Questions on special functions, useful functions that frequently appear in pure and applied mathematics (usually not including "elementary" functions).

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0
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0answers
53 views

closed form expression for an infinite series

Is there any closed form expression for the infinite sum $∑_{n≥0}q^{n(n+1)/2}(1+q)(1+q^2)...(1+q^n)u^n$ where both q and n are variables and $n \in N∪0$?
0
votes
1answer
42 views

closed form expression for an infinite sum

Is there any closed form expression for the infinite sum $\sum_{n≥0}q^{n^2}u^n$ where both q and n are variables and $n \in N∪0$ ?
2
votes
1answer
82 views

What is the inverse function of $\int{ \frac{1}{{\sqrt{x+1}}{x^n}} dx}$?

I am trying to solve $$ \frac{dy}{dt} = \alpha ((y+1)^2 - \gamma)^n \hspace{2cm} y(0)=0 $$ Here $y$ is a real-valued, monotonically increasing, positive definite function of $t$ in the interval ...
13
votes
2answers
448 views

Interesting Integral $\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}\frac{e^{i nx}}{\Gamma(\alpha+x) \Gamma(\beta -x)}dx$

I am asking this question out of curiosity. $$\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}\frac{e^{i nx}}{\Gamma(\alpha+x) \Gamma(\beta -x)}dx = \frac{ \left(2\cos \frac{n}{2} \right)^{\alpha ...
0
votes
1answer
55 views

Sigmoid function in neural network

I am studying a doctoral thesis on control-theory and have trouble understanding the notions and the notation introduced there. I am doing this out of interest on the subject, so I haven't had a ...
2
votes
1answer
16 views

lower bound of modified Besselfunction

i'm looking for an lower bound for the modified Bessel function of the first kind $I_\nu(x)$ of a +ive real argument. There should be one of the form $$ce^{x^\alpha} \le I_\nu(x)$$.
4
votes
3answers
95 views

Proving $\int_0^1 \frac{\mathrm{d}x}{1-\lfloor \log_2(1-x)\rfloor} = 2 \log 2 - 1$.

By testing in maple I found that $$ \int_0^1 \frac{\mathrm{d}x}{1-\lfloor \log_2(1-x)\rfloor} = 2 \log 2 - 1 $$ Does there exists a proof for this? I tried rewriting it as an series but no luck ...
7
votes
4answers
181 views

Integral $\int_0^1 \log \left(\Gamma\left(x+\alpha\right)\right)\,{\rm d}x=\frac{\log\left( 2 \pi\right)}{2}+\alpha \log\left(\alpha\right) -\alpha$

Hi I am trying to prove$$ I:=\int_0^1 \log\left(\,\Gamma\left(x+\alpha\right)\,\right)\,{\rm d}x =\frac{\log\left(2\pi\right)}{2}+\alpha \log\left(\alpha\right) -\alpha\,,\qquad \alpha \geq 0. $$ I am ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Keep a Function Positive via Mod

I have a function $F$ and I want it to remain positive--i.e., $$- F=F,\quad F=F $$ Would sticking a $\mod 2$ in front of $F$ do this? That is, because $$-1\mod 2=1\mod 2=1 $$ Then let ...
6
votes
3answers
106 views

A closed form expression for $\int_0^{\infty} (t^2+t^4)^n e^{-t^2-t^4}\,dt$

I was doing some computations for research purposes, which led me to this integral: $$I(n) = \int_0^{\infty} (t^2+t^4)^n e^{-t^2-t^4}\,dt.$$ This is very suggestively written so as to employ a ...
1
vote
1answer
64 views

Function Approximation

I need to solve the following equation $$-\frac{\partial S(x,y,t)}{\partial t}=ax^2+bx\frac{\partial S(x,y,t)}{\partial x}+c\Big[\frac{\partial S(x,y,t)}{\partial ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Evaluation of polygamma function?

I have an expression related to polygamma function. I just need to know whether it is greater than zero or less than zero. In the experssion a>b (both integers) and c is positive real any link ...
14
votes
1answer
575 views

Integral$=-\frac{4}{3}\log^3 2-\frac{\pi^2}{3}\log 2+\frac{5}{2}\zeta(3)$

Hi I have been trying to prove this $$ I:=\int \limits_{0}^{1} \left[ \frac{1}{x(x-1)} \bigg(2\mathrm{Li}_2\bigg(\frac{1-\sqrt{1-x}}{2}\bigg)-\log\bigg(\frac{1+\sqrt{1-x}}{2}\bigg)^2 \bigg) ...
1
vote
1answer
19 views

Kronecker delta function notation

Can someone please help me, what does $\delta_{i-j-1}$ stand for? I have a matrix with elements $z_{ij}=\delta_{i-j-1}$ where $\delta_k$ is the Kronecker delta function (that's how it's written in the ...
2
votes
2answers
131 views

Compute the indefinite integral $I=\int y^{-a}(1−y)^{b-1} dy$ or $I=\int_{d}^1 y^{-a}(1−y)^{b-1} dy$

I need to calculate the indefinite integral $I=\int y^{-a}(1−y)^{b-1} dy$, where $a$, $b$ are REAL NUMBERS and $b>0$. (my goal is to determine the definite integral $I=\int_{d}^1 y^{-a}(1−y)^{b-1} ...
2
votes
1answer
49 views

Let $z=\ln \tan\frac xy.$ What is $z_x$ and what is $z_y$?

