Questions on special functions, useful functions that frequently appear in pure and applied mathematics (usually not including "elementary" functions).

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1
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3answers
203 views

better understanding of incomplete gamma function $\Gamma(0,x)$

By definition incomplete Gamma function is:$$\Gamma(0,x)=\int_{x}^{\infty}t^{-1}e^{-t}dt $$ I have an expression which includes $$\Gamma(0,r(A)e^{i\phi(A)}),$$ where $A>0$ is a parameter, and $...
3
votes
2answers
265 views

Proving that special functions do not have closed-form expression

When dealing with special functions, like Erf, one should encounter the following statement This function cannot be expressed in terms of classical functions This seems pretty true, but I was ...
8
votes
1answer
354 views

Prove $f(x)=\int\frac{e^x}{x}\mathrm dx$ is not an elementary function

How do I prove that the exponential integral $$f(x)=\int \frac{e^x}{x}\mathrm dx$$ is not an elementary function? Also, what are the general methods and tricks to prove that an integral or solution ...
3
votes
2answers
169 views

Does anyone recognize this function?

I am looking for a function $f(n)$ that satisfies the following two conditions at the same time $$ \frac{f(n-1)}{f(n)}=(-1)^n\quad ,\quad \frac{f(n+1)}{f(n)}=(+1)^n\equiv 1,\quad \forall n\in\mathbb{...
17
votes
2answers
2k views

Series of logarithms $\sum\limits_{k=1}^\infty \ln(k)$ (Ramanujan summation?)

I had this question earlier, so to say as a "standalone" problem, but now it pops up in context of an analysis with the lngamma-function. As well as we can convert the question of sums of like powers $...
30
votes
2answers
1k views

Is this function decreasing on $(0,1)$?

While doing some research I got stuck trying to prove that the following function is decreasing $$f(k):= k K(k) \sinh \left(\frac{\pi}{2} \frac{K(\sqrt{1-k^2})}{K(k)}\right)$$ for $k \in (0,1)$. ...
7
votes
3answers
694 views

$e^x(\ln x-c) =\sum \limits_{k=0}^\infty \frac{ x^{k} \Gamma'(k+1)}{ (k!)^2}$ Is it correct result?

$e^x=\sum \limits_{k=0}^\infty \frac{x^k}{k!}$ We can write $e^x=\sum \limits_{k=0}^\infty \frac{x^k}{ \Gamma(k+1)}$ Where $\Gamma(x)$ is Gamma function $\Gamma(k+1)=k\Gamma(k)$ $\frac{\Gamma(k+...
10
votes
0answers
229 views

Different notions of q-numbers

It seems that most of the literature dealing with q-analogs defines q-numbers according to $$[n]_q\equiv \frac{q^n-1}{q-1}.$$ Even Mathematica uses this definition: with the built-in function QGamma ...
2
votes
1answer
193 views

Hypergeometric series

If found that : "Assume further that this equation has e series solution $\sum a_ix^i$ whose coefficients are connected by two term recurrence formula. Then, such a series can be expressed in terms ...
3
votes
1answer
113 views

Minimal $x$ for which $\phi(k) > n$ for all $k > x$

It's well-known that $$ \liminf_n\frac{\varphi(n)\log\log n}{n}=e^{-\gamma} $$ and there exists an effective version $$ \varphi(n)>\frac {n}{e^\gamma\log\log n+\frac{3}{\log\log n}} $$ valid for $...
1
vote
0answers
257 views

How to derive to inverse z transform of $\sqrt{\frac{1-a^2}{1-\frac{a}{z}}}$ from Laguerre differential equation?

How can I derive the inverse z-transform of: $$\sqrt{\frac{1-a^2}{1-\frac{a}{z}}}$$ If Maple is not the way, how to derive manually? With Maple code I encounter some problems ...
7
votes
1answer
251 views

Is the Gamma function superadditive?

A function $f$ is superadditive if $f(x) + f(y) \le f(x+y)$. The question is: Does a real number $a$ exists such that for all real numbers with $x, y\ \ge \ a $ $$ \Gamma(x) + \Gamma(y) \le \Gamma(...
3
votes
0answers
206 views

Solid angle spanned by disc/rewriting expression with elliptic integrals

The solid angle spanned by a disc of unit radius, as observed from a point $(r,z)$ at a distance $z>0$ above a point in the disc plane with at distance $r>0$ to the center, can be expressed as $...
1
vote
0answers
190 views

What is the correct differential equation for the Laguerre function?

