Spectral theory is the study of generalized notions of eigenvalues and eigenvectors for linear operators in Banach spaces.

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If $\|p-q\|<{1\over2}$ then $p$ is homotopy equivalent to $q$

Let $A$ be a $C^*$ algebra, $p,q \in A$ projections, such that $\|p-q\|< {1 \over 2}$. Show that $p$ homotopy equivalent to $q$. Proof. Let $a_t=(1-t)p+tq$, then $a_t$ is positive (self-adjoint ...
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Periodic function - Differential equation on an existing question

Related to the question : Eigenvalues of the circle over the Laplacian operator, how could I get an explicit formula for the differential equation $g''=\lambda g$ with $g$ a $2 \pi$-periodic function. ...
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the “real spectrum” of an operator acting on a real Banach space

Let $X$ be a Banach space over the field $\mathbb{R}$, and denote by $\mathcal{L}(X)$ the space of continuous linear operators acting on $X$. The spectrum $\sigma(T)$ of an operator $T\in\mathcal{L}(...
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Direct Integral: Scalars

Given a Borel space $\Omega$. Regard the Hilbert Space: $$\mu:\mathcal{B}(\Omega)\to\overline{\mathbb{R}}_+:\quad\mathcal{H}:=\mathcal{L}^2(\Omega;\mu)$$ Denote the Borel Projections: $$E:\mathcal{B}...
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Show that $||(kI-T)^{-1}|| \le \frac{1}{d}$

Suppose that $T \in BL(H)$ where $H$ is a Hilbert Space. Let$k \in \mathbb{C}$. Let $d=distance(k,W(T)) \gt 0$. $W(T)=\{\lambda \in \mathbb{C}: \lambda=<Tx,x>, ||x||=1, x \in H\}$. Show that $||(...
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irreducible implies the commutant consists of multiples of identity?

I was trying to solve exercises (4) on Page 59 of the book "A short course on spectral theory", William Avreson. Let $A$ be a Banach star-algebra. A representation $\pi\in$rep$(A,H)$ is said to be ...
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Spectral Measures: Integrability

I really need this as tool for other threads! Given a Hilbert space $\mathcal{H}$. Also a Borel space $\Omega$. Consider a spectral measure: $$E:\mathcal{B}(\Omega)\to\mathcal{P}(\mathcal{H}):\quad ...
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Exponential of a self-adjoint operator

Let $\mathcal{H}$ be an Hilbert space. Firstly, I shall define some notions as their definitions may vary: A spectral resolution is a function $E:\mathbb{R}\to\mathcal{L}(\mathcal{H})$ (the space ...
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Spectral radius as an upper bound to norm

The operator norm of a matrix is an upper bound for the spectral radius, and equality holds in particular when the matrix is Hermitian. One proof of this uses the spectral theorem. Is there a direct (...
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Image of a dense set through unbounded operator

Let $T$ be a densely defined, closed operator on a Hilbert space $H$ such that $T^*T$ remains densely defined. Obviously, $\sigma(I+T^*T)\subset [1,\infty)$, which in particular implies this operator (...
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Spectrum of weighted shift operator

The Banach space considered is the following: $(l^{\infty}(\mathbb{Z}), \|\cdot\|_{*})$ with $\|x\|_{*}=\|(...,x_{-1},x_{0},x_{1},...)\|_{*}=|x_{0}|+\text{sup}_{k\neq 0}|x_{k}|$. Define $A$, an ...
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How exactly does one define the “spectral measure” of an operator?

I am seeing kind of different definitions of "spectral measure" at different places and its not clear to me as to what is the universal idea. It would be great to get some "standard" definition. In ...
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Conway’s Functional Analysis, VIII §3 Exercise 11

This exercise is a step to proving inequalities involving non-commuting elements of a C*-algebra. (In particular in the subsequent exercise 12). Unfortunately I do not see, how to prove part (a): For ...
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Example: Operator with empty spectrum

I tried Google and a few books but couldn't find a suitable example. Does anyone know an example of an (unbounded closed) Operator BETWEEN HILBERTSPACES(!), that has empty spectrum? Thanks for your ...
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Solving for the spectrum and eigenvectors of the “shift operator(?)” $T$ in $P_3(\mathbb{R})$?

This question is inspired from accidentally misreading this question in my tutorial exercise in my linear algebra course because I forgot the 3 in $P_3(\mathbb{R})$ (The actual question can be easily ...
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spectral theory of Laplacian on $\mathbb R^n$ [duplicate]

Can you describe the spectrum of the Laplacian $ \Delta : H^2(\mathbb R^n) \subset L^2(\mathbb R^n) \rightarrow L^2(\mathbb R^n)$? I am interested for which values $z \in \mathbb C$ the equation $\...
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Point spectrum of operator on $\ell^2$?

