$, meaning that $W$ takes its values in the space of continuous functions from $K$ to ...
7
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162 views

Sufficient condition in terms of stopping times for a stochastic process to be a local supermartingale

(Question edited in response to Nate's comment) Let $(X_t)_{t\geq 0}$ be a continuous (or càdlàg), real-valued process, and define stopping times $\tau_{s,a,b}=\inf~ [s,\infty)\cap\{t:X_t\notin ...
6
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356 views

Generated sigma algebra from Brownian Motion

Suppose that we have a Brownian motion and we define the P-augmented filtration by $$\mathcal{F}^W_t:=\sigma(\mathcal{F}^0_t \cup \mathcal{N})$$ where $\mathcal{F}_t^0:=\sigma(W_s;s\le t)$ and ...
6
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323 views

Hölder Continuity of Fractional Brownian Motion

I would like to prove the following theorem: Let $H\in (0,1)$. The fractional Brownian motion $B_H$ admits a version whose sample paths are $a.s.$ Hölder continuous of order strict less than $H$. ...
6
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268 views

Is there a connection between the 3D random walk constant and the partition function?

In thinking about this question, I took a look at Pólya's random walk constants and was struck by the fact that an expression for the constant for a three-dimensional random walk, ...
6
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284 views

An application of the Optional Sampling Theorem

let $S(k), k\geq 0$ a discrete random process. Suppose $S(N)$ is with probability one either 100 or 0 and that $S(0)=50$. Suppose further there is at least a sixty percent probability that the price ...
5
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67 views

Upper bounding a Poisson Process with indicators of exponentials

Define $E_1,E_2,\ldots, E_i,\ldots E_n$ as i.i.d. exponentials with parameter $\lambda$. These define processes on some interval $[0,\delta]$ (think of $\delta$ as very small, it will come into play ...
5
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160 views

Generating a stochastic matrix with a given second dominant eigenvalue

I need a procedure (iterative or otherwise) that, given a positive integer $N$ and a (possibly complex) number $\lambda$ such that $0 < \vert \lambda \vert < 1$, will be able to generate an $N ...
5
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91 views

Percolation and number of phases in the 2D Ising model.

Update. As my previous figure had conceptual mistakes I decided to change the picture to another, more instructive After a long time I came back to try to understand an article on the Ising ...
5
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83 views

Confusion in the proof of properties for $\psi$-irreducibility

Let $P$ be a stochastic kernel on a measurable space $(\mathsf X,\mathfrak B(\mathsf X))$. The kernel $P$ is called $\varphi$-irreducible if for a positive measure $\varphi$ and for all measurable ...
5
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98 views

Representation theorem for continuous process of finite variation

There is a martingale representation theorem If $M$ is a continuous $L^2$-martingale, there is a Brownian motion $B$ and a cadlag adapted function $\sigma$ such that $$ M_t = M_0 + \int_0^t ...
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562 views

1D Random Walk, with different step sizes in each direction.

A walker starts at a defined position greater than $0$, say $A$, and then makes a "decision" to walk either "$b$ steps to the right" or walk "$c$ steps to the left." He will choose the first option ...
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844 views

Monotone class theorem

I have some question about the Monotone Class Theorem and its application. First I state the Theorem: Let $\mathcal{M}:=\{f_\alpha; \alpha \in J\}$ be a set of bounded functions, such that ...
5
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496 views

Ito's lemma and application

Can someone help me apply Ito's lemma to the function $f(t,x,k)$ where t is the time and x,k dimensions where x and k refer to dynamics $dX(t)=\mu(t)dt+\sigma(t)dB(t)$ ...
5
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235 views

Potential theory: discrete-time Markov processes

Recently I've found lecture notes on "Analysis on Graphs" where the potential theory methods were used to study discrete-time, time-reversible Markov chains (i.e. the state space is countable). ...
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49 views

Markov chains and natural filtration

I have the following problem Consider a homogeneous Markov chain $(X_n)$ with countable state set $E$. Suppose that $A$ is a proper subset of $E$ and consider the stopping times $\tau^0=0 $ and ...
4
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136 views

An exercise from Revuz, Yor; equality in distribution of 2 integrals.

