A stochastic, or random, process describes the correlation or evolution of random events. It is used to model stock market fluctuations and electronic/audio-visual/biological signals. Among the most well-known stochastic processes are random walks and Brownian motion.

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343 views

Probability distribution of sign changes in Brownian motion

Let us consider a 1d Brownian motion. Displacements in space will be positive or negative and this is a random variable $U(t)$ that characterizes a random process and that can take just the values ...
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0answers
94 views

Differential equation with random variable

How can I derive analytically or compute numerically the solution to following differential equation $$ dy/dt = y\cdot X\cdot (y\cdot X - g(y,X))\cdot X $$ where X is a random variable (e.g. from a ...
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1answer
333 views

Sum of 2 Brownian motions

Let's say, that $B_t$, $t\geq0$ is standard Brownian motion (Wiener process). Let's define process $$X_t=B_t+B_{t^2}\text{, }t\geq0$$ I need to find its variance, covariance, find out if it's ...
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1answer
37 views

Relation between autocorrelation and mean of a stochastic process

It is said that if the autocorrelation approaches zero as $\tau$ tends to zero, then the mean of the stochastic process is also zero. I am having trouble understanding the above concept. Say we have ...
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1answer
513 views

Scalar product of Gaussian process

Assume that $n(t)$ is a White Gaussian Noise (WGN) process with $E[n(t)]=0$, $E[n(t)^2]=\sigma^2$ and $x(t)$ a deterministic function defined in $[0,T]$. How can I compute from first principles the ...
0
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1answer
123 views

Determining computational complexity of stochastic processes

I have an program which implements a Markov chain Monte Carlo process on a system of N bits, stopping when the process converges. Let's use T to denote the average number of steps made by the Markov ...
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3answers
3k views

Why did my friend lose all his money?

Not sure if this is a question for math.se or stats.se, but here we go: Our MUD (Multi-User-Dungeon, a sort of textbased world of warcraft) has a casino where players can play a simple roulette. My ...
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5answers
3k views

Good introductory book for Markov processes

Which is a good introductory book for Markov chains and Markov processes? Thank you.
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5answers
7k views

Convergence of $np(n)$ where $p(n)=\sum_{j=\lceil n/2\rceil}^{n-1} {p(j)\over j}$

Some years ago I was interested in the following Markov chain whose state space is the positive integers. The chain begins at state "1", and from state "n" the chain next jumps to a state uniformly ...
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1answer
2k views

What is the Kolmogorov Extension Theorem good for?

The Kolmogorov Extension Theorem says, essentially, that one can get a process on $\mathbb{R}^T$ for $T$ being an arbitrary, non-empty index set, by specifying all finite dimensional distributions in ...
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3answers
448 views

Is $(B_{t}+t)^{2}$ a Markov process?

Let $B_{t}$ be a Brownian motion relative to a filtration $F_{t}$, is $(B_{t}+t)^{2}$ a Markov process? Thanks!
7
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1answer
880 views

What are some open research problems in Stochastic Processes?

I was wondering, what are some of the open problems in the domain of Stochastic Processes. By Stochastic Processes. Any examples or recent papers or similar would be appreciated. The motivation for ...
7
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3answers
858 views

Criteria for being a true martingale

Could you kindly list here all the criteria you know which guarantee that a continuous local martingale is in fact a true martingale? Which of these are valid for a general local martingale (non ...
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582 views

Relation of Brownian Motion to Helmholtz Equation

one can obtain solutions to the Laplace equation $$\Delta\psi(x) = 0$$ or even for the Poisson equation $\Delta\psi(x)=\varphi(x)$ in a Dirichlet boundary value problem using a random-walk approach, ...
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1answer
1k views

Concept of Random Walk

Reading the Wikipedia page for Random Walk, I was wondering what is the definition for a general random walk as a random process, so that all the concepts such as random walk on $\mathbb{Z}^d$, ...
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288 views

Definition of the Brownian motion

The way I understood the definition of a Brownian motion $B_t$ in $\mathbb R$ is that it consists of two parts: We first define the finite-dimensional distributions $$ ...
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167 views

Is there a standard proof for $\mathbb P(S^X_n\text{ hits }A\text{ before }B) >\mathbb P(S^Y_n\text{ hits }A\text{ before }B)$?

