A stochastic, or random, process describes the correlation or evolution of random events. It is used to model stock market fluctuations and electronic/audio-visual/biological signals. Among the most well-known stochastic processes are random walks and Brownian motion.

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integrability condition stochastic process

Consider the finite time interval $[0,T]$ and the stochastic process $(X(t); t\leq s)$ Can the integral \begin{align} \int_{0}^{T}X(s)ds \end{align} de defined if the stochastic process $X$ is not ...
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34 views

Where do we encounter sequence of infinite events of which we would like to study probabilities?

I have come across sequence of functions and numbers in the context of approximation theory and understand that a lot of theory of functional analysis came out with the idea to approximate solutions ...
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119 views

Stopped sigma-algebra for a counting process

let $(\Omega, \mathcal{A}, P)$ be a probability space and $(N_t)_{t \geq 0}$ a right-continuous counting process with jumps of size 1, $N_0 = 0$ and canonical filtration $\mathcal{F}_t := \sigma( N_u \...
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1answer
83 views

Problem with understading “mixed” integration

Using standard notation: $$dX_t=b(t,X_t)dt+\sigma(t,X_t)dW_t, \:\:X_0=x \tag{1}$$ Now in my script it is said that if we integrate both sides, we get: $$X_t=x+\int_0^t b(s,X_s)ds+\int_0^t\sigma(s,X_s)...
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117 views

balls in bins — waiting time until $k$ bins are occupied

Consider the classic balls in bins problem: we throw balls one by one into $n$ bins independently and uniformly. Define $\tau(k)$ for $1 \le k \le n$ to be the number of balls we have thrown until $k$ ...
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245 views

Stochastically continuous but a.s. discontiuous process

This is a homework question so no answers please The problem is: Find a process $X_{t}$ s.t. $\forall t_{0}\geq 0$ and $\varepsilon>0$ we have $lim_{n\to \infty}P(|X_{t_{0}}-X_{t_{n}}|>\...
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1answer
95 views

Distribution of hitting position of line by brownian motion.

What is known about the distribution of the hitting position of a line by a 2d brownian motion? I've tried to make some simulations of a 2d brownian motion where every computational step has a ...
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1answer
98 views

Brownian motion - Hölder continuity

Let $B$ stand for a Brownian motion on a finite interval $[0,1]$. If I am not wrong, I think that there exists a positive constant $c$, such that almost surely, for $h$ small enough , for all $0< t ...
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88 views

Extension of martingale representation theorem.

It seems that the proof I am reading of the Martingale Representation Theorem, "A square integrable RCLL martingale which is adapted to the augmented filtration of a Brownian Motion must be an Ito ...
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1answer
54 views

Square integrable stochastic process

Suppose that for a stochastic process we have \begin{align} \mathbb{E}\left[\int_{0}^{T}X^{2}(t)dt \right]<\infty \end{align} where $T<\infty$. Does it holds that $|X(t)|<M$, where $M$ ...
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30 views

Dolphin in a pool - using Kolmogorov's forward equations

Problem A dolphin swims between 3 different pools, A B and C. The time is spend in each pool, before going to the next one, is Exp(1/2). The possible ways for it to travel is A to B. B to C. C ...
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119 views

Is this a Markov chain? [duplicate]

Let $\{\xi_n \}_{n \geq 1}$ be i.i.d random variables taking values on $\mathbb{Z}$. Let $\xi_0 = 0$. $S_n = \sum\limits_{i=1}^{n} \xi_i,$ where $S_0=0$ $Y_n = \sum\limits_{i=0}^{n} S_i$. My ...
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1answer
39 views

$\forall p>0$ we get $\displaystyle \lim_{n\to \infty} n^{a_{p}}\sum _{i=0}^{n}|B_{\frac{i+1}{n}}-B_{\frac{i}{n}}|^{p}=c_{p}$

This is a Homework question, so please do not answer it. Find real constants $a_{p},c_{p}$ s.t. $\forall p>0$ we get $\displaystyle \lim_{n\to \infty} n^{a_{p}}\sum _{i=0}^{n}|B_{\frac{i+1}{n}}-...
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1answer
193 views

Mean exit time / first passage time for a general symmetric Markov chain

Suppose I have a Markov chain as depicted in the following figure: where $N$ is even. State 0 and $N$ are the two sinks of the chain. The transition probabilities have the following property: $g_{N/...
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2answers
127 views

Doob's decomposition and submartingale with bounded increments

Let $(X_n)_{n \geq 0}$ be a submartingale defined on some filtered probability space $(\Omega, \mathcal{F}, ({\mathcal{F}}_n)_{n \geq 0}, \mathbb{P})$. It is a standard fact that $X_n = X_0 + M_n + ...
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1answer
136 views

Application of martingale convergence theorem

I am struggling with this question: Let $(X_n : n \geq 1)$ be a zero mean martingale in $L^2$. Show that, for $\lambda >0$, \begin{equation} \mathbb{P} \bigg( \max_{1 \leq k \leq n} X_k \geq \...
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1answer
116 views

How to check if a given Markov chain is positive recurrent.