Here is the exercise I have been struggling to solve. It is taken from this book by Revuz and Yor: link. Here is the full text of the problem ( Exercise 3.32, chapter 4). Exercise (3.32). Let $B$ and ...
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93 views

Determine if this is a Martingale

I am trying to check if the process $S_t$ is a martingale, where $\mathrm dS_t = \frac{I_{S_t > 0}}{S_t} \mathrm dW_t$, $S_0 = 1$. We know that $S_t$ is a local martingale because if we stop it ...
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48 views

2-D exponential functional brownian motion

I'm looking for the distribution of $X = \int_0^T e^{-W_t} dt \int_0^T e^{W_t}dt$ and $Y = \frac{\int_0^T e^{-W_t} dt}{ \int_0^T e^{W_t}dt}$ (where $W_t$ is a standard brownian motion) On most ...
4
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114 views

Time scaling of Brownian motion

Let $(B_t)_{t\geq 0}$ be a standard Brownian motion and $A_t$ be an increasing continuous process adapted to the filtration generated by the Brownian Motion and $A_0 = 0$. I am trying to prove ...
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207 views

How to prove Brownian motion is Gaussian Process?

I'm reading Bernt Oksendal's "Stochastic Differential Equations" and this is one of the proof that I'm totally lost. This is from Ch2.2, page 12-13 (sixth edition). First, Brownian motion is ...
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129 views

Characterization of the law of a stochastic process by its finite dimensional distributions

Let $(\Omega,\mathcal{A},\mathbb{P})$ a probability space. Let $(X_t)_{t \in [0,T]}$, $(Y_t)_{t \in [0,T]}$ (real-valued) centered Gaussian processes such that the finite dimensional distributions ...
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37 views

Intuition on continuty in probability/mean square of a process

How to explain that a process is continuous in probability? I know the definition, but what does it mean? The same with continuity in mean square.
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299 views

Use of Martingale Representation Theorem

I am working on the following problem, and struggling with it. Can anyone help? Let $$H=e^{\int_0^T B_s\,ds}$$ where $T>0$. Show first $E[H^2]<\infty$. Then find an adapted process ...
4
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649 views

Different versions of functional central limit theorem (aka Donsker theorem)?

I have seen several versions of functional central limit theorem (see the end of this post). I am confused, and hope someone could help to clarify their relations and differences. For example, I am ...
4
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171 views

Brownian motion integral

Let $(B_t)$ be a standard Brownian motion, $f$ a continuous function and $X_t = \int_0^t f(s)B_s ds$. I was able to prove that $(X_t)$ is a Gaussian process with zero mean and trying to find the ...
4
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255 views

Can infinitesimal generator be defined by the time-inhomogeneous stochastic process?

The following is the definition of infinitesimal generator from Oksendal. Let $\{X_t,t\in[0,T]\}$ be a time-homogeneous It\^o diffusion in $\mathbb{R}^d$. The $\textit{infinitesimal generator}$ ...
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145 views

Calculating $\mathbb{E}[\int_0^T N_{t-} dS_t]$ - an expectation of a simple stochastic integral.

I came across some nasty stochastic integral of which I'd like to calculate the expected value" $\mathbb{E}[\int_0^T N_{t-} dS_t]$ where $N_t$ is a Poisson process and $S_t$ is, say, a geometric ...
4
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108 views

Harmonic measure or harmonic kernel

In the theory of discrete-time stochastic processes on a measurable space $(\mathscr X,\mathscr B(\mathscr X))$ one usually starts with a Markov kernel $$ P:\mathscr X\times \mathscr B(\mathscr ...
4
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691 views

First order variation and total variation of a function/stochastic process

The notions of first-order variation and total variation of a function or a stochastic process are equated in this book. However, I found their definitions different from two other sources: In ...
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167 views

Observable and unobservable parameters of stochastic processes

Consider the following diffusion process $$ dX_t = \mu\,dt+\sigma(t,X_t)\,dW_t $$ where $X,W$ are 1-dimensional and. Is it true that given a history $(X_s,s\leq t)$ for each $s< t$ one can find ...
3
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0answers
32 views

Why a positive recurrent Markov chain implies positive limiting probability?

