Questions on the calculus of stochastic processes, or processes that have a random component.

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2
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1answer
144 views

Black Derman & Toy Model

The BDT model is given by $$d(\ln\,r)=\left(\theta(t)-\frac {d(\ln\sigma(t)}{dt}\ln r\right)\,dt+\sigma(t) \, dW.$$ How can one rewrite the BDT model as $dr=A\,dt+B\, dW$, using It$\hat o$?
2
votes
0answers
57 views

Defining the scale function of a diffusion process

My question has to do with correctly calculating the scale function of a diffusion process, but ultimately might only have to do with calculus. I'll briefly set-up my calculations, so you can quickly ...
2
votes
2answers
32 views

A random variable $X$ with differentiable distribution function has a density

Setting: My professor defined A random variable $X: \Omega \to \mathbb{R}$ has a density $f:\mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ if for all $B \in \mathscr{B}$ $$P(X^{-1} (B)) = \int_\mathbb{R} ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

Solutions of SDE do not explode when drift term is zero.

Suppose we have $dX_t = \sigma(X_t) dW_t$ where $\sigma : \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is Borel and $W_t$ is a standard one-dimensional Brownian motion. I am trying to show that $X_t$ cannot ...
4
votes
1answer
96 views

Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process: increments

I'm new to the forum so I hope this first question goes well. Let the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process be defined as: $$ dV_t = - \beta V_t dt + \sigma dW_t $$ with $V_0 = v$, where $W_t$ is a Wiener ...
2
votes
0answers
50 views

Stopping times, open sets and Brownian Motion

Let $B_t$ be a brownian motion started at 0. I am trying to prove that $\tau$, defined as: $$ \tau = \inf\{t > 0 \mbox{ }|\mbox{ } \left|B_t\right| \geq \frac{1}{1+t} \} $$ is a stopping time with ...
1
vote
2answers
85 views

Use Ito's formula to determine the stochastic differential equation satisfied by $V_t$

A stochastic process $V_t$ is defined by $$V_t =\sqrt{t(t+W_t^2)}$$ $W_t$ is the Wiener process and $t$ denotes the time ($t > 0$). Use Ito's formula to determine the stochastic differential ...
3
votes
1answer
52 views

Extended (or augmented) stopping times

I am trying to prove that $\tau$, defined as: $$ \tau = inf\{t > 0 \mbox{ }|\mbox{ } B_t < t-1 \} $$ is a stopping time with respect to the filtration $(\mathscr{F}_{t+}^B)_{t\geq 0}$ where ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

Covariance of a random function

Suppose $X(s)=\int_0^1 G(s,t)\, dW(t)$, where $W(t)$ is Brownian motion, then what is the variance of $X(s)$ and the covariance of $X(s)$ and $X(r)$. Note that this is not the usual Ito integral ...
1
vote
1answer
67 views

Mean and Variance of Gaussian Process

Let $B = (B_t : t \geq 0)$ be a standard Brownian Motion. Fix $0 \leq s \leq t$. How can I prove that, conditionally on $\{B_s = x, B_t = z\}$, the intermediate value $$B_{\frac{t+s}{2}}$$ has ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Lifetime of a spaceship run by three computers

A spaceship is controlled by three independent computers. The ship can function as long as at least two of the three computers are functioning. Suppose the lifetimes of the computers are i.i.d. ...
3
votes
1answer
27 views

Sufficient condition for time-changed quadratic covariation to vanish in probability

Let $(M_t^n)_{t \geq 0}$ be a sequence of continuous martingales of the form $M^n_t = \int_0^t X^n_s \, dB_s$ where $B_s$ is a Brownian motion. Let $\tau^n(t)$ be the time change associated to $M_t^n$ ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Brownian motion transition density question

Let $Y_t = M_t - W_t$ where $M_t$ is the running maximum of brownian motion and $W_t$ is brownian motion. I want to show that $P^0[Y_{t+s} \in dy| Y_t = x] = p(s,x,y)+p(s,x,-y)$ where $p$ is the ...
1
vote
1answer
27 views

Fourier transform of n-th power of autocorrelation of a random process

I'm having troubles in understanding how Fourier transform of the n-th power of a time function is obtained. In particular I came across to a particular result with respect to the calculation of the ...
0
votes
1answer
75 views

Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and Markov property

There isn't a similar question in the forum, so here it goes. Firstly, let the O-U velocity process be defined as $$ dV_t = -\beta V_t dt + \sigma dB_t $$ with $V_0 = v$, and $B = (B_t), t \geq 0$ a ...
1
vote
1answer
126 views

Running average of Brownian motion

Question : Let us define the cumulative sum (Brownian motion): $$x_k = \sum_{i=1}^k y_i$$ and the running average : $$ \overline{x_k} =\frac{1}{W}\sum_{i=k-W+1}^k x_i$$ for $ k>W $, $W$ ...
0
votes
1answer
15 views