Let $X_i$ and $Y_i$ be two continuous random variables on $\mathbb{R}$ having distribution functions $F$ and $G$, respectively satisfying $G(y)>F(y)$ for all $y$. Let futhermore $S^X_n=\sum_{i=1}^n ...
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2k views

The Laplace transform of the first hitting time of Brownian motion

Let $B_t$ be the standard Brownian motion process, $a > 0$, and let $H_a = \inf \{ t : B_t > a \}$ be a stopping time. I want to show that the Laplace transform of $H_a$ is ...
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352 views

Limit of a Wiener integral

How to show that $$ \lim _{\alpha \rightarrow \infty } \sup_{t \in \left [0,T \right]} \left | e^{-\alpha t} \int _ 0 ^t e^{\alpha s} ~ dB_s \right | =0, \ \ \text{a.e.} $$ where $\left (B_s ...
5
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1answer
187 views

Properties of Markov chains

We covered Markov chains in class and after going through the details, I still have a few questions. (I encourage you to give short answers to the question, as this may become very cumbersome ...
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4answers
2k views

What is more elementary than: Introduction to Stochastic Processes by Lawler

I have trouble to reading this book! What book is more elementary/preliminary than this book: Introduction to Stochastic Processes by Lawler
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1answer
907 views

Quadratic variation of Brownian motion and almost-sure convergence

Say that $W(t)$ is a Brownian motion. The quadratic variation $[W,W](t)$ is defined in terms of a partition $\Pi = \{0 = t_0 < t_1 < \cdots < t_n = t\}$ by $$ \begin{split} [W,W](t) &= ...
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3answers
495 views

Why is stopping time defined as a random variable?

I've been given a crash course in stochastic processes and martingales for the purposes of a semester project on them. The guy I'm working with has been, I feel, a little vague in the definition of ...
5
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1answer
298 views

$\int_0^tB_s^2\ dB_s$ - Gaussian Process and independent increments?

For $(B_t)_{t\ge0}$ a standard Brownian motion (Wiener process) define the stochastic process $X_t:=\int_0^tB_s^2\ dB_s$. I am currently trying to assess if $(X_t)_{t\ge0}$ is a Gaussian process and ...
4
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1answer
268 views

Solution to the stochastic differential equation

Let $X_o=x$, $dX_t=\frac{1}{X_t}dt+X_tdW_t$, $W_t$ is a brownian motion i am thinking of trying $Y_t=\frac{X_t^2}{2}$ and apply ito's lemma on $Y_t$
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2answers
231 views

Comparing the expected stopping times of two stochastically ordered random processes (Prove or give a counterexample for the two claims)

Information: a-) $X$ and $Y$ are two continuous random variables on $\mathbb{R}$ having continuous distribution functions $F$ and $G$ with $G(y)\geq F(y)$ for all $y$. b-) $S^X_n=\sum_{i=1}^n X_i$, ...
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2answers
214 views

A planar Brownian motion has area zero

I'm looking for proofs of Paul Lévy's theorem that a planar Brownian motion has Lebesgue measure $0$. I know of only two proofs: one is in Lévy's original paper (Théorème 12, p. 532) and the other is ...
6
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1answer
374 views

Bounds for submartingale

Let $x$ be a positive number and $X_n$ be real-valued submartingale such that $X_0 = x$. I am interested in upper bounds on probability $$ \psi(x) = \mathsf{P}_x\left\{\inf\limits_{n\geq 0}X_n \leq ...
4
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1answer
102 views

How to find $\mathbb{E}[X\mid\min(X,Y)]$?

Say I have two independent variables $X$ and $Y$ that are exponentially distributed with respective rates $\lambda_X$ and $\lambda_Y$. How do I compute $\mathbb{E}[X\mid \min\{X,Y\}]$?
4
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1answer
150 views

“Continuity” of stochastic integral wrt Brownian motion

I'd like to prove a nice property of a stochastic integral with respect to Brownian motion. Let $(H_t)_{t\geq0}$ be a progressive and bounded process that is continuous at $0$ and $B$ a standard ...
2
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1answer
122 views

Proving that $T_t := S_t -\left| x \right| -\frac {n-1}{2} \int _0 ^t \frac {1}{S_u}~du$ is a brownian motion

Consider $B=(B_t)_{t\geq 0}$ $\mathcal F_t$ - brownian motion in $\mathbb R ^n, \ (n\geq 2)$ starting at zero, in a probability space $(\Omega, \mathcal F, (\mathcal F_t)_{t\geq 0}, \mathbb P)$. ...
2
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1answer
3k views

Martingale that is not a Markov process

1. On the internet, it is suggested that $$ X_t=\left(\int_0^t X_s \;ds\right)\;dW_{t} $$ is a martingale, but not a Markov process. I understand that the process $$ I_t(C)=\int_0^t C_s \; dW_s$$ ...
2
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1answer
811 views

