Questions on special functions, useful functions that frequently appear in pure and applied mathematics (usually not including "elementary" functions).

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1
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0answers
31 views

Integral involving Marcum Q-function

I'm struggling to find an approximation for the following integral: $$\int\limits_0^\infty {{{\left[ {1 - Q\left( {a\sqrt t ,b} \right)} \right]}^n}{e^{ - t}}dt} $$ where ${Q\left( {a\sqrt t ...
4
votes
1answer
122 views

Does $\int_0^{2 \pi} \sqrt{1-(a+b \sin\phi)^2} d\phi $ have a closed form in terms of elliptic integrals?

Consider the following integral for real $a, b$ such that the square root is real: \begin{equation} I=\int_0^{2 \pi} \sqrt{1-(a+b \sin\phi)^2} d\phi \end{equation} For $a = 0$, the integral is easily ...
2
votes
1answer
22 views

How would I go about converting $U(n)= 4^n+U(n-1)$ into an explicit form? [closed]

I have the recursive function $U(n)= 4^n+U(n-1)$, and I'd like to convert it into an explicit form. If you could also walk me through the process that would be great. Thanks!
4
votes
3answers
59 views

Game With 21 Squares, How Many Possible Answers? Function Building

We played this game in our math class, okay, I'll explain how it's played. There are 21 squares in a straight line across, the first person shades in 2 adjacent squares. The next player shades in 2 ...
2
votes
0answers
96 views

An Integral possibly related to Legendre polynomials

Consider the integral $$\int_0^1\frac{(t^2-1)^a}{(t-u)^{b+1}}dz$$ where $b\gg a$, with $a,b$ integers and $u>1$. I know you can write this integral as the sum of two hypergeometric functions but ...
0
votes
1answer
115 views

Evaluation of definite integral using complex analysis

I want to evaluate the following indefinite integral $$ \int_0^{\infty} x^{p - 1} \cos (ax) dx$$ where $0 < p < 1$ and $a > 0$. I was considering the function $f(z) = z^{p - 1} e^{iaz}$ and ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Expressing a finite sum in terms of special functions

I've encountered the following sum: $$ c_m(x;a)=\sum_{n=0}^{m-1} \frac{\Gamma(a+n)}{\Gamma(a+m)} x^{m-n-1} = \sum_{n=0}^{m-1} B(a+n,m-n) \frac{x^{m-n-1}}{(m-n-1)!}, \qquad a,x>0. $$ It really ...
17
votes
1answer
401 views

A Challenging Logarithmic Integral $\int_0^1 \frac{\log(x)\log(1-x)\log^2(1+x)}{x}dx$

How can we prove that: $$\int_0^1 \frac{\log(x)\log(1-x)\log^2(1+x)}{x}dx=\frac{7\pi^2}{48}\zeta(3)-\frac{25}{16}\zeta(5)$$ where $\zeta(z)$ is the Riemann Zeta Function. The best I could do was ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

What is the integral containing decaying exponential function?

I am trying to figure out properties of the following integral: $$p(t)=\int_{0}^{t} e^{\alpha(t-t')} f(t')dt', \hspace{1 cm} t>t'$$ I would google and read more info about this integral but I do ...
5
votes
3answers
376 views

Evaluating $ \int_{-\infty}^{\infty}x\exp\left(-b^{2}\left(x-c\right)^{2}\right)\mathrm{erf}^{2}\left(a\left(x-d\right)\right)\,\mathrm{d}x $

I have big difficulties solving the following integral: $$ \int_{-\infty}^{\infty}x\exp\left(-b^{2}\left(x-c\right)^{2}\right)\mathrm{erf}^{2}\left(a\left(x-d\right)\right)\,\mathrm{d}x $$ I tried to ...
1
vote
2answers
453 views

Integral of product of exponential function and two complementary error functions (erfc)

I found the following integral evaluation very interesting to me: Integral of product of two error functions (erf) and I hoped that I could use that result to evaluate the following integral: $$ ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

Solution to Legendre eq in trig form

Okay I'm having a little trouble in answering this question... so the general solution is $y(x) = AP_n(x) + BQ_n(x)$ umm then what do I do?
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Incomplete Gamma function as Meijer G

How can I write the incomplete Gamma function in terms of the Meijer-G function? Assume that the Incomplete Gamma is given as: where alpha, beta and m are real positive constants.
5
votes
0answers
45 views

What is $f_\alpha(x) = \sum_{n\in \mathbb{N}} \frac{n^\alpha}{n!}x^n$?

