The area of statistics that focuses on taking information from samples of a population, in order to derive information on the entire population.

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Doubts in Bayes' Theorem

I meet one problem on the probability and statistic theory. "Assume given the probability spaces $(X,S,\mu_i)$, $i=1,2$, and the probability space $(X,S,\lambda)$. And there exsit functions ...
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Calculating that confidence that pairs of lightbulbs are independently illuminated.

So, you're sitting in a dark room, and on the far wall you see $n$ lightbulbs mounted above plaques numbered $1$ through $n$. There is a lightswitch on the arm of your chair. Every time you flip the ...
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Teaching Student's distribution

While it is fairly straightforward to show the basics of the normal distribution in a first year undergraduate course, how does a teacher provide good intuition when the Student distribution comes in? ...
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Sampling from a graph

Suppose you have a graph $G=(V,E)$ that is unobservable globally and you wish to take a sample from the vertices of that graph to infer something about its global properties from local properties. ...
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Sum of random variables - is there an efficient way to do inference?

Suppose I have a series of variables $X_1, X_2, \ldots, X_n$. I have $S = \sum_i^n X_i$. Now suppose that I have a constraint on the distribution of S, for example from some data. Looking at any of ...
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The distribution of the ith order statistic for discrete random variables

Assume $(X_i)_{i=1,...,n}$ are a sequence of real iid random variables with continuous density $p_x$. We know that $$Y:=\sum_{i=1}^n 1\{X_i\leq u\}\sim Bin(n,F_x(u)),$$ since $1\{X_i\leq u\}\sim ...
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Normalizing multiple different features from unknown distributions

I'm doing some "exploratory" data analysis over a large set of classes/proteins, with a few hundred different features (I.E. Continuous variables) extracted from the data. The features are calculated ...
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Most powerful test for discrete variable

The discrete random variable X has the following probability distributions under $H_0$ and $H_1$ $$\begin{array}{r|rrrrrrrrrr} x&1&2&3&4&5&6&7&8&9&10\\ ...
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Estimating a sub-population characteristic based on independent samples without replacement

Let a bag have 1000 balls of arbitrary colors and unknowns sizes ($r$). Suppose we also known the total volume occupied by the balls ($t_v$). We want to estimate the total volume occupied by red balls ...
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49 views

Nikolski class of probability measures - Metric and Topological Properties

I am reading a book about non-parametric statistics (Tsybakov's Introduction to Non-Parametic Estimation), and in order to prove some important inequalities on mean-squared error, different classes of ...
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hypothesis testing practice question

This is a practice question for a final exam. Two types of cordless weed-trimmer batteries are tested. One group of 5 batteries averaged $1.4$ hours, while the other group consisting of 8 batteries, ...
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degrees of freedom for a chi squared goodness-of-fit test

For a statistics project, I gave out a 20 question multiple choice quiz with each question containing five answers. I would like to run some hypothesis tests on the data by using a Chi squared ...
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Probability distribution for a digit of a number

If someone choose a digit $\alpha$ and a digit $\beta$ independently. Each one can be in $0,1, ...,9$. So $\mu = \alpha \beta$ (e.g. if $\alpha = 5$ and $\beta = 3$ then $\mu =53$). And I observe a ...
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66 views

How do I must do it?

For a sample of size n from a random variable with density function $$f_{\theta}(x)=\frac{2x}{\theta^2}, x>0$$ find the confidence interval for $\theta$ of average length consistently lower level ...
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24 views

Inference the time a process would take depending on the number of threads

I have several datasets consisting on: Number of threads n Start process time t1 Stop process time ...
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Is there a statistical hypothesis test that uses the mode?