Distribution of Brownian motion

How would I go about finding the distribution of $B(u) + B(u+v)$ where $u+v > u$? I know that both $B(u)$ and $B(u+v)$ are normal random variables. The sum of two normal random variables is also ...
2
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1answer
435 views

Ruin-time in Gambler's Ruins

Could someone give me some tips? Let $e_1,e_2,\dots$ be iid normal mean 0 variance 1. Let $X_t := e_1+\cdots+e_t$, for $t=1,2,\dots$ and $X_0 := 0$. (So we have a discrete-time random walk whose ...
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1answer
220 views

If $P$ is a regular transition probability matrix then $P^{n^2}$ has no zero element

A transition probability matrix $P\in M_{n\times n}$ is regular if for some $k$ the matrix $P^k$ has all of its elements strictly positive. I read that this can be tested by using the following ...
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2answers
2k views

First exit time for Brownian motion without drift

I am dealing with the simulation of particles exhibiting Brownian motion without drift, currently by updating the position in given time steps $\Delta t$ by random displacement in each direction drawn ...
8
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1answer
373 views

Throwing balls into $b$ buckets: when does some bucket overflow size $s$?

Suppose you throw balls one-by-one into $b$ buckets, uniformly at random. At what time does the size of some (any) bucket exceed size $s$? That is, consider the following random process. At each of ...
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2answers
515 views

Sobolev meets Wiener

Even though the Wiener process (Brownian motion) is continuous, it has no derivative at any point. Does it at least have weak derivatives?
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0answers
299 views

Hölder Continuity of Fractional Brownian Motion

I would like to prove the following theorem: Let $H\in (0,1)$. The fractional Brownian motion $B_H$ admits a version whose sample paths are $a.s.$ Hölder continuous of order strict less than $H$. ...
6
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1answer
804 views

Maximum Likelihood Estimation of an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process

I am wondering whether an analytical expression of the maximum likelihood estimates of an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is available. The setup is the following: Consider a one-dimensional ...
6
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1answer
324 views

Does Itō isometry have different versions?

Itō isometry from Wikipedia: Let $W : [0, T] \times \Omega \to \mathbb{R}$ denote the canonical real-valued Wiener process defined up to time $T > 0$, and let $X : [0, T] \times \Omega \to ...
6
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1answer
395 views

Doob-like inequality

I am not sure that this is a proper question. I am looking for the verification of the proof rather than for an answer. There is one inequality I use pretty often and I would like to be sure that it ...
6
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3answers
3k views

Distribution of compound Poisson process

Suppose a compound Poisson process is defined as $X_{t} = \sum_{n=1}^{N_t} Y_n$, where $\{Y_n\}$ are i.i.d. with some distribution $F_Y$, and $(N_t)$ is a Poisson process with parameter $\alpha$ and ...
5
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1answer
108 views

recurrence criterion for random-walk like Markov chain

Suppose we have a random-walk like Markov chain, i.e. state space is the set of all integers from $-\infty$ to $\infty$, the transition probability $P_{ij}$ is nonzero only when $j=i+1$ or $j=i-1$. ...
5
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2answers
583 views

Decomposition of semimartingales

From Kal97, pg. 446: Theorem 23.14 Any semimartingale $X$ has an a.s. unique decomposition $X=X_0 + X^c + X^d$ where $X^c$ is a continuous local martingale with $X_0^c=0$ and $X^d$ is a purely ...
4
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1answer
211 views

Does every continuous time minimal Markov chain have the Feller property?

Consider a Q-matrix on a countable state space. (A Q-matrix is a matrix whose rows sum up to $0$, with nonpositive finite diagonal entries and nonnegative offdiagonal entries). As explained for ...
4
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1answer
559 views

Brownian hitting time of a _very_ simple linear boundary

I realize that general results on the hitting times of a curve are practically nonexistant, but I am hoping that someone can string together a sequence of tricks to tell me what $$ \Pr\left( ...
4
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3answers
227 views

Diverging random walk

I have a process $X_{n+1} = X_n\xi_n$ where $\xi_n\sim\mathcal N(1,1)$ and $\xi_n$ is independent of $X_n$. I need to prove that if $X_0\neq0$ then $$ \mathsf P\{|X_n|>1\text{ for some }n\geq0\} = ...
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1answer
712 views

Questions about geometric distribution

I have some trouble understanding the record value for a sequence of i.i.d. random variables of geometric distribution. Following quotation is from Univariate discrete distributions By Norman Lloyd ...
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1answer
70 views

When are stable continuous time Markov chains Feller? Always?

This is a question is similar to this 2 year-old one that never got answered (truthfully it's pretty much the same question except that I'm adding a bit more detail and the assumption that the $Q$ ...