Let $$z=\ln \tan\frac xy.$$ What is $z_x$ and what is $z_y$? Thanks ahead:) What I have tried: $$z_x=\frac{1}{\tan \frac xy} \frac{1}{1+(\frac xy)^2} \frac 1y=\frac {y}{\tan \frac xy (x^2+y^2)}$$ ...
30
votes
1answer
473 views

Generalizing $\int_{0}^{1} \frac{\arctan\sqrt{x^{2} + 2}}{\sqrt{x^{2} + 2}} \, \frac{\operatorname dx}{x^{2}+1} = \frac{5\pi^{2}}{96}$

The following integral \begin{align*} \int_{0}^{1} \frac{\arctan\sqrt{x^{2} + 2}}{\sqrt{x^{2} + 2}} \, \frac{dx}{x^{2}+1} = \frac{5\pi^{2}}{96} \tag{1} \end{align*} is called the Ahmed's integral ...
2
votes
1answer
51 views

How many answers can be created using the elementary arithmetic operators?

If I gave you an amount of $n$ numbers, how many anwswer will you be able to create using the elementary arithmetic operators ($+, -, \times, /$)? These are the rules: All numbers ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Is there a name for this property of a real function?

Let $M=\sup_{x \in [0,1]^n} f(x)$ where $f:[0,1]^n \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is differentiable twice, and write $x=(x_1, \dots, x_n)$. Let $M_{x_i=0}=\sup_{x \in [0,1]^n:x_i=0} f(x)$ and ...
2
votes
2answers
43 views

Lambert Function as a solution

The solution to the equation $$Xe^X=K$$ is given by $$X=W(K)$$ where $W$ is the Lambert function. Is it possible to adapt this such that we can find a solution for $$\frac{1-e^X}{X}=K?$$
5
votes
2answers
265 views

Curious gamma identity

I found the following curious identity for the gamma function on Wikipedia for which I'd like to know some references (proof, history, etc). The identity is as follows: $$\Gamma(t) = x^t ...
0
votes
0answers
34 views

Prove an inequality involving $Si(x)$ and $Si(2x)$

How Is it possible to prove the following inequality? $$xSi(2x)-2Si(x)*\sin(x)\lt x^2$$ for $x\in\mathbb{R}$ Thanks
4
votes
2answers
203 views

Evaluating $\int_{0}^{\frac{\pi}{2}} \arctan( a \sin x) \ dx$ using the Taylor expansion of $\arctan (x)$

I was wondering if it's possible to show that for $a >0$, \begin{align}\int_{0}^{\pi/ 2} \arctan (a \sin x) dx &= 2 \sum_{k=0}^{\infty} \frac{\left(\frac{\,\sqrt{\vphantom{\Large A}\,1 + ...
0
votes
2answers
24 views

Can b=0 in the confluent hypergeometric function U(a,b,z)?

I am confused about the possible values of b in the confluent hypergeometric function of the second kind U(a,b,z). Specifically can b=0? I know that the U function can be expressed as $$U(a,b,z)=\pi ...
8
votes
0answers
350 views

An infinite series expansion in terms of the polylogarithm function

We have the complex valued function: $$f(z)=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}a_{n}\text{Li}_{-n}(z)\;\;\;\;\;\;\;(\left | z\right |<1)$$ We wish to recover the coefficients $a_{n}$. The only thing I though would ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Conjecture about the harmonic number

I would like to know if is it possible to prove or disprove the following conjecture: Given the following limit: $$L(x,N)=\lim_{N\to\infty}\left(H^{(-x)}_N-NH_N\right)$$ we have: $L(x,N)\lt+\infty$ ...
0
votes
0answers
38 views

Rogers-Ramanujan Continued Fraction

How to calculate Rogers-Ramanujan Continued Fraction $R(e^{-2\pi{\sqrt{5}}})$ ?
3
votes
1answer
31 views

Calculate integral with $\Gamma$ and $B$

The integration is like: $$\int_{a}^{b}\left(\frac{b-x}{x-a}\right)^{p}dx$$ with $0<p<1$ Answer is $(b-a)p \frac{\pi}{\sin p\pi}$ Apparently, we can reversely construct $$\Gamma(1-p) ...
8
votes
2answers
2k views

How to evaluate Riemann Zeta function

How do I evaluate this function for given $s$? $$\zeta(s) = \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac1{n^s} = \frac{1}{1^s} + \frac{1}{2^s} + \frac{1}{3^s} + \cdots$$
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Constant Coefficient Legendre Equation via Change of Variables?

