Stochastic calculus is a branch of mathematics that operates on stochastic processes. It allows a consistent theory of integration to be defined for integrals of stochastic processes with respect to stochastic processes. It is used to model systems that behave randomly.

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Ito integral of average of the square of a Wiener signal?

How do we evaluate the average of the square of a Wiener signal? Standard case: Typically, the signal average is $S(t)=\frac{1}{T}\int_{0}^{T}s(t)dt$, where we can write the integral in Ito form $S(...
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Product of deterministic function and Ito process

In a case such as the Cox-Ingersoll-Ross where $$ \mathrm{d}{R\left(t\right)}=\left(\alpha-\beta R\left(t\right)\right)\mathrm{d}{t}+\sigma\sqrt{R\left(t\right)}\mathrm{d}{W\left(t\right)}, $$ is it ...
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39 views

Ito's formula application

Let $ \alpha, \beta \in R$ and define $$ N(t)=e^{\beta t} \cos(\alpha W (t)) $$ I need to use Ito formula to compute $dN(t)$ Suppose $\alpha$ is fixed. What should $\beta$ be so that $N$ is a ...
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35 views

Yet another application of Ito's formula

Question : Let $dW^4(t) $ be the sum of an ordinary integral with respect to time and an Ito integral. Where $W^4(t)$ are standard Brownian motion. I am trying to apply Ito's formula to this, say ...
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49 views

SDE Solution: Hull-White extension of Vasicek model

I am trying to figure out the particular ansatz (if that's all there is) for the solution to the SDE: $ dr_t = [v_t - ar_t]dt + \sigma dW_t, $ where $a$ is constant and $v,t$ are, potentially, time-...
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23 views

Use of Itô isometry for correlation calculation

When calculating the covariance of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, the Wikipedia article applies implicitly the Itô isometry with the fact of non-overlapping independent increments of the Wiener ...
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37 views

Asymptotic distribution of zero-drift Geometric Brownian Motion as $t \to \infty$

If we fix the drift at $\mu = 0$, then my geometric brownian motion will have stationary mean, but it seems that the variance will grow without bound. What does the limiting distribution look like for ...
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39 views

Mean Value of a Random Process

Consider a random process $X(t) = Z(t)\sin(wt-Q)$. Here $Q$ is a random variable taking values $q$ in $[-\pi/2,\pi/2]$ with PDF given by $$p_1^Q(q) = \frac{\cos(q)}{2}$$ $Z(t)$ is some random ...
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1answer
31 views

The Stratonovich Integral and its meaning as the limit in mean square of a sum?

I am studying the Stratonovich Integral and on wikipedia, Stratonovich Integral, it states that the integral, for a process $X:[0,T] \times\Omega \to \mathbb{R}$, as: $$ \int_0^T X_t \circ dW_t $$ ...
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Brownian motion on sphere proof?

proving the brownian motion on the sphere equation the stratonovich form differential equation $$\partial X=n(X)\times \partial B$$ the equation in ito's form becomes $$dX=n(X)\times dB+H(X)n(X)...
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Expected maximum of Pareto

Denote the Pareto cdf as $F(j)$. Denote c.d.f. of the maximum of $x$ draws out of $F$ as $H(x, j)$. $$ H(x, j) = F(j)^x$$ I want to get the expected value of the maximum. Therefore, I integrate ...
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9 views

Upper bound involving simple Ito process

Let $(B(t),\{\mathcal{F}_t \})$ be one-dimensional Brownian motion. Suppose that $\sigma(t,ω)$ is a $\mathcal{F}_t$-adapted process satisfying $|\sigma(t,ω)| ≤ R$, for all $t$ and $w$. I was ...
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1answer
17 views

Solving a simple, linear type SDE

I am a bit confused by SDE's. I am trying to solve the SDE $dX=(c-\mu X )dt+\sigma dB$, with $\mu,\sigma,c$ constants and $X_0=x_0$ deterministic. I already know the solution of $dX=fdt+gdB$ with $X(...
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1answer
33 views

Is the stochastic integral of the jumps process equal to zero for a continuous integrator?

Let $X$ be a continuous semimartingale and $H$ a progressively measurable process in $L(X)$. Assume $H$ has left limits almost surely. I claim that the jumps process of $H$, denoted by $\Delta H = H - ...
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48 views

Ito stochastic integral vs Skorohod integral

I'm new in stochastic calculus and I'm confused about specific, but interesting topic. Skorohod integral is an extension of Ito integral for non-adapted processes, but how should I think about this ...
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38 views

costruction of brownian motion on sphere?

i am trying to construct a brownian motion on the sphere using the method given in Price and williams paper.$\partial$ represents the SDE of stratonovich type which is converted to ito form in last ...
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37 views

Application of Stochastic Calculus to Interest Rate Model (Ito's Formula)

Above is my question. Now, the setting is of mathematical finance, but the part that I'm stuck on isn't directly related to finance, but stochastic calculus (hence posting on this site). We have the ...
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1answer
40 views

Stochastic control HJB equation

I am trying to solve this optimal control problem : $ V(x,t) = inf( E[\int_{0}^{1}(x(t)^2 - \frac{1}{2}u^2(t))dt + x(1)^2])$ subject to $dx(t) = u(t)dW_t$ $x(0) = x_0 \in R $ $u(t) \in [-1,1] $ ...
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1answer
19 views

Finding a solution to the SDE of $dX_t = -2 (1-t)^{-1}X_tdt + \sqrt{2t(1-t)} dW_t$.