I want to understand the function $$f_\alpha(x) = \sum_{n\in \mathbb{N}} \frac{n^\alpha}{n!}x^n, \ \ \ \forall x\in\mathbb{R},$$ for any possible real $\alpha\geq0$. I know that for $\alpha$ integer, ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

Associated Legendre functions special values

I should prove that $$P_n^n(\cos \theta)=(2n-1)!! \sin^n\theta$$ $$P_n^m(0)=\begin{Bmatrix} (-1)^{(m+n)/2}\displaystyle\frac{(n+m-1)!!}{(n-m)!!} & \mbox{ if }& n+m \text{ even}\\ 0 & ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Why does the asymptotic equation of the modified Bessel of the second kind (Iv) have an imaginary part?

This is a follow up to this question. How does one arrive at the asymptotic expressions for the bessel functions? After looking at: G. N. Watson, "A Treatise on the Theory of Bessel Functions", 2nd ...
1
vote
2answers
67 views

How does one arrive at the asymptotic expressions for the bessel functions?

It is known that Bessel functions for large arguments will behave as exp or cos/sin however I was wondering how does one arrive at those results. The motivation being that I would like to use these ...
2
votes
1answer
45 views

How to prove the transformation formula for Jacobi classic theta function

How to prove the following transformation formula: $$ \theta(x)=\frac{1}{\sqrt{x}} \theta\left(\frac{1}{x}\right), $$ where $\theta$ is the Jacobi theta function $\theta(x)=\sum_{n\in \mathbb{Z}} ...
0
votes
0answers
100 views

Evaluating integral with Legendre polynomials

I want to do the following integral: $$ I=\int_{-1}^{1} x^n P_{n}(x) \rm{d}x $$ WITHOUT using Rodrigues' formula. I'm required to use $$ P_{n}(x) = \sum_{r=0}^{[n/2]} \frac{(-1)^r (2n-2r)!}{2^n r! ...
16
votes
3answers
333 views

Find the value of $\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{x^3}{e^x-1}\ln(e^x - 1)\,dx$

I'm trying to figure out how to evaluate the following: $$ J=\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{x^3}{e^x-1}\ln(e^x - 1)\,dx $$ I'm tried considering $I(s) = \int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{x^3}{(e^x-1)^s}\,dx\implies ...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

$\int_{-1}^{1} x^{k+i} P_n(x)dx$, $P_n$ Legendre polynomial.

I was wondering whether there is a way to say what $$\int_{-1}^{1} x^{k} P_n(x)dx$$ is, where $k,n$ are positive integers or zero and $P_n$ is the n-th Legendre polynomial? I am looking for an ...
1
vote
2answers
36 views

How to find a function from an infinite sequence of derivatives at $x=0$

I need an odd function $f(x)$ which converges to $\pm \infty$ at $\pm a$ for some positive $a$. At $x=0$, the even derivatives must be $0$, and the odd derivatives must be factorials : $f(0)=0$, ...
3
votes
1answer
38 views

Properties of a Mehler's type integral

When computing the resolvent of the Laplace beltrami opetator on $S^n$ for even dimension, $n=2k$, I came across the following integral $$ ...
2
votes
0answers
170 views

Problem with understanding first (and second) derivative of a two-sided infinite series

For the function $$f(x)=b^x-1 = x_1 \qquad g(x)=\log(1+x)/\log(b) $$ and its iterative notation $$ x_0=x \qquad x_h=f(x_{h-1})=g(x_{h+1}) \qquad x_{-1}=g(x_0) $$ with b from the interval $1 \lt b \lt ...
1
vote
0answers
68 views

What is the Fourier series of $e^{\mu\cos\theta}$?

