# Tagged Questions

Questions on special functions, useful functions that frequently appear in pure and applied mathematics (usually not including "elementary" functions).

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### Why is Euler's Gamma function the “best” extension of the factorial function to the reals?

There are lots (an infinitude) of smooth functions that coincide with f(n)=n! on the integers. Is there a simple reason why Euler's Gamma function $\Gamma (z) = \int_0^\infty t^{z-1} e^t dt$ is "best"...
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### Prove: $\binom{n}{k}^{-1}=(n+1)\int_{0}^{1}x^{k}(1-x)^{n-k}dx$ for $0 \leq k \leq n$

I would like your help with proving that for every $0 \leq k \leq n$, $$\binom{n}{k}^{-1}=(n+1)\int_{0}^{1}x^{k}(1-x)^{n-k}dx .$$ I tried to integration by parts and to get a pattern or to ...
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### Is there an Inverse Gamma $\Gamma^{-1} (z)$ function?

Since $\Gamma$ is not one to one over the complex domain, Is it possible to define some principal values ( analogues to Principal Roots for the Root function ) so we can have a $\Gamma^{-1} (z)$ (...
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### How to find $\zeta(0)=\frac{-1}{2}$ by definition?

I would like to know how we can find the following result: $$\zeta(0)=-\frac12$$ Is there a way, using the definition, $$\zeta(s)=\sum_{i=1}^{\infty}i^{-s}$$ to find this?
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### Roots of the incomplete gamma function

Is there any way that one can describe all the roots of the incomplete gamma function $\Gamma(n,z)$, for $n\in \mathbb{N}$, analytically?
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### How to accurately calculate the error function erf(x) with a computer?

I am looking for an accurate algorithm to calculate the error function I have tried using [this formula] (http://stackoverflow.com/a/457805) (Handbook of Mathematical Functions, formula 7.1....
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### Short calculation of the dilogarithm?

Is there a nice way to implement the dilogarithm function for real values, without actually performing the integration? A series solution would have been nice, but the series around $0$ has a ...
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### What does | mean?

I found this symbol on Wolfram|Alpha. Does it mean "or"? $\displaystyle \large \cos^{-1}(-1)=\mathrm{cd}^{-1}(-1\mid 0)$
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### Re-Expressing the Digamma

I was reading some articles on the digamma function, and I was wondering if anyone knows how to express the digamma function $\psi^{(0)}(n)$ in terms of a trigonometric function or a logarithmic ...
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### Integrating a product of exponentials and error functions

I have the following integral $$\int\limits_0^\infty x^2\exp(-\delta x^2)\operatorname{erf}(\gamma x)\,dx.$$ Ideally, I would like a closed-form in terms of common functions, but a series answer ...
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### A Challenging Logarithmic Integral $\int_0^1 \frac{\log(x)\log(1-x)\log^2(1+x)}{x}dx$

How can we prove that: $$\int_0^1 \frac{\log(x)\log(1-x)\log^2(1+x)}{x}dx=\frac{7\pi^2}{48}\zeta(3)-\frac{25}{16}\zeta(5)$$ where $\zeta(z)$ is the Riemann Zeta Function. The best I could do was ...
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### The trigonometric solution to the solvable DeMoivre quintic?

Using the relations for the Rogers-Ramanujan cfrac described in this post, $$\frac{1}{r}-r = x$$ $$\frac{1}{r^5}-r^5 = y$$ and eliminating $r$ yields, $$x^5+5x^3+5x = y$$ This is the case $a=1$ ...
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### Beta function derivation

How do I derive the Beta function using the definition of the beta function as the normalizing constant of the Beta distribution and only common sense random experiments? I'm pretty sure this is ...
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### Is it possible to simplify $\frac{\Gamma\left(\frac{1}{10}\right)}{\Gamma\left(\frac{2}{15}\right)\ \Gamma\left(\frac{7}{15}\right)}$?

Is it possible to simplify this expression? $$\frac{\displaystyle\Gamma\left(\frac{1}{10}\right)}{\displaystyle\Gamma\left(\frac{2}{15}\right)\ \Gamma\left(\frac{7}{15}\right)}$$ Is there a systematic ...
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### What would qualify as a valid reason to believe there is a closed form?

I noticed that almost every non-homework-level integral posted on this site prompts somebody to ask "Do you have any reason to believe there is a closed form?" (some recent examples here and here) I ...
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### An Expression for $\log\zeta(ns)$ derived from the Limit of the truncated Prime $\zeta$ Function

I think, here, I found  P_\color{red}x(\color{blue}s)=\sum_{p<\color{red}x} \frac{1}{p^{\color{blue}s}} =\sum_{\color{green}n=1}^{\infty}\frac{ \mu (\color{green}n)}{\color{green}n} \sum_{z\in\{...
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### Help with special function differential equation

this is my first time to use this site. Please let me know if the equations are unreadable, latex isn't my first language. We've been covering Legendre, Bessel, and Confluent Hypergeometric ...
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### Area of Validity of Writing an Exponential Integral as Sum of IntegralSinus and -Cosinus

I'm confused by the two online references shown below. To me, they give different areas of validity of writing an exponential integral as sum of integralsinus and -cosinus. On this Wiki page, I find ...
### Solve $-B \ln y -A y \ln y + A y- A =0$ for $y$
I would like to know if there is a (preferably closed-form) solution for $-B \ln y -A y \ln y + A y- A =0$ for $y$ Where $A, B \in \mathbb{R}^{+}$. I have reasons to think there isn't a closed form ...