Is there a statistical hypothesis test that considers the mode rather than the mean or median?
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Iterative Mean, Covariance Algorithm Convergence

The problem is to show that the following iterations converge to the vector $\mu$ and the matrix $\Sigma$. We have data in the form of nx1 vectors $\mathbf{Q}_k$, $1 \leq k \leq N$ where ...
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Draw and compare the likelihood using R

The following shows the heart rate (in beats/minute) of a person, measured throughout the day: 73, 75, 84, 76, 93, 79, 85, 80, 76, 78, 80. Assume the data are an iid sample from ...
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Bayesian inference for dependent data

Is it possible to use bayesian inference technique for data which does not follow the memoryless property? What is the likelihood function and prior in this case?
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A variant of Hoeffding's Inequallity

I'm new to concentration inequalities and I have a question related to Hoeffding's inequality. Let $X_1 ~ \dots X_n$ be a set of i.i.d random variables, s.t. $E[X_i] = \mu$, $Var[X_i] = \sigma^2$, ...
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Function of a complete statistic is complete

Quick question: If a have a statistic $T$ complete, is $a^T$ complete ($a$ constant)? In general, if a statistic is complete, then is every one-to-one function of it complete? Thanks.
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Confidence bounds given random verification

[Edits made for clarification and brevity.] I'm working on an idea for a fault detection algorithm, and I've boiled it down (I think) to the following problem. A box contains 10 balls. The balls can ...
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Why is the marginalized inverse-Wishart distribution not equal to the inverse-gamma distribution?

Given that the inverse-gamma distribution is the one-dimensional version of the inverse-Wishart distribution, why will (philosophically speaking) an inverse-Wishart distribution that originally has ...
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Estimate distance between approximated posterior and true posterior

I'm working on a paper about using graphical models to do some prediction tasks with known observations. Since the model is complicated, finding the maximum a posteriori on the true posterior ...
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Adjusting regression for small sample bias

I have a set of data points $\{x_i\}$. These data points are grouped so that (say) $i\in\{1,2,3\}$ is group $A$, $i\in\{4,5,6,7\}$ is group $B$, etc. I would like to test the null hypothesis of no ...
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Find the maximum of an integral function with respect to another function

I'm facing this statistical data analysis problem, where I have to maximize a certain statistic in order to find the optimal filtering function. I'm a little bit out of practice with the mathematics ...
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Classification problem: admissible rule is a Bayes rule for some prior $\pi$

I have a classification problem where I want to place an observation $X$ into a population described by a pdf equal to either $f_1$ or $f_2$. Given $P_{f_i}(\frac{f_1(X)}{f_2(X)}=j)=0$ for all $j\in ...
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Comparison of two error distributions to determine “goodness of fit”

I am a physicist who is a few years out of doing his last course in statistics, so I am hoping to get some advice when comparing some data I recently generated. The context is as follows. I have two ...
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56 views

Hypotesis test: $X_i | \theta \sim Exp(\theta)$ (Likelihood Ratio Test)

Construct the Likelihood-Ratio Test to test $H_o: \theta = 0$ versus $H_1 :\theta \neq 0$ supposing that $X_1, X_2,...,X_n$ are c.i.i.d random variables such that $X_i | \theta \sim Exp(\theta)$ P.S: ...
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Can posterior distribution for a continuous variable be greater than one?

This might sound a dumb question but I am really confused about it. According to Bayes' rule we do have the following: $$p(\theta|X)=\frac{p(\theta)p(X|\theta)}{\int{p(\theta)p(X|\theta)d\theta}}$$ I ...
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Hypothesis testing with poisson distribution

At a nuclear plant great care is taken to measure the employees health.These are the number of visits made by each of the 10 employees to the doctor during a calender year. 3,6,5,7,4,2,3,5,1,4 ...
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Exponential integral approximation

I have an equation that contain exponential integral of the form: $$ \begin{equation} E_k\left(\frac{a+b ~x}{c}\right) \end{equation} $$ Where $k\geq 0$ ($k=0,1,2,...$), $a$, $b$, and $c$ are ...
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Properties of almost sure convergence

If, $\Sigma$ is the population covariance matrix and $S$ is the sample covariance matrix, $p$ is the number of variables, $\frac{p}{n} \rightarrow c$ as $n \rightarrow 0$, $\frac{1}{p}|S|_{F}^{2} ...
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Nondimensionalize an equation with logs

I have an equation with logs in it. Specifically the equation takes the form: $log(Y)=\alpha+\beta_1 X_1 + \beta_2 X_2 + \beta_3 X_3$ Where $X_1$ through $X_3$ are variables. The trouble is that Y ...
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How to test that a a time series follows a Markov process?