Motivation: I want to solve this convolution problem on the circle: find $f$, given $g$ and $$ g(\theta) = \int_{S^1} e^{\mu\cos(\theta-\phi)}g(\phi)\ d\phi. $$ To do this, I want to find the Fourier ...
1
vote
1answer
158 views

About the Legendre differential equation

Consider the Legendre differential equation $$ (1-x^2) y'' - 2xy' + n(n+1)y = 0 $$ Then its solution is given by $$ y = c_1 P_n (x) + \text{an infinite series} $$ In fact $y = c_1 P_n (x) + c_2 Q_n ...
1
vote
1answer
61 views

product of different order Bessel function integral

$\displaystyle w = \int_0^\infty r\; J_\mu(ar)\;J_\theta(br)\; \text{d}r $ I'd like to solve this integral ,where a and b are real and positive constant. any information regarding this integral help ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Calculate $\lim_{z\rightarrow -n} \frac{\Gamma'(iz)}{\Gamma^2(iz)}$

We know that: \begin{equation} \lim_{z\rightarrow -n} \frac{\Gamma'(z)}{\Gamma^2(z)}=(-1)^{n+1} n! \end{equation} What if there is $iz$ instead of $z$? i.e. \begin{equation} \lim_{z\rightarrow -n} ...
0
votes
0answers
28 views

Function that defines a skew bell shaped curve

The following formula describes a normal bell shaped curve: $$f(x,a,b,c) = \frac{1}{1+|\frac{x-c}{a}|^{2b}}$$ I am trying to model data that exhibits has skewed bell shaped behaviour (please see the ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Legendre associated functions

From this $$P^m_n(x)=\displaystyle\frac{1}{2^nn!}(1-x^2)^{m/2}\displaystyle\frac{d^{n+m}}{dx^{n+m}}(x^2-1)^n$$ I should derive that $$P^{-m}_n(x)=(-1)^n\displaystyle\frac{(n-m)!}{(n+m)!}P_m^n(x)$$ ...
2
votes
1answer
37 views

Asymptotic behaviour of $\frac{\Gamma(n)}{\Gamma(n+\frac{6}{5}+i\frac{2}{7})}$

Find the asymptotic behaviour of $$\frac{\Gamma(n)}{\Gamma(n+\frac{6}{5}+i\frac{2}{7})}\ \ \ (n\rightarrow \infty)$$ I know we must use Stirling's formula. But I can't .Thank you
18
votes
4answers
497 views

Fractional Calculus: Motivation and Foundations.

If this is too broad, I apologise; let's keep it focused on the basics if necessary. What's the motivation and the rigorous foundations behind fractional calculus? It seems very weird & ...
8
votes
1answer
421 views

Different methods to prove $\zeta(s)=2^s\pi^{s-1}\sin\left(\frac{s\pi}{2}\right) \Gamma (1-s) \zeta (1-s)$.

I've recently encountered this strangely attractive equation (Riemann's functional equation), along with Riemann's original proof. $$\displaystyle\zeta(s)=2^s\pi^{s-1}\sin\left(\frac{s\pi}{2}\right) ...
2
votes
1answer
80 views

Hypergeometric Function simple identity

I must proove this property but I really have no idea of how to proove it: $${}_2F_1(a,b;c;z)=(1-z)^{-a}{}_2F_1(a,c-b;c,\frac{-z}{1-z}) $$ It seems its a 'simple' property, but I haven't been able to ...
3
votes
1answer
81 views

Bessel Equations Addition Formula

So, I'm considering yet another tricky proof involving Bessel Functions. Basically, I'm trying to figure out how the following is true: $$J_n(\alpha + \beta) = \sum_{m = -\infty}^\infty ...
2
votes
2answers
99 views

Series $\sum_{n=0}^\infty (-1)^n \frac{x^{4n+1}}{4n+1}$

Does anyone know the sums of the following two series? $$\sum_{n=0}^\infty (-1)^n \frac{x^{4n+1}}{4n+1}$$ $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty (-1)^{n+1} \frac{x^{4n-1}}{4n-1}$$ I encounter such series in my work.
6
votes
1answer
153 views

analytic solution to definte integral

I am looking for Analytic solution to a definite integral. Or an approriate transformation to apply. the conditions on $\alpha$ , $\beta$ being positive real numbers while $n$ is positive integer.the ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Are we only knowing prime counting function's property but not its infinite expansion?