Relation between two stochastics

I got stuck trying to figuring out how to show the following question in probabilistic theory: "We say that A and B (with P(A), P(B) > 0) attract each other when P(A|B) > P(A)." I've shown that ...
4
votes
1answer
45 views

Resource for Stochastic Calculus and Ito processes

May someone please recommend a book or website where one can learn Stochastic Calculus and Ito processes from scratch.
1
vote
1answer
39 views

Poisson integral and discontinuous martingale (Ito-Levy formula)

Consider compounded Poisson process $P$ given by $P_t = \int_0 ^t \int _{\mathbb R}z~ N(dr,dz)$ where $N$ is a Poisson random measure of intensity $dt \otimes \nu$ and $\nu $ is a Levy measure. Why ...
3
votes
0answers
16 views

Continuity in $x$ of $E^x \int_0^{\tau} f(X_t)dt$

Suppose I have a stochastic diffusion $X$. I am studying an expression of the form $u(x):=E^x\int_0^\tau f(X_t)dt$ where $\tau$ is the exit time of $X$ from my bounded open domain $D$. I am also ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

Distribution of Levy driven O-U process

Is there a way to find an analytical expression for $E\left[\exp\left(-\int_0^T \gamma_s ds\right)\right]$, where $d\gamma_t=k(\theta-\gamma_t)dt+\sigma dL_t$, and $L_t$ is a symmetric alpha ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

Relation between autocorrelation and mean of a stochastic process

It is said that if the autocorrelation approaches zero as $\tau$ tends to zero, then the mean of the stochastic process is also zero. I am having trouble understanding the above concept. Say we have ...
0
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0answers
14 views

Simple Stochastic Measurability Question

In the proof of a Stochastic representation theorem, the author writes: $Z_t = \frac{d}{dt}<M>_t$ is progressively measurable. Here $M_t$ is a continuous local martingale and we have the ...
1
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1answer
42 views

What does it mean by “mean of a process”?

Say $X(t)$ is a stochastic process. Now when it says that the mean of the process, does it mean that the mean of $X(t)$. Elaborating further, a process is an collection of random variables - ...
0
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0answers
13 views

Parameter estimation of matrix-valued processes

I have a hard question for the probability theorist under you. Suppose we have the following process as defined by $dX_t = [-M(\bar{X} - X_t) - (\bar{X} - X_t)M^T] dt + \sqrt{X_t}dB_tQ + ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Elementary Malliavin Derivative question about definition.

I am reading a book that defines the Malliavin derivative $D_tF$ as follows: If $F = \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} I_n(f_n)$ is the Wiener Chaos expansion. $F$ is in the brownian filtration and $F \in ...
0
votes
1answer
66 views

Variance of Ito Integral

I want to find the variance of the Ito integral: $X(t)=\displaystyle \int_0^t\sqrt{s}WdW$ where W is a Brownian motion and s is the variable of integration. This is what I have done so far: ...
0
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0answers
27 views

Condition on initial value of stochastic process

Suppose I denote by $X_t(\mu)$ a stochastic process taking values in $\mathbb{R}$ with a given initial distribution $\mu$ and $\delta_x$ the Dirac mass at $x \in \mathbb{R}$. When is the following ...
0
votes
1answer
54 views

Determining $dX_t$ for stochastic equations, and which of these are $\mathcal{F} $ - martingales?

I want to write down an expression for $dX_t$ for both: i. $X_t=t^2W_t^2-2\int_0^t(sW_s^2+s^2)ds$; and ii. $X_t=W_t^2-tW_t$ What is the process I would use for differentiating these stochastic ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Path solution for a SDE

I would like to get help in solving an Ito stochastic equation: $dY_t=-dW_t \, (Y_t^2+1)$ The process $W_t$ is the standard Brownian motion. Is it possible to get a path solution solution in terms ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

Question on complex valued local martingales

So I was reading and found that the following was given as an example of a complex valued local martingale: $M_t = e^{\int_0^t f(\omega,s)dB_s - \frac 12\int_0^tf(\omega,s)^2ds}$ with $f(\omega,s) = ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

Stochastic PDE representation

I am trying to find a pde which $u$ satisfies when $u(x) = E^{x}[\cos(X_1)]$ where $dX_t = \sin(nX_t)\,dt + dW_t$ and $X_0 = x$. I have tried using Feynman-Kac but I can't seem to get it into the ...
2
votes
1answer
35 views

$\mathbb{E}[B_t-B_s], \mathbb{E}[\exp(\sigma(B_t-B_s))]$ etc.

This may be a duplicate but I cannot find the corresponding question. I have been asked to show: $\mathbb{E}[\exp(\sigma(B_t-B_s))] = \exp\left(-\dfrac{\sigma^2}{2}(s-t)\right)$ As a side note I ...
0
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0answers
15 views

Is there a solution for this stochastic differential equation or analogous ordinary differential equation?