I am searching for a statistical test that tells wether a finite-alphabet time series is a Markov process of a given order or not.
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Interval overlap maximisation problem

Consider a line of equally spaced sensors and a disturbance which travels unidirectionally along the line at a fixed speed such that the disturbance takes time $\tau$ to travel between adjacent ...
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Point Estimator.

When the point estimator under consideration has a pdf , the $P[T=\tau(\theta)]=0 $ where $\tau(.)$ is some function of parameter $\theta$ T is an estimator of $\tau(\theta)$ But i did many ...
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Calculation of conditional joint probability given certain conditionals for data which aren't independent

The context of this problem is the estimation of the distribution of a parameter $v$ given sets of data $A$ and $B$, where $A$ and $B$ are not independent. Suppose I know $P(v | A)$ and $P(v | B)$. ...
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Choosing an appropriate part of an unreliable dataset

I have a dataset of ~2000 entries (for example, model of car). For each car model I know the weight of the car, and the power output. I don't know the price or age, which is likely to affect the ...
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minimum distance estimation approach in inference

I am having a bit of problem with a very basic concept in the minimum distance estimation approach in statistical inference. I've read a paper which uses, for a parametric model family of discrete ...
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Run test statistics

I'm currently implementing the Wald-Wolfowitz runs test on a variable $\epsilon \in \{0;1\} $. According to the original paper, the number of runs, $V_n$ converges to the normal distribution with: ...
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Survival Analysis

I have some survival times which are exponentially distributed for two groups G1 (treatment) and G2 (control). The data are censored with a censoring distribution given by h(c), so I only observe: 1) ...
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Beta Distribution Sufficient Statistic

So I have this homework problem that I am struggling a little bit with coming to a solid answer on. The problem goes like this: Suppose X~Beta($\theta,\theta), (\theta>0)$, and let $\{X_1, X_2 , ...
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Test the hypothesis that $B_1=0$ at the $5 \%$ significance level

I am told to test the hypothesis and this is what I did: $H_{0}:\beta_{1}=0$ $H_{a}:\beta_{1}\not=0$ So then I have $$t^{*}=\dfrac{\hat{\beta_{1}}-\beta_{1}}{\dfrac{s_{\beta_1}}{\sqrt n}}$$ ...
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Need help deriving plug-in (functional of distribution) estimator

I need help with homework exercise, have no idea how to approach it. Assume we have i.i.d. observations $x_1,\ldots,x_n$ of a continuous random variable $X$, taking values in $\mathbb R^+$. Define ...
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Classification: Why k-Nearest Neighbor method is more appropriate for a Mixture of Gaussians?

I'm reading a book named "The Elements of Statistical Learning" in which it states 2 scenarios when we are trying to predict the class label: Scenario 1: The training data in each class were ...
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What is a good way to deal with finite trains from random variables?

EDIT: Disregard this question if it is formulated too confusing. This link provides you with the updated version of the same question What is the most powerful test for process discrimination based ...
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148 views

What statistical hypothesis test to use for comparing results of two equations?

Given a function $f\left(x\right)$, I have two formulas to compute the coefficients of the same harmonic series approximation to $f\left(x\right)$. Call the results of each formula $^1c_k$ and $^2c_k$ ...
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Estimate the size of a set given random sub sets.

Assuming there is a set $S$ that you are given subsets of, $s_1, s_2, ..., s_n$, estimate $|S|$ (and a confidence interval if possible) making as few assumptions as possible. I'm not going to quibble ...
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Statistics on a column of values

I have a class project that I am working on as an engineering student but the course is probability and statistics so I don't really know how to make sense or use of what I am learning so I thought of ...