In Probability and Statistics, the standard deviation of a statistical population or data set is a measure of how much variation or dispersion exists from its average value. It is defined as the square root of the variance.

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incremental computation of standard deviation

How can I compute the standard deviation in an incremental way (using the new value and the last computed mean and/or std deviation) ? for the non incremental way, I just do something like: ...
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Motivation behind standard deviation?

Let's take the numbers 0-10. Their mean is 5, and the individual deviations from 5 are -5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 And so the average (magnitude of) ...
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Sample Standard Deviation vs. Population Standard Deviation

I have an HP 50g graphing calculator and I am using it to calculate the standard deviation of some data. In the statistics calculation there is a type which can have two values: Sample Population I ...
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Determining variance from sum of two random correlated variables

I understand that the variance of the sum of two independent normally distributed random variables is the sum of the variances, but how does this change when the two random variables are correlated? ...
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Variance of a max function

Say $x_1$ and $x_2$ are normal random variables with known means and standard deviations and $C$ is a constant. If $y = \max(x_1,x_2,C)$, what is $\mathrm{Var}(y)$? Well, I forgot to tell that $x_1$ ...
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How can I calculate “most popular” more accurately?

I'm developing a website at the moment. The website allows users to "rate" a post from 0 to 5. Posts can then be displayed in order of popularity. At the moment, my method of calculation is pretty ...
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Why do statisticians like “$n-1$” instead of “$n$”?

Does anyone have an intuitive explanation (no formulas, just words! :D) about the "$n-1$" instead of "$n$" in the unbiased variance estimator $$S_n^2 = \dfrac{\sum\limits_{i = 1}^n ...
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Relationship between exterior power of representation and variance?

I was reading the question: Symmetric and exterior power of representation regarding how to determine the character of an exterior power of a representation from the original representation. One of ...
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How to determine if Standard Deviation is high/low

I have derived the following response time data for a performance test I am running: Min - 8sec Max - 284sec Average - 28sec Standard Deviation - 27sec What does the standard deviation say about the ...
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Standard Deviation: Why divide by $(N-1)$ rather than $N$?

The forumlae for standard deviation seems to be the square root of the sum of the squared deviation from mean divided by $N-1$. Why isn't it simply the square root of the mean of the squared ...
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1answer
360 views

Standard Deviation. Why do we take the square root of the entire equation?

Please forgive my lack of maths knowledge, It is my understanding that: Standard Deviation is the average distance from the mean in a data set of numbers. Therefore it stands to reason that working ...
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Denominator to calculate standard deviation

I've just read something about calculating sample standard deviation. Some explanations say that it is because of degree of freedom. With a constraint that the mean should be zero, we do actually have ...
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920 views

Standard deviation calculation not matching up

I was looking up how standard deviations work, and tried to do it by hand, but what I'm getting isn't matching up with what I have in SQL Server. My population is: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9. I end up with ...
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468 views

Generate a set of random numbers with a normal distribution

I am trying to generate a set of N random numbers where the set has a normal distribution. I'm currently using a brute force approach: Randomly select N numbers from a normal distribution. Check ...
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61 views

Bootstrap method failing where blocking works

I'm computing an average of individual samples that are not entirely independent and need an estimate for the true standard deviation. According to Newman and Barkema's book the most reliable method ...
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Why is there not a simpler way to calculate the standard deviation?

Steps of getting standard deviation. http://www.techbookreport.com/tutorials/stddev-30-secs.html: Work out the average (mean value) of your set of numbers Work out the difference between each ...
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Is Standard Deviation the same as Entropy?

We know that standard deviation (SD) represents the level of dispersion of a distribution. Thus a distribution with only one value (e.g., 1,1,1,1) has SD equals to zero. Similarly, such a distribution ...
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7.7 standard deviations away from the mean?

I'm confused. I have a problem where I have to find the probability that x is below the z value 7.7. My z table only goes to z values of 3.4. How do I calculate this? These are the hints my teacher ...
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Prove one standard deviation lies on inflection points

Is my conjecture correct that one standard deviation lies on the inflection points of the normal distribution curve (of the probability density function)? How can it be proved using the standard ...
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Why the natural log is there in MLE?

Why do we use natural log for MLE?
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108 views

Estimate the sample deviation in one pass

We've learned this algorithm in class but I'm not sure I've fully understood the correctness of this approach. It is known as Welford's algorithm for the sum of squares, as described in: Welford, ...
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1answer
247 views

Question about an article by Nassim Nicholas Taleb about the problems with standard deviation.

The article by Nassim Nicholas Taleb says that using standard deviation is flawed and is poorly understood and mean absolute deviation should be used. Because this article is short, and I don't ...
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940 views

Rolling standard deviations

I am trying to calculate standard deviations on an array of numbers. My psuedo code looks like this: ...
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Standard deviation: mathematical manipulation

I am learning about standard deviation. In the book I am reading it defines standard deviation as: $$\sigma^2 = E[(x - E[x])^2]$$ so far no problem. In then states "simple mathematical manipulation ...
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Finding probability 400 components last 5012 or less hours using standard deviation?

The lifetime of certain electronic components is a random variable with the expectation of 5000 hours and a standard deviation of 100 hours. What is the probability that the average lifetime of 400 ...
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Course Grade - Statistics Question

I'm confused about finding the standard deviation of various weighted objects in a problem. For example, consider an academic setting, with four assessments as follows: ...
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Correct Intuition? Standard Deviation and distance in $n$ dimensional space.

Basic Question Is there an intuitive explanation of standard deviation in terms of Euclidean distance in $n$ dimensional space? Longer Version of Question To begin a more detailed sketch of my ...
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What is the maximum value of the sum $\sum_{i=1}^L(\bar{x}-x_i)$, in this specific case.