I would like to derive the correct Laguerre function from the differential equation but the differential equations seems different from the original one. What is the correct differential equation and ...
1
vote
0answers
88 views

fastest way to evaluate $\arg\zeta\left(\frac{1}{2}+i\text{t}\right) $ [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: evaluation of $ \operatorname{Arg}\zeta (1/2+is) $ ?? If we consider $$\arg\zeta\left(\frac{1}{2} + i\text{t}\right) = \text{Im }\log\zeta\left(\frac{1}{2}+i\text{t}\right)...
7
votes
1answer
232 views

Improper integral about exp appeared in Titchmarsh's book on the zeta function

May I ask how to do the following integration? $$\int_0^\infty \frac{e^{-(\pi n^{2}/x) -(\pi t^2 x)}}{\sqrt{x}} dx $$ where $t>0$, $n$ a positive integer. This came up on page 32 (image) of ...
4
votes
3answers
2k views

Estimating the Gamma function to high precision efficiently?

I know there are several approximations of the Gamma function that provide decent approximations of this function. I was wondering, how can I efficiently estimate specific values of the Gamma ...
14
votes
3answers
492 views

Can this integral $\int_0^{2\pi} \frac{d\theta}{(a^2 \cos^2 \theta +b^2\sin^2\theta)^{3/2}}$ be written in the form of a elliptic integral

I am trying to find the magnetic field due to an elliptic loop of wire. How to do integrals of the type $$\int_0^{2\pi} \frac{d\theta}{(a^2 \cos^2 \theta +b^2\sin^2\theta)^{3/2}}$$ Where a and b are ...
2
votes
1answer
433 views

Identity for complete elliptic integral of the second kind

Why does $|x-1| \; E\left(-\dfrac{4x}{(x-1)^2}\right) = |x+1| \; E\left(\dfrac{4x}{(x+1)^2}\right)$, where $E(m)$ is the complete elliptic integral of the second kind, with parameter $m$?
0
votes
1answer
179 views

Seeking for some neat function for Hermite polynomial

Let us define $$F_n=\int f(z) |He_n(z)|^2 \, dz \, dz^*$$ is there any type of function $f$ could make that $F_n=0$ for $n\geq 2$ and $F_n>0$ for $n<2?$ $He_n(x)=2^{-\frac{n}{2}}H_n\left(\frac{...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Value of a scaled Bessel function for negative argument

Is the function $\hat{i}_0(x) = e^{-|x|} \sqrt{\frac{\pi}{2x}} I_{\frac{1}{2}}(x)$ positive or negative for negative $x$? $I_{\alpha}(x)$ above is a modified Bessel function. Here are my arguments. ...
2
votes
1answer
822 views

Closed Form of Normal Distribution

What does closed form in following sentence mean and why we need tables of c.d.f.? Normal distributions's p.d.f. cannot be integrated in closed form, and hence tables of the c.d.f. or computer ...
4
votes
0answers
191 views

Weierstrass $\wp$-Function Addition Property

Consider the function $$ \det\left( \begin{array}{ccccc} &1 &\wp(z) &\wp'(z) \\ &1 &\wp(w) &\wp'(w) \\ &1 &\wp(-z-w) &\wp'(-z-w) \end{array} \right)=f(z) $$ I'm ...
10
votes
4answers
656 views

Solving $(t^2+1)(y''-2y+1)=e^t$ with the initial conditions: $y(0)=y'(0)=1$

Since it is important to me I would like to award a user who would kindly explain me what are my mistakes and what is the correct way to solve the whole problem with 500 points. I'd really like your ...
3
votes
0answers
213 views

Common zeros of associated Legendre functions

Suppose that $x_{0}$ is a zero of the associated Legendre function $P_{n}^{m}(x)$ (the degree $n$ is a positive integer while the order $m$ is an integer in the range from $0$ to $n$). If there exist ...
0
votes
1answer
192 views

Is there an infinite product for $\left(\frac{\eta(13\tau)}{\eta(\tau)}\right)^2$ analogous to the Rogers-Ramanujan identity? [closed]

Given $$ \left(\frac{\eta(5\tau)}{\eta(\tau)}\right)^{6}\;\; =\;\; \frac{r^5}{1-11r^5-r^{10}},\;\;\;\;\;\text{with}\;\;r\; =\; q^{1/5} \prod_{n=1}^\infty \frac{(1-q^{5n-1})(1-q^{5n-4})}{(1-q^{5n-2})(...
7
votes
2answers
709 views