I am trying to find the solutions to the SDE: The solution of the following SDE $$dX_t = -2 \frac{X_t}{1-t} dt + \sqrt{2t(1-t)} dW_t, \quad X_0 = 0 $$ where $W_t$ is a Wiener process. I know that ...
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Find Itˆo diffusions $X_t = (t-2)^2_+W_2^4W_t$ in the differential form

I have $Y_t = (t-2)^2_+W_2^4W_t$. (The notation $x_+$ means the positive part of x, i.e. max(x, 0)) I try to write $Y_t$ in the differential form, that is: $$dX_t = U_tdt + V_tdW_t$$ In order to ...
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20 views

Backward stochastic differential equation

I am interested by this problem Find a solution to this backward stochastic differential equation : $\ y(t) = (ry(t) + az(t))*dt + z(t)dW_t$ with the terminal condition $y(T) = \xi$ with $\xi$ ...
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Intuition behind “stochastic orthogonality”

Whilst doing an exercise on the Brownian Motion on a sphere I came across this identity: $$ \langle Z\times B,Z\times B\rangle = 2|Z|^2dt $$ where $\times$ denotes the cross product and $Z$ is a ...
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27 views

Finding the mean of $X_t = \int_0^t sW_sdW_s$

For the stochastic integral, where $W_t$ is a Wiener process, I am trying to find the mean of $X_t = \int_0^t sW_sdW_s$. I have read before that any stochastic integral with $dWt$ has mean zero, but I ...
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28 views

Will Ito's Isometry result in $E\left(\int_0^t \cos(u)\,dB_u \int_0^t \sin(u)\, dB_u \right) = E\left(\int_0^t \cos(u) \sin(u)\, du \right)$?

If I have two integrals, $X_t = \int_0^t \cos(u)\,dB_u$and $Y_t = \int_0^t \sin(u)\, dB_u$ , where $B_u$ is a Wiener Process and I am trying to find: $$ E\left(\int_0^t \cos(u)\,dB_u \int_0^t \sin(u)...
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Is this solution of the PDE correct?

http://www.impa.br/opencms/pt/ensino/downloads/mestrado_profissional_projeto_fim_curso/projetos_fim_cursos_2010/Diogo_Duarte.pdf Pages 24-25 How do they get from 2.30 to 2.32 using boundary ...
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1answer
39 views

Construct a martingale with a given distribution?

Given a random variable Y, is it possible to construct a martingale M such that $$M_1 \stackrel{D}{=} Y$$ I'm not sure how to go about proving that such an M exists under such general conditions, but ...
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How many types of martingale related stochastic processes are there?

Previously I had thought that the only concepts in this direction were martingales, submartingales, and supermartingales. However, at least when discussing quadratic variation and stochastic ...
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68 views

Rephrase a multiparameter SDE indexed by time and space as an infinite dimensional SDE indexed by time

Let $\mathcal V_t\subseteq\mathbb R^3$ be the bounded space occupied by a closed particle system at $t\ge 0$ and $$[0,\infty)\ni t\mapsto X_t\in\mathcal V_t\tag 1$$ be the movement of a fixed particle ...
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Coefficient matching proof that $e^{\alpha x-\frac{1}{2} \alpha^2}=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n!}H_n(x)\alpha^n$, where $H_n(x)$ are Hermite poly.?

Hermite polynomials can be defined as (from wikipedia): $$ H_n(x)=(-1)^n e^{x^2/2}\frac{d^n}{dx^n} e^{-x^2/2}. $$ I am trying to show that: $e^{\alpha x-\frac{1}{2} \alpha^2}=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \...
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inverse Stochastic differential equation

SDE are really new for me, so I'm sorry if this is a silly question. Let $W_t$ be a Wiener process and let $x_0$ denote the initial value of the process. If I'm correct, for $\text{d}X_t = -(\beta X_t ...
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24 views

Stochastic Different Equation

Consider the stochastic differential equation $\frac{dX_t}{X_t}=adt+bdW_t$ for the diffusion $X_t$ . The parameters $a,b$ are constant.Using Ito's lemma and suitable integration over $[0,T]$, show ...
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Generating a list of numbers

A set of numbers is generated starting from $0$ in the following way: Add the current number to the resultset In a chance of 50:50, do Either add $2$ to the current number Or subtract $1$ from the ...
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Ergodicity of stochastic recursive process