Are we only knowing prime counting function's asymptotic property but not its infinite expansion or even people could saying that there are no infinite series for the function? If yes, what are some ...
5
votes
1answer
177 views

Prove that $\int_0^{\pi/2} \cos^{p+q-2}(\theta) \cos((p-q)\theta)d\theta = \frac{\pi}{(p+q-1)2^{p+q-1}B(p,q)}$

Does anybody know how to prove this identity? $$\int_0^{\pi/2} \cos^{p+q-2}(\theta) \cos((p-q)\theta)d\theta = \frac{\pi}{(p+q-1)2^{p+q-1}B(p,q)}\quad p+q>1,q<1$$ $B(x,y)$ denotes Beta ...
0
votes
2answers
35 views

How do you shift a sigmoidal curve to the right?

How do you shift the function $1$ $/ ( 1 + e ^ {-x} )$ to the right without altering the shape of the curve?
2
votes
1answer
36 views

Sums Involving the Mobius Function

Are there any good approximations for the following sums in terms of $n$? $$\sum_{k=1}^{n}\mu(k)$$ $$\sum_{k=1}^{n}\mu(k)\log^m(k)$$ $$\sum_{k=1}^{n}\frac{\mu(k)}{k}.$$ I realize that the third sum ...
0
votes
1answer
79 views

Mean and variance of truncated generalized Beta distribution

The generalized Beta probability density function is given by: $$f(x) = \frac{(x-A)^{\alpha - 1} (B-x)^{\beta - 1}}{(B-A)^{\alpha + \beta - 1} \mathrm{B}(\alpha ,\beta)}$$ for $A<x<B$, and ...
3
votes
1answer
24 views

bessel function maximizer

I try to find global maximum for $ \frac{J_2(x)}{x^2} $ I suspect it happens at x=0 ( plotting the graph) where the value of the function is $ \frac{1}{8} $ I know local maximizers are at zeros of ...
0
votes
1answer
66 views

Integrate square root of 4th grad polynomials

During some calculations for a program I came upon this Integral which I am not able to solve. I already tried Matlab but it didn't help me. Here is the Integral: $$\int\left(\sqrt{\sum_{0}^{5} 9 ...
79
votes
9answers
4k views

Why is Euler's Gamma function the “best” extension of the factorial function to the reals?

There are lots (an infinitude) of smooth functions that coincide with f(n)=n! on the integers. Is there a simple reason why Euler's Gamma function $\Gamma (z) = \int_0^\infty t^{z-1} e^t dt$ is ...
2
votes
2answers
572 views

How to prove this generating function of Legendre polynomials?

How to prove this generating function of Legendre polynomials? $$\frac{1}{\sqrt{1-2xt+t^2}}=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}P_n(x)t^n$$ I found 2 proofs and they are different from each other and I don't ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Zoo of sigmoid integrals (computational convenience)

In many areas in computational science (e.g. neural networks, fuzzy logic ... ) there is special interest in function like sigmoid ( erf, arctan, tanh ... ) which are kind of blured version of ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Discontinuity of the indicator function

Consider the function $q(x,\theta)=1\{ x \in \{x \text{ s.t. } \theta+x_i>0 \text{ }\forall i \}\}$ where 1 is the indicator function taking value 1 if the condition inside $\{ \}$ is satisfied and ...
2
votes
1answer
75 views

Proof of the Unsöld's Theorem (the sum of spherical harmonics)

There is an identity concerning spherical harmonics that plays a pretty important role in atomic physics. Thanks to wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spherical_harmonic) I know that its name is ...
28
votes
0answers
560 views

Extending the result $\int_{0}^{\infty} \left( ( 1 - 2C(x))^{2} + (1-2S(x))^{2} \right) \, dx = \frac{4}{\pi} $

While generalizing this result, I succeeded in proving that for $\alpha > 0$, $\beta < 1$ and $1 < 2\alpha + \beta < 3$, we have \begin{align*} &\int_{0}^{\infty} \left[ \left( ...