I'm trying to solve a problem which is related to my research, and I have to check whether this infinite-state Markov chain is positive recurrent or not. Suppose the Markov chain I have has state 0, ...
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66 views

Locate proof of Second Fundamental Theorem of Asset Pricing

Where can I find a $\textbf{rigorous}$ proof of the Second Fundamental Theorem of Asset Pricing. That is, A market is complete if and only if it has a unique risk neutral measure. Please do not ...
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66 views

Is random walk on half-line a martingale?

Let $X_n$ denote a random walk on $\mathbb Z^+$ starting at $0$. Is it a martingale? In Probability with Martingales by David Williams on page 99 it is claimed that it is, but I cannot understand ...
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62 views

Joint Quadratic variation

Let $X,Y$ be square integrable Right continuous martingales. If $Z$ is the total variation of $\langle X,Y\rangle$, how can I show that $$Z \leq \frac{1}{2}[\langle X\rangle + \langle Y\rangle].$$ I ...
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1answer
65 views

Positivity of a stochastic process

I want to simulate the paths of a stochastic process $$ dS_t = r S_t dt + \sigma S_t dW_t$$ Using the Forward Euler method, we can write: $$ S_{n+1} = (1 + r \Delta t_n + \sigma \Delta W_{n}) S_n $$ ...
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99 views

Jumping times of a Lévy Process

If one has a Levy-process, are the times when the process has a jump of size exceeding a positive $\varepsilon$ actually stopping times w.r.t. the canonical filtration? In more detail: Let $X=(X_t)_{...
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748 views

What is Transition intensity?

What do we eaxctly mean by the term transition intensity and how is it different from transition probability? Transition Intensity = lim dt-0 d/dt (dtQx+t/dt) where dtQx+t= P(person in the dead ...
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21 views

On the optima of probabilistic bounding functions

I have a function $f(x)$ for which finding the optimum (maximum) appears to be analytically intractable and numerically difficult. I have simple expressions for upper and lower bounds on this ...
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54 views

Conditional Expected Value of Occurrence Time in Stochastic Process

I have a stochastic process defined by the intensity function $\lambda(t:F_t)$ where $t$ is time and $F_t$ is the filtration process. The stochastic process is self-exciting and models the occurrence ...
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2answers
184 views

Proving integrability of a random variable involving stopping times

Let $X_1, X_2,...$ be i.i.d integrable random variables in $\mathbb{R}$ with $\mathbb{E}[X_i] =0$ and $\mathbb{P} (X_i >0) >0$. Let $x>0$, $S_0 = x$, and $S_n= x + \sum_{i=1}^{n} X_i $. For ...
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57 views

Minimum of a random variable sequence

$S_{n}$ model the price of a financial asset. The recurrence relation is given by: $$ S_{n+1} = (1 + r\Delta t_{n} + \Delta W_{n})S_{n}, n = 0, \dots, N $$ where $\Delta W$ has a normal ...
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1answer
108 views

Simple question about the definition of Brownian motion

I have a question concerning the definiton of Brownian motion. Usually (e.g. on Wikipdia) one demands a brownian motion $\lbrace B_t\rbrace_{t\in[0,\infty)}$ to satisfy the following condition: $\...
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1answer
40 views

Adapted and backward adapted?

I understand the following: Consider a probability space $(\Omega, \mathcal{A},P)$ and a Brownian motion $B=\{B_t, t\in [0,1]\}$ on this space and denote $\mathcal{F}:=(\mathcal{F}_t)_{t\in [0,1]}$ ...
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263 views

Is a deterministic process adapted?

Let $B$ be a standard Brownian motion on a probability Space $(\Omega, \mathcal{F}, P)$ and let $\mathbb F:=(\mathcal{F}_t)_{t\in [0,T]}$ denote the natural filtration, i.e. $\mathcal{F}_t = \sigma(...
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1answer
73 views

Intuition underlying stopped martingales

Let $X$ be a martingale and $T$ a stopping time. Define the stopped martingale $X_{\min\{T,n\}}$. What is the intuition underlying this process? It is quite confusing here. $X$ is random and $T$ is ...
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398 views

Derivation of Differential Chapman-Kolmogorov equation, Kramers-Moyal expansion

I'm stuck with the derivation of the differential Chapman-Kolmogorov equation provided in Gardiner 1985, section 3.4. This is supposed to be some middle ground between the master equation and the ...
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1answer
62 views

independent increments property implies Markov property

Let $\{X_t\}_{t\in\mathbb R^+}$ be a stochastic process with values in $\mathbb R$. Suppose that $\{X_t\}$ has independent increments, namely for every $t_1<t_2<\ldots<t_k$ the random ...
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141 views

Ito formula for jump proccess

I have just learned Ito fomula for jump processes but I have still not understood it well. Assume that I have $dS_r=S_{t^-}\mu+S_{t^-}\sigma dB_t +S_{t^-}\int_{\mathbb{R}^+}(y-1)N(dt,dy), \;\; 0\leq ...
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1answer
85 views