Let $x_i$ be a positive real variable, with $i=1,2,...,K$. We denote by $\bar{x}$ the average value of the values $x_1, x_2,...,x_K$. Let $a=\min_i x_i$ and $b=\max_i x_i$, then $x_i \in [a,b]$. My ...
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95% Confidence Intervals

I was solving this problem from a textbook In a random sample of three pupils, $x_i$ is the mark of the $i$th pupil in a test on volcanoes and $y_i$ is the mark of the $i$th pupil in a test on ...
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209 views

fantasy basketball model

i'm creating a fantasy basketball model (could be used in other games too) where we can project how well a player will do against another team even when the player hasn't played against a certain team ...
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63 views

Standard Deviation of a Magic Square

I'm not sure if this is the right stackexchange to post this question to, but I was just wondering if someone had the answer to an interesting observation I've made. I've written a program that ...
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429 views

How to calculate the standard deviation of numbers with standard deviations?

I have essentially a propagation-of-error problem I run into frequently with my scientific data. For example, I have three samples, each of which I take two measurements of. So, for each sample, I can ...
3
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101 views

Mean or standard deviation?

Which one of mean or standard deviation can used to solve the following problem? A light bulb is considered defective if it lasts less than 400 hours. The following claim is made: 'Brand A ...
3
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1answer
141 views

Standard error and p-values

I am a scientist who is currently doing a BSc. I did some stats a few years ago but since haven't touched it. I'm not sure how to calculate p-values for my data. A bit of background is that I am ...
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Standard deviation of the weighted mean [duplicate]

How do you find the standard deviation of the weighted mean? The weighted mean is defined: $\bar{x}_w = \frac{\sum{wx}}{\sum{w}}$ The weighted standard deviation (since it is not specified, I take ...
3
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1answer
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Max of multistep Gaussian walk vs max of multiple single-step Gaussian walks

Is there a relation between the max of a Gaussian random walk of 10 steps vs the max of 10 Gaussian random walks? Specifics (in Mathematica notation): ...
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1answer
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How many points necessary for standard deviation?

First off, I'm not a mathematician, and never took statistics in college, what I know about standard deviation I've learned in the past few weeks, so be gentle... I'm working on a piece of software ...
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Removing slope from running times

First of all, & looking at the suggested question list, I hesitate at asking this basic question: Here goes. I'm trying to assess my fitness, and I need a bit of mathematical help. I do a little ...
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Relation between standard deviation and mean in random processes

In a Poisson distribution the square of the standard deviation $\sigma$ is equal to mean $\mu$ ($\sigma^2=\mu$) and in a binomial distribution $\sigma ^2=\mu\,(1-p)$ (with $p$ the probability of ...
3
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1answer
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Length of Gaussian distributed variables

Suppose I have a set of random variables $x_1,...,x_n$ s.t. $x_i\sim N(\bar{x}_i,\sigma_i^2)$. And I define a new variable $x=\sqrt{x_1^2+...+x_n^2}$, then will $x$ also be normally distributed? And ...
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Is this true: $\mathrm{Cov}(X,Y) = \sqrt{\mathrm{Var(X)}}\sqrt{\mathrm{Var}(Y)}$?

I just want to confirm whether this is correct or not: The covariance of $X$ and $Y$ is equal to the standard deviation of $X$ times the standard deviation of $Y$. or, in mathematical notation, ...
2
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5answers
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Why square the result of $x_1 - \bar{x}$ in the standard deviation? [duplicate]

I don't understand the necessity of square the result of $x_1 - \bar{x}$ in $$\sqrt{\frac{\sum_{i=1}^{N} (x_i - \bar{x})^2}{N-1}}$$. In fact I don't understand even why is $N - 1$ on the denominator ...
2
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2answers
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Is it possible to calculate the mean and standard deviation from a median and quartiles?

Any advice would helpful. I understand that the reporting of median and quartiles for small samples is an indication of skewed data. If such is correct, then is it useless to try to work out the mean ...
2
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3answers
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Why is sample variance divided by $n-1$ and not $n$ [duplicate]

Sample Variance, customarily denoted, $s^2$, as in the formula below, is the average of the squared deviations, except that we divide by $n-1$ instead of $n$. $$s^2 = \frac{1}{n-1} ...
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Variance over two periods with known variances?

If period 1 has variance v1 and period 2 has variance v2, what is the variance over period 1 and period 2? (period 1 and period 2 are the same length) I've done some manual calculations with random ...
2
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2answers
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Probability mean,variance and standard deviation formula confusion.

I have a confusion in the formula attached. Why and how are the two formulas equivalent ? sigma in the image is the standard deviation of a distribution...
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Calculating mean and standard deviation of very large sample sizes

I have about 3.5GB worth of data that I need to get statistics from, all split up into about 71MB files, with an (approximately) equal number of samples. From this data, I would like to gather mean ...
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How to calculate the expected value $E(XY)$ with known $E(X)$, $E(Y)$ and $\sigma_{i}$?

I am trying to understand the value of $\bar{x_{1} x_{2}}+E(x_{1} x_{2})$. For all $i$, $E(x_{i})$ and $\sigma_{i}$ are given. Wikipedia gives the joint probability density function: $E(XY) = \int ...
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Standard deviation of $Z = 9 - 3Y^3$

If Y is a random variable with probability mass function: Y | Pr(Y = y) -1 | 0.4 0 | 0.5 1 | 0.1 I need to find the standard deviation of $Z = 9 - 3Y^3$. ...
2
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1answer
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What is difference between standard deviation and Z-score?

I have read several explanations of standard deviation and z-score, I know how to it calculate them but I am not sure what is differences betwen them. Can someone explain it to me? When is suitable ...