Considere the bounded linear operator $S:\ell^2\longrightarrow \ell^2$ given by $$ S(\xi_j)_j:=\left(\frac{\xi_2}{1}, \frac{\xi_3}{2}, \frac{\xi_4}{3}, \ldots\right).$$ How to show the point spectrum ...
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Efficiently compute the eigenvectors of the Laplacian of a symmetric positive matrix

I am working with a matrix A relatively large (200k x 200k), and I want to compute the eigenvectors of the Laplacian: $L = D - A^2$, where $A$ is symmetric. I don't need all eigenvectors, just a few ...
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adjoint of an operator. on $L^2(0,1)$, $Bf(x)=\int_0^x f(t)dt$

I see that the above operator is bounded. I ended up with an argument to calculate the adjoint as follows, $$ <f,Bg>=\int_0^1\overline{f(x)} \int_0^xg(t)\,dt\,dx $$ I see $f(x)$ as the ...
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Heat operator formalism via spectral projections and Dirac measure

I am currently reading very helpful notes on the Heat kernel $p(t,x,y)$ on a Riemannian manifold $M$ -- there is one aspect though that I am not sure I understand notationally, it says that we can ...
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How to show Legendre Operator $L_{m}=-\frac{d}{dx}(1-x^{2})\frac{d}{dx}+\frac{m^{2}}{1-x^{2}}$ is Selfadjoint?

Let $m$ be a positive integer and define $$ Lf = -\frac{d}{dx}(1-x^{2})\frac{df}{dx}+\frac{m^{2}}{1-x^{2}}f $$ on the domain $\mathcal{D}(L)\subset L^{2}(-1,1)$ consisting of all twice ...
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Resolvent: Norm

Given a Banach space. Consider a closed operator: $$T:\mathcal{D}(T)\to E:\quad T=\overline{T}$$ Due to the Neumann series it holds: $$R(\lambda):=(\lambda- T)^{-1}:\quad\|R(\lambda)\|\geq\frac{1}{d(...
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Is this some kind of Perron-Frobenius theorem?

If one has a matrix $A$ whose entries are all $\geq 0$ (or $>0$) then there apparently exists a diagonal matrix $D > 0$ (i.e all the diagonal entries are positive) and a constant $\alpha >0$ ...
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Spectral Measures: Unitary Map [duplicate]

This thread is a record. Given a Hilbert space $\mathcal{H}$. Consider a normal operator: $$N:\mathcal{D}\to\mathcal{H}:\quad N^*N=NN^*$$ and its spectral measure: $$E:\mathcal{B}(\mathbb{C})\to\...
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Self adjoint operator has spectrum around 0 and 1

I need to prove the following statement: Let $\mathcal{A}$ be a unital $C^*-$Algebra, $A$ a self-adjoint element and $P$ a projection, so $P^2=P=P^*$. Let $\delta :=\|P-A\|$. I want to prove that ...
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Special Elements: Spectrum

Given a C*-algebra with unit $1\in\mathcal{A}$. For normal elements one has: $$A^*=A^{-1}\iff\sigma(A)\subseteq\mathbb{S}$$ $$A^*=A\iff\sigma(A)\subseteq\mathbb{R}$$ $$A\geq0\iff\sigma(A)\subseteq\...
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Construct a bounded linear operator S on H such that σ(S) = A

Given an infinite dimensional Hilbert space $H$. Let $A\subseteq \mathbb{C}$ be closed and bounded. Construct a bounded linear operator $S$ on $H$ such that $\sigma(S)=A$, where $\sigma(S)$ is the ...
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As $\lambda \to \infty$, $||R_{\lambda}(T)|| \to 0$

"Let $T \in B(X,X)$. Prove that $||R_{\lambda}(T)|| \to 0$ as $\lambda \to \infty$." We have that $R_{\lambda}(T)x=(T-\lambda I)^{-1}(x)$. The problem doesn't specify but the book says that they will ...
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Measurable functional calculus

I am struggeling with this exercise: Let $T \in L(H)$ be a self-adjoint operator and $\Psi$ be a measurable (Borel) functional calculus on the spectrum of $T$. For a Borel set $\Delta \subset \sigma (...
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Multiplication operator on $L^2$ and spectral theorem.

Let's consider the multiplication operator by the independent variable in $L^2(\mu)$, where $\mu$ is a borel regular measure on $\mathbb{C}$: $Mf(z)=zf(z)$. I want to show that if $\phi$ is a borel ...
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Definition of continuous spectrum of a bounded operator

Let $T$ be a bounded operator acting on a Banach space $X$. The point spectrum $\sigma_p(T)$ is of $T$ is defined to be $$\sigma_p(T):=\{\lambda\in\mathbb C~|~T-\lambda\text{ has nonempty kernel}\}$$ ...
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A characterization of a certain family of matrices in terms of another matrix.