I'm trying to analyze the following Ito stochastic differential equation: $$dX_t = \|X_t\|dW_t$$ where $X_t, dX_t, W_t, dW_t \in \mathbb{R}^n$. Here, $dW_t$ is the standard Wiener process and ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

Application of Ito's Lemma to integral expression

I have a problem applying Ito's lemma. I know that if: $dX_t= \mu_t \, dt + \sigma_t \, dB_t$ then for $f(t,x)$: $df(t,X_t) =\left(\frac{\partial f}{\partial t} + \mu_t \frac{\partial ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Ito's Lemma for Integral

Let $S$ follow GBM with $dS=(r-q)S\,dt+\sigma S\,dW$ where $W$ is a standard Brownian motion. Define $I_t=\int_0^t qe^{r(t-u)}S_u \,du$, then how can I determine $dI_t$? The answer should be ...
1
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0answers
19 views

Does this Stochastic Differential Equation have a name?

I came across this SDE and since I am not an expert I am wondering if this SDE is known to have an closed form solution for first passage times. The SDE is $$dY_t=(a+be^{ct}) \, dt+\sigma \, dB_t$$ ...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process written explicitly

I need to show that the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, $$ dX_t = -\theta X_tdt + dB(t) $$ Where $X_0=0$, $B(t)$ is Brownian motion and $\theta>0$ can be written explicitly as: $$ X_t=B(t) - \theta ...
0
votes
1answer
43 views

Solving the SDE $dX_t=bdt+cX_t dW_t$

I want to solve the SDE $dX_t=bdt+cX_t dW_t$, $X_0=0$ for $b,c\in\mathbb R$. I start by rewriting this as $$dX_t=(\mu_1+\mu_2 X_t )dt+(\sigma_1+\sigma_2 X_t )dW_t$$ where $\mu_1=b, \mu_2=0, ...
-1
votes
1answer
69 views

Solution to a stochastic differential equation

I could really do with some help on this question, have no idea where to start. Any advice would be much appreciated, thank u in advance. I am given $$\begin{align}dx(t)&=(1+x(t))dt + x(t) ...
0
votes
1answer
60 views

Ornstein-Uhlenbeck operator and divergence operator

So I'm still struggling with Malliavin calculus, and this time about the divergence operator. We are working in the classical Wiener space $(W,H,\mu)$ where $W$ is the Wiener space ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Weak stochastic integral

I recently encountered the following object, referred to as "weak stochastic integral" in the book of SPDE's by Prevot/Rockner [PR07]: $ \int_0^T { \langle \Psi dW(t), \Phi(t)\rangle }$ A few useful ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Do stochastic processes form a Banach space?

I'm interested in solving a particular integral equation: $$g(X) = \int_0^1 K(X,p)f(p) \ dp$$ where $f(p)\in L^1([0,1])$ and $X$ is a stochastic process of finite length; i.e. a collection of random ...
3
votes
0answers
40 views

Invariant measure of Euler-Maruyama Discretisation of an Ito diffusion

Let $(X_t)_{t \geq 0}$ be a diffusion process with dynamics governed by the stochastic differential equation \begin{equation} dX_t = b(X_t)dt + \sigma(X_t)dW_t, ~~ X_0 = x_0, \end{equation} where ...
0
votes
0answers
51 views

Second Fundamental Theorem of Asset Pricing

It seems that there is a step missing in the proof of the second Fundamental Theorem of Asset Pricing in Shreve's Stochastic Calculus for Finance II: Does anyone know how to show the following: If ...
0
votes
1answer
50 views

Question on Martingales and Brownian Motion

I've run into an issue and I am unsure of how to proceed. In the text I'm working through, the following is left "as an exercise to the reader." Normally proofs listed as such tend to be fairly simple ...
1
vote
2answers
36 views

Density of cylindrical random variables in classical Wiener space

I'm currently working on Malliavin calculus, and a theorem in my class notes is bothering me : Denote W the Wiener space of continuous functions from $[0,1]$ to $\mathbb{R}$, and $\mu$ the associated ...
0
votes
1answer
51 views

Deriving the PDE for basket option

The payoff for basket option is max($w_1S_1+w_2S_2 -k,0)$. Using Ito's formula, I need to derive the PDE, where $dS_1 = rS_1dt + \sigma_1 S_1dW_1$ $dS_2 = rS_2dt + \sigma_2 S_2dW_2$ I need some ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Proposition from Oksendal Stochastic Calculus

I am reading Oksendal's Malliavin Calculus with applications to Finance and there is a part that I do not understand. First we have a proposition which is fine: If $\zeta_1$,$\zeta_2$,... are ...
0
votes
0answers
44 views

continuous time markov process - first passage time

Let $(X_t)_{t\ge0}$ is a continuous time-homogeneous Markov diffusion process such that $X_0=y$. Let $$p(x,t|y)=d\Pr(X_t\le x|X_0=y)/dx$$ be the respective transition probability density. Let ...