Does anyone know how one can show ergodicity for a recursive stochastic process determined by the following equation: \begin{equation} X_n = f(\varepsilon_{n-1},Y_{n-1})X_{n-1}, \end{equation}...
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27 views

Ito Formula for increments of Ito Processes

Let $X_{t}=X_{0}+\int_{0}^{t}a_{s}ds+\int_{0}^{t}\sigma_{s}dW_{s}$, $W_{t}$ is a standard BM. How can I apply Ito formula to $(X_{t}-X_{s})^{2}$? Should I use a multidimensional version?
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1answer
71 views

Definition/Construction of Wiener Measure

I want to make sure I understand this rigorously: Assume we already know that Brownian motion $B_t$ on $[0,\infty)$ exists/how to construct it. Every $\sigma$-field considered is implicitly assumed ...
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1answer
124 views

Discrete and continuous Girsanov

I'm trying to write a proof of the Girsanov theorem based on a discrete version of it. Discrete version Suppose that I have a random vector $X$ and two equivalent probability measures $\mathbb{P}, \...
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46 views

Relations between Call and Put

I am trying to solve a question in finance but I am pretty much stuck and would need your help :) Suppose you know the following information about a market: Future is at 66 70 strike straddle is ...
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28 views

Compound Process and its compensator

I have always implicitly thought that for a counting process $N_t$, defining the compound process $$\sum_{i=1}^{N_t} X_i,$$ where $X_i$ are i.i.d, was pretty much equivalent to constructing a ...
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Are Ito Integrals adapted to the Brownian Motion Filtration

Give a probability space $(\Omega, \mathcal{F}, \{\mathcal{F}_t\}_t, P)$, we could define a 1-dim Brownian motion $W_t$ adapted to $\{\mathcal{F}_t\}_t$ with its own filtration $\mathcal{F}_t^W$. For ...
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Itô diffusion and Kolmogorov backward and forward equations

For the Kolmogorov backward and forward (aka Fokker-Planck) equations to hold, and also for the Feynman-Kac formula, is it necessary for the terms in the stochastic differential equation $$ dX_t = \mu(...
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1answer
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SDE Integration: Normal-Mean Reverting Process - Question

I am trying to figure out how a particular SDE can be integrated. The SDE is the normal mean-reverting model: $dX_t = \theta(\mu - X_t)dt + \sigma dW_t$ (1) Where $W_t - N(0,t)$. So far, I have ...
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2answers
126 views

Good book that contains stochastic integration, martingales and Lévy-processes?

Does anyone know about any good and easy interoductory books which contins information about martingales, sotchastic integration and Lévy-processes? I have tried reading: http://www.cambridge.org/us/...
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42 views

Distribution of stochastic process and Ito's lemma

Consider an arithmetic Brownian motion $X_t$ which follows $dX_t=\mu dt+\sigma dZ_t$ where $\mu$ and $\sigma$ are constants and $r$ is the discount rate. Assume an asset price $S_t=X_t^2$. I need to ...
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1answer
44 views

Stopping Times, the $\inf$ is not a stopping time

I'm having a hard time figuring out why the infimum of a sequence of stopping times is not necessarily a stopping time itself. Indeed, the justification my book gives me is that: Given $(\mathcal F_t)...
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21 views

Why is the solution to a Stratonovich SDE coordinate invariant while Itô SDEs are not?

This question most probably stems from my very poor understanding of manifold theory. I suppose it has something to do with the fact that the solution $Y$ to the Stratonovich SDE$$dY=f(Y)\circ dB$$ ...
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42 views

Integral w.r.t. a Martingale

Consider the stochastic integral $$ Z_t = 1+\int_0^tZ_{s^{-}}\,dX_s $$ where $X$ is a Martingale. In the textbook by Shreve (see here pages 493-493) it is said that since $Z_{s^{-}}$ is left-...
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29 views

Solve this simple Linear SDE?

How do I solve the following BSDE? $$ \left\{ \begin{aligned} dX_t &=(rX_t+\theta Z_t ) \, dt + Z_t \, dW_t \\ X_T &=\xi \end{aligned} \right. $$ There appears to be nothing online about ...
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21 views

What is meant by local time of BM on the boundary $\partial D$?

I'm familiar with local time $L_t^a$ at level $a$ for a 1-D Brownian motion $B$. I'm reading this paper which talks about a 2D Brownian motion $B$ in a bounded domain $D$ that gets reflected when it ...
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44 views

Kummer equation, solution to find optimal value

Suppose V follows the mean reverting process $$dV=η( ̅V-V)Vdt+σVdz$$ I want to find the optimal investment rule, and using Itos's lemma I get that the differential equation that F(V) must satisfy $$ ...
2
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1answer
46 views

Why is Backward SDE more difficult than forward SDE?

I need to explain Backward Stochastic Differential Equation (BSDE) for some non-mathematicians. The audiences are most likely familiar with ODE/PDE as physicists. One concern is probably that why ...