Consider a real matrix $A$ of dimension $n \times n$. Assume $k \leq n$ is given. I am looking for ways to describe the following set of matrices in terms of properties of $A$. $\mathcal{S}(A) = \{B \...
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Prove that spec$(f(A)) = f$(spec$(A)).$

Can someone please explain this proof to me? Thanks! Let $A \in \mathbb{C}^n$ and let $f(x)$ be a polynomial. Prove that spec$(f(A)) = f$(spec$(A))$ (where if $S \subseteq \mathbb{C},$ $f(S) :=$ $\{ ...
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Definition of exponential for operators

if I have a self-adjoint operator $T:D(T) \rightarrow L^2$, then I define its unitary exponential operator by $$e^{iT}(f) := \lim_{k \rightarrow \infty} e^{iT_{k}}(f),$$ where $T_k(f):=\frac{1}{2} k^...
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Prove that if $T=T^*$ and $\sigma(T)=\{\lambda\}$, then $T=\lambda I$

Show that if $T$ is a self adjoint linear operator on a Hilbert space such that the spectrum contains a single point $\lambda$, then $T=\lambda I$. Then, show this is false if $T$ is not self adjoint....
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Selfadjoint Restrictions of Legendre Operator $-\frac{d}{dx}(1-x^{2})\frac{d}{dx}$

Problem: Let $Lf =-((1-x^{2})f')'$ be the Legendre differential operator defined on the domain $\mathcal{D}(L)$ consisting of twice absolutely continuous functions on $(-1,1)$ for which $f, Lf \in L^{...
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Cayley Transform: well defined?

Why is the Cayley backtransformation well-defined: $$A_U:=\imath(1+U)(1-U)^{-1}$$ In general $1-U$ is not invertible for example for $U=1$.
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Generalized eigenvalue problem; why do real eigenvalues exist?

Under this text, you can see two pairs of matrices $(A,C)$. I am currently solving the generalized eigenvalue $(A-\lambda C)v=0$ for several pairs of $(A,C)$ and found out that they also have real ...
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Establishing an inequality between the $2^{nd}$ largest eigenvalue of $A$ and a related matrix.

Let $A$ be an irreducible, aperiodic matrix with non-negative entries, with $1 \in \ker(A - I)$, $w \in \ker(A^\top - I)$, $w_i > 0$ $\forall i$. Define $W = \text{diag}(w)$. I am studying the ...
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Approximate point spectrum and left topological zero divisors

Recall that a left topological zero divisor in a Banach algebra $A$ is an element $a\in A$ such that there exists a sequence of unit vectors $(a_{n})$ in $A$ with $\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}aa_{n}=0$. ...
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Closure of numerical range contains spectrum

Let $A: D(A) \subset \mathcal{H} \to \mathcal{H}$ be a densely defined operator on a Hilbert space $\mathcal{H}$ with adjoint operator $A^{*}$. Given that $D(A) = D(A^{*})$ I'm trying to show that the ...
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Eigenvalues and adjoint of operator $T(x_k)_{k=1}^{\infty} = (x_{2k})_{k=1}^{\infty}$

Let $T$: $l^2 \rightarrow l^2$ denote the operator \begin{align} T(x_1,x_2,\dots, x_n,\dots) = (x_2,x_4,\dots,x_{2n},\dots). \end{align} There are several questions regarding this operator that I need ...
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Spectrum of linear operators

I can't solve the following: i) Let $T:l^2 \rightarrow l^2$ , $Tx=\{ (Tx)_n\}_{n=1}^{\infty}$ given by $$(Tx)_n = \dfrac{1}{2}x_{n-1} + \dfrac{1}{2}x_n.$$ Find $\sigma(T)$. ii) Let $S : l^2 \...
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Spectral family property: $\lambda \geq M \Rightarrow E_{\lambda} = I$

I'm following Kreyszig's "Introductory Functional Analysis with Applications" and I'm trying to follow his proof about some properties of a spectral family associated with a bounded self-adjoint ...
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spectral radius monotonicity

I encountered an inequality when reading a paper. Can someone help to show how to prove it? Let be the spectral radius of matrix $A$ or $\rho(A)=\max\{|\lambda|, \lambda \text{ are eigenvalues of ...
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Residual spectrum is empty

I'm following Kreyszig's "Introductory Functional Analysis with Applications" and am trying to follow the proof of the following Theorem (9.2-4 on p. 468) For a bounded self-adjoint linear operator $...
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Proof that $A^n = \frac{1}{2\pi i} \oint _C z^n \left(z - A \right)^{-1} dz$

I'm working my way through Martin Schechter's 'Principles of Functional Analysis' (2nd ed.) and am trying to understand his proof of the following theorem, given on page 136: "Let $T:X\to X$ be any ...
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Show for compact operator $K$, if $||Kf|| < ||f|| \forall f$, then $||K|| < 1$.

I wanted to check my reasoning on proving this statement, and see if anyone had suggestions for other proofs of this fact. Again, the statement is, if $K$ is a compact operator on a Hilbert space $H$,...
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Compact resolvent

Given that the operator $$ Hf(x) = -xf''(x) + (x - 1)f'(x) $$ on the Hilbert space $L^2([0,\infty),e^{-x}dx)$ possesses, for each $n \in \mathbb{N}$, an eigenvalue $\lambda_n = n$ with eigenvector ...
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What is the spectral radius of the operator $T_k:C[0,1]\to C[0,1]$ defined as $T_k x (t)= \int_0^1 k(t,s) x(s) ds$?

I would like to know the spectral radius of the operator $T_k$ from $C[0,1] \to C[0,1]$ : $$T_k x (t)= \int_0^1 k(t,s) x(s) ds$$ where $k(x,y)\colon [0,1]^2 \to \mathbb C$ is continuous. And ...