Let $X=\{X_0,X_1,\ldots\}$ be an irreducible, positive recurrent, and aperiodic Markov chain with the state space $S=\{0,1,2,\ldots\}$ then how do we show that the probability $$ ...
3
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54 views

Brownian Motion and stochastic integration on the complete real line

I'm struggling to understand stochastic integration over intervals containing zero, i.e. integrals of the form $\int_{a}^{b} X_s \, d B_s$ where $-\infty \leq a < b \leq \infty$, $(X_t)_{t \in ...
3
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23 views

Ultrametric space of stochastic filtration

Let $\Omega$ be an arbitrary set and $(\mathscr F_t)_{t\in \Bbb R_+}$ be a non-decresing sequence of $\sigma$-algebras on $\Omega$ such that any subset of $\Omega$ is contained is some of them, that ...
3
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32 views

Transition kernel that is not Markov

Let $(X,\mathcal{F})$ and $(Y,\mathcal{G})$ be two measurable space. A transition kernel $K$ is a function $K : X \times \mathcal{G} \to \overline{\mathbb{R}}_+$ suche that $K(\cdot,B)$ is measurable ...
3
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0answers
69 views

Multipe Ito Integrals

Im working on a Lemma 10.8 in the Book "Numerical Solution of Stochastic Differential Equations by Kloeden And Platen" I have been stuck on one point. Can somebody help me to understand how he moved ...
3
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0answers
18 views

Existence of increasing modification

I have the following, seemingly simple question: Consider a stochastic process $(X_t)$ satisfying $X_t\le X_s$ a.s. for all $t\le s.$ My question is: Does there exist a modification $\tilde{X}$ of ...
3
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0answers
60 views

determine type of probability distribution

let us consider following model $$y(t)=A_1 \sin(\omega_1 t+\phi_1) + A_2 \sin(\omega_2 t+\phi_2) + A_3 \sin(\omega_3 t+\phi_3)+ \ldots +A_p \sin(\omega_p t+\phi_p)+z(t)$$ we have three parameter ...
3
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0answers
17 views

Continuity in $x$ of $E^x \int_0^{\tau} f(X_t)dt$

Suppose I have a stochastic diffusion $X$. I am studying an expression of the form $u(x):=E^x\int_0^\tau f(X_t)dt$ where $\tau$ is the exit time of $X$ from my bounded open domain $D$. I am also ...
3
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51 views

Invariant measure of Euler-Maruyama Discretisation of an Ito diffusion

Let $(X_t)_{t \geq 0}$ be a diffusion process with dynamics governed by the stochastic differential equation \begin{equation} dX_t = b(X_t)dt + \sigma(X_t)dW_t, ~~ X_0 = x_0, \end{equation} where ...
3
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0answers
45 views

Conditional expectation and coupled set of ODEs

How to find a coupled set of ODEs and initial conditions for the deterministic functions $a$ and $b$ such that $$\mathbb{E}\left[e^{-\int_{t}^{T} W^2(u)du} | \mathcal{F(t)}\right] = e^{-a(T-t) - ...
3
votes
0answers
70 views

Measurability of one set of measures

Let $X,Y$ be a standard Borel spaces (a Borel subset of a complete separable metric space), and let $\mathcal B(X),\mathcal P(X)$ denote collection of Borel sets and Borel probability measures on $X$ ...
3
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121 views

Levy's extension of the Borel-Cantelli Lemmas

Following is the statement and proof of Levy's extension of the Borel-Cantelli Lemmas, as given in Williams' "Probability with Martingales" (1991), in section 12.15 on page 124. I understand most of ...
3
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0answers
76 views

Showing Measurability of empirical process (with respect to ball measurability)

I'm currently working on a problem in a certain proof which i do not fully comprehend, so i'm asking here to hopefully get some help for understanding :-) The situation of the problem is the ...
3
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42 views

Is a local martingale which is nonnegative at a deterministic time, nonnegative.

Assume $M$ is a continuous, local martingale s.t. for a single given $T$ we have $M(T)\geq 0$ and $P(M(T)>0)>0$. Can we then deduce $M(t)\geq 0$ for $t\leq T$? I'm trying to use the good old ...
3
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0answers
70 views

Absolute continuity of quadratic variation of continuous local martingales

I am interested to know if there are any simple sufficient conditions on continuous local martingale to have absolutely continuous quadratic variation. In general , we know only that quadratic ...
3
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0answers
42 views

When is a continuous path stochastic process be representable as diffusion or Ito process?

When can a continuous path (Markovian) stochastic process in one dimension be represented as an Ito or a diffusion process? What are the examples when it can not be?
3
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0answers
41 views

Merton's Problem Stochastic Differential Equation

Solve the following numerical case of Merton's optimal portfolio selection problem: find an optimal policy function $(s, y) \mapsto u(s, y)$ such that for the Ito diusion determined by $dX_t =X_t(u(t, ...