Approximate $\int_a^b \frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \pi \sigma^2}}e^{-(x-\mu)^2/2 \sigma^2}\log(1+e^{-x}) \ \ dx $

I am trying to find an approximation to $$ I = \int_a^b \frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \pi \sigma^2}}e^{-(x-\mu)^2/2 \sigma^2}\log(1+e^{-x}) \ \ dx. $$ My attempt is as follows: $$ \begin{align} I &= \int_a^b ...
8
votes
3answers
494 views

Evaluation of $\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{\Gamma (n+s)}$

I want to try and evaluate this interesting sum: $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{\Gamma (n+s)}$$ where $0 \le s < 1$ WolframAlpha evaluates this sum to be $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{\Gamma (n+s)...
4
votes
2answers
248 views

To find closed form of $\int_0^{\frac{\pi}{2}} e^{-x\tan t+\alpha t} \;dt $

Let $x\geq 0$, then $$\int_0^{\frac{\pi}{2}} e^{-x\tan t+\alpha t} \;dt = U_{\alpha} (x) $$ $$-\int_0^{\frac{\pi}{2}} \tan t \ e^{-x\tan t+\alpha t} \;dt = \frac{d (U_{\alpha} (x) )}{dx} $$ $$\int_0^...
0
votes
1answer
100 views

Finding a general coefficient in the multiplication of the two series

Help me please to find a general coefficient $a_j$ of the following series $$ \left(\sum_{j=0}^{\infty}\frac{1}{j!}\left(\frac{t^2}{8p}\right)^j\right)\left(\sum_{j=0}^k\frac{(-1)^jt^{2j}}{4^jp^{2j}j!(...
21
votes
1answer
536 views

Does $\left(n^2 \sin n\right)$ have a convergent subsequence?

I'm wrestling with the following: Question: For what values of $\alpha > 0$ does the sequence $\left(n^\alpha \sin n\right)$ have a convergent subsequence? (The special case $\alpha = 2$ in ...
4
votes
1answer
197 views

Infinite series representation. Limited or not?

Recently I've found the following. Let $n < m$. Then the integral $$\int\limits_0^\infty {\frac{{{x^{n-1}}}}{{1 + {x^m}}}} dx$$ converges and its value is (using the $B$ and $\Gamma$ function ...
10
votes
1answer
594 views

Evaluate or simplify $\int\frac{1}{\ln x}\,dx$

I did a bit of work on this, but I'm not so sure about the parts towards the end. Starting with$$\int\frac{1}{\ln x}\,dx$$$$u=\ln x,1=\frac{dx}{du}\frac{1}{x},dx=x\,du,dx=e^{\ln x}du,dx=e^u\,du$$$$\...
2
votes
0answers
68 views

Is this formula for $ \sum_{n} (n^{2}+z^{2})^{-s} $ correct?

I would like to know if this formula is true: $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{(z^{2}+n^{2})^s}=\frac{1}{\Gamma(s)} \sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\Gamma(s+n)\zeta(2s+2n)\frac{ (-z^2)^n}{n!}.$$ I have used the ...
5
votes
2answers
157 views

Riemann zeta sums and harmonic numbers

Given the nth harmonic number of order s, $$H_n(s) =\sum_{m=1}^n \frac{1}{m^s}$$ It can be empirically observed that, for $s > 2$, then, $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty\Big[\zeta(s)-H_n(s)\Big] = \zeta(s-1)-...
6
votes
1answer
307 views

On the Dirichlet beta function sum $\sum_{k=2}^\infty\Big[1-\beta(k) \Big]$

Given the Dirichlet beta function, $$\beta(k) = \sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac{(-1)^n}{(2n+1)^k}$$ (The cases k = 2 is Catalan's constant.) It seems, $$\sum_{k=2}^\infty\Big[1-\beta(k) \Big] = \frac{1}{4}\...
1
vote
0answers
85 views

integral with bessel function represented as a series [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: prove equality with integral and series This integral was my homework question with $p=2$ and $n=1$. I am wondering if one can get the general formula for p, or at least ...
2
votes
1answer
116 views

To simplify $f_a(x)= \int_{-a}^{+a} e^ {-\frac{x}{t^2-a^2}}\;dt$

Let $x\leq0$, then $$ f_a(x)= \int_{-a}^{+a} e^ {-\frac{x}{t^2-a^2}}\;dt$$ $$ f'(x)= -\int_{-a}^{+a} \frac{1}{t^2-a^2} e^ {-\frac{x}{t^2-a^2}}dt$$ $$ f'(x)= -\int_{-a}^{+a} \frac{t^2-(t^2-a^...
1
vote
0answers
135 views

How to find a function with the following properties?