An inequality in martingale

Suppose $X_n$ is a supermartingale,for $\lambda>0$ ,we have the following inequality: $$\lambda\mathbb{P}(\inf_{n\leq k}X_n\leq-\lambda)\leq\int_{[\inf_{n\leq k }X_n\leq -\lambda]}(-X_k) \mathbb{dP}...
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238 views

Expectation of Square of Stopping Time

Let $B_t$ be standard Brownian motion and $a < 0 < b$. Define stopping time $T$ as follows. $$T = \min \{t \geq 0: B_t \in \{a, b\} \}.$$ The expectation of $T$ is $\mathbb ET = |a|b$ and can be ...
2
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1answer
142 views

Solve $dX_t = (\sqrt{1+X_t^2} + \frac{1}{2}X_t) \, dt + \sqrt{1+X_t^2} \, dW_t$ explicitly

Solve explicitly the 1-dimensional equation: $dX_t = (\sqrt{1+X_t^2} + \frac{1}{2}X_t)dt + \sqrt{1+X_t^2}dW_t$ I have hopelessly been guessing solutions to this. Does anyone know how to solve this ...
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1answer
69 views

Markov processes on function spaces

Is there any reference on Continuous time Markov process whose state space is infinite dimensional function spaces, such as the space of continuous functions $C(R^d)$? It seems Dirichlet Form is a ...
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1answer
77 views

Markov Chains : Can anything be said about what happens in between two transition?

In time homogeneous discrete Markov chains we take a set period for a single transition. In examples we see sometimes depending on the examples the transition period being a a month a week etc. I'm ...
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1answer
87 views

Intuition in Random walk

Suppose $X_i$ are i.i.d. r.v. $S_n=X_1+\cdots+X_n$ is random walk. Why $\mathcal{F}_n =\sigma(X_1,\cdots,X_n)$ are called the information known at time n? I think We only know the measurability of ...
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1answer
32 views

Solve parameter from stochastic integral

how can I solve $\rho$ from the following: $\int_0^T dV_t = \int_0^T \kappa (\theta - V_t) dt + \int_0^T \sigma \rho \sqrt{V_t} dW_t + \int_0^T \sigma \sqrt{1-\rho^2} \sqrt{V_t} dZ_t$, where $W_t$ ...
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1answer
80 views

Verifying stopping times…

Let $m$ be a natural number, $$g_m:=\sup\left\{ {n\leq m: S_n\leq 0}\right\}$$ and $$d_m:=\inf\left\{ {n\geq m: S_n \leq 0}\right\}$$ I have to check if they are are stopping times. It's still a new ...
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2answers
566 views

Covariance of Ornstein - Uhlenbeck Process

I'm considering the Ornstein - Uhlenbeck process $ X(t)=x_{\infty}+e^{-at}(x_{0}-x_{\infty})+b \int_{0}^{t} e^{-a(t-s)} dW(s)$ where $a, b > 0 $ are given constants. I used the Itô Isometry to ...
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1answer
240 views

Random process with stationary independent increments determined by first order distribution?

It says in my random processes book that if a random process $X_t$ with stationary independent increments has value $0$ at the start ($X_0 = 0$) then it is completely determined by it's first order ...
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1answer
155 views

Problem about Random walk and Stopping time.

Here is an example in "Probability with Martingales" My questions are: (1)Does equation (a) hold for $T=\infty$? (2)The equation:$$\mathbb{E}M_T^\theta=1=\mathbb{E}[(sech \theta)^Te ^\...
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1answer
36 views

In an irreducible, aperiodic, null-recurrent Markov chain holds $\sum_n p_{ij}^{(n)} = \infty$

My lecture notes state the following theorem: Theorem 2. Let $(X_n)$ be an irreducible, aperiodic, null-recurrent Markov chain. Then $$\forall i,j \in S : p_{ij}^{(n)}\to 0 \text{ and } \sum_n p_{...
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32 views

Is a discrete random process issued from a sampled continuous ergodic WSS process also ergodic?

I have a continuous time process $\{X_t,t\in\mathbb{R}\}$ that is WSS and ergodic for the 1st and 2nd moments. I create a random discrete process $\{Y_n,n\in\mathbb{N}\}=\{X_t,t=nT\}$ by discretizing ...
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1answer
85 views

Integrating probabilities

My following problem is of general nature, here is an example to illustrate it. For example let $\left(\xi_i\right)_{i \geq 1}$ be independent and identically Exp(1) distributed random variables. We ...
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1answer
48 views

Poisson Process Suitable Scenarios

I have a couple of doubts about if these scenarios are suitable to be modeled as a Poisson process. I will like to have your views and arguments why. Packets are lost due to packet overflow in the ...
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1answer
178 views

A Markov Chain Problem.(Change the color of ball)

There are $n$ different color balls in a box. Take two balls in turns, and change color of the second ball to the first. (This is one operation). Let $k$ be the (random) number of operations needed to ...