I want to find a function $f(s,x)$ such that $f(s,x)$ is analytic for any $s \in Z^+ $, $f(s,x)=B_s(x)$, where $B_s(x)$ are the Bernoulli polynomials $f(a, x)$ is elementary against $x$ at any ...
5
votes
1answer
227 views

prove equality with integral and series

I am stuck on one question with integral. Help me please to show that with $n=1$ the following is true $$ \int_{0}^{\infty}\left(\frac{2^n}{t^n}\left(\frac{t^n}{2^nn!}-\frac{1}{2^{n+2}}\frac{t^{n+2}}{...
4
votes
1answer
144 views

Hypergeometric functions inequality

Let $_2F_1(a,b;c,z)$ be the (Gauss) hypergeometric function, and $m$ and $n$ positive integers. From a simple plot it looks like $_2F_1(m+n,1,m+1,\frac{m}{m+n})>\frac{m}{n} \,_2F_1(m+n,1,n+1,\...
4
votes
2answers
260 views

Bound for the Legendre function of the second kind of degree $1/2$

Let $Q_{1/2}(u)$ be the Legendre function of the second kind of degree $1/2$. One can show that $Q_{1/2}(u) = O(u^{-3/2})$ as $u\to \infty$; see Equation 21 in Section 3.9.2 of Higher transcendental ...
16
votes
4answers
508 views

The function $f(x) = \int_0^\infty \frac{x^t}{\Gamma(t+1)} \, dt$

Does anyone know if this function has a name? I came up with it by looking at the power series for $e^z$, changing the summation to an integral, and substituting the gamma function for the factorial ...
1
vote
0answers
721 views

solving Bessel function equation by hand

I have a Bessel function of the first kind given by the equation $$J_\alpha (\beta) = \sum_{m=0}^{\infty}\frac{(-1)^m}{m!\Gamma(m+\alpha +1)} \left(\frac{\beta}{2}\right)^{2m+\alpha}$$ I am trying to ...
15
votes
1answer
372 views

On the zeta sum $\sum_{n=1}^\infty[\zeta(5n)-1]$ and others

For p = 2, we have, $\begin{align}&\sum_{n=1}^\infty[\zeta(pn)-1] = \frac{3}{4}\end{align}$ It seems there is a general form for odd p. For example, for p = 5, define $z_5 = e^{\pi i/5}$. Then, ...
11
votes
1answer
224 views

A particular case of Truesdell's unified theory of special functions

I'm reading through Clifford Truesdell's "An essay toward a unified theory of special functions", Princeton Univ. Press, 1948. All his exposition is based on the functional equation $$\frac{\partial}{...
2
votes
0answers
181 views

Can we confirm $\sum_x{x!}$?

According to Wikipedia's article on indefinite sums, they list the following formula near the bottom of the page: $$\displaystyle \sum_x{\Gamma(x)}=(-1)^{x+1}\Gamma(x)\frac{\Gamma(1-x,-1)}{e}+C$$ ...
0
votes
1answer
173 views

How to determinate the linearly independence between some special functions defined by ODE?

How to determinate the linearly independence between some special functions defined by ODE? For example: ${}_1F_1(a;b;x)$ , $x^{1-b}{}_1F_1(a-b+1;2-b;x)$ when $b$ is integer ${}_2F_1(a,b;c;x)$ , $x^{...
0
votes
1answer
96 views

Condition for frame of $L_2$

Let $f$ be continuous, real valued and compactly supported with exactly one maximum function in $L_2$. Form the functions $$ f_{m,k}=f^m(x-2^k) $$ Under which conditions $\{f_{m,k}\}$ would be a ...
2
votes
2answers
407 views

Polynomials in Fourier trigonometric series

I'm successively integrating $x^{n} \cos{k x}$ for increasing values of positive integer n. I'm finding: $\frac{\sin{kx}}{k}$, $\frac{\cos{kx}}{k^2}+\frac{x\sin{kx}}{k}$, $\frac{2 x \cos{kx}}{k^...