In the introduction to this old book by Craig on ode's it is said that The theory of linear differential equations may almost be said to find its origin in Fuchs's two memoirs published in 1866 ...
3
votes
1answer
106 views

How to prove this identity for ${}_3F_2$ (Generalized Hypergeometric Function)?

This may look like homework, but it is not. I've found this identity (using Mathematica): $$ {}_3F_2 \left( \matrix{1,1,1 \\ 2, e} ; 1 \right) = (e-1) \psi^{\prime}(e-1), $$ valid for $e$ with ...
2
votes
7answers
722 views

What are the most important functions every mathematician should know? [closed]

I am an undergrad in math and was wondering, what are for you the most important functions every mathematician should know? At the moment I think ...
0
votes
2answers
141 views

positively homogeneous function

A function $f:X→\mathbb{R}$ is said to be positive homogeneous of degree $k\in\mathbb{R}$ if $f(tx)=t^kf(x)$ for every $x\in X$ and every $t\in\mathbb{R}_{++}$. For $X=\mathbb{R}_+$, the sample ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

Partial fraction that contain special function

In the following equation; $$ \frac{e^{\frac{(2c+5x)}{3x}} \mathop{E_{n}}\nolimits\!\left(x\right)}{(a+x)(b+x)} $$ 1- Can I apply the partial fraction to the above equation as the following: $$ ...
5
votes
1answer
137 views

Prove that $\exists\,! \,\lambda \in (1/5,1/4)$ such that $\frac{1}{2\pi}\int_0^{2\pi}e^{\sin x}\,\mathrm{d}x=e^{\lambda}$

The following question came up in chat Prove that $\exists\,! \,\lambda \in (1/5,1/4)$ such that $\displaystyle\frac{1}{2\pi}\int_0^{2\pi}e^{\sin x}\,\mathrm{d}x=e^{\lambda}$ Now the integral ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

$\int xtanx$ and the Clausen Function

I have been attempting to evaluate $\int x \tan x \;\mathrm{d} x$. My first instinct was integration by parts, which produces $-x \ln|\cos x|+\int \ln|\cos x| \;\mathrm{d} x$. I have read online ...
2
votes
5answers
195 views

Reference Book on Special Functions

Now I'm studying the topic that uses the special functions frequently, so I find myself in need for some good reference book on the properties and equalities of the special functions. The optimal one ...
1
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0answers
36 views

Ramanujan Class Invariant $G_{125}$ and $ G_{5}$

How to calculate the Ramanujan Class Invariant $G_{125}$ and $G_{5}$?
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votes
0answers
67 views

Solving integral that contain upper incomplete gamma function, exponential, and powers

I have this integration formula; $ f=\int\limits_{0}^{\infty}\frac{e^{-b~z}}{\sqrt{z}} \Big(\frac{\beta}{\beta+z}\Big)\Big(\frac{\beta+z}{z}\Big)^L ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

closed form of integral of special function? $\int_{0}^{1} e^{a\, q^{1/k}\, {}_1 F_{2}(1,1/k,1 + 1/k;q)} d q$

Take the following integral, defined by hypergeometric functions: $$\int_{0}^{1} e^{a\, q^{1/k}\, {}_1 F_{2}(1,1/k,1 + 1/k;q)}d q$$ (there is a similar formulation Lerch). I think the series ...
1
vote
2answers
61 views

$f(x)=\log x\Leftrightarrow f^{-1}(x)=e^x$. Why $e=2.73\cdots$?

$$f(x)=\log x\Leftrightarrow f^{-1}(x)=e^x.$$ Ok, $\log x$ is defined as the function $f(\cdot)$ such that: $f'(x)=\dfrac{1}{x}$. How to get, from this, the inverse of it $f^{-1}(x)$? And why ...
5
votes
1answer
263 views

solution of Lagrange differential equation are square integrable

I was recently posing myself this question. Given the Lagrange DE $$[(1-x^2)u']'+\lambda u=0,$$ where $\lambda$ is a real parameter and $x\in[-1,1]$, it is well known that, if $\lambda=n(n+1)$ for ...
0
votes
0answers
45 views

Exponential Integral Function representation

It is well known that the exponential integral function can be represented by: $$ e^{x}\mathop{E_{n}}\nolimits\!\left(x\right)\leq\frac{1}{x+n-1}, $$ For n=1,2,3,… and $x>0$ , If we have ...
1
vote
0answers
93 views

What is the sum of Psi/Digamma-function of consecutive arguments? Is there a closed form?

In a consideration of summation of a series $$ s = a_0 + a_1 + a_2 + \cdots \tag 1$$ with $$\lim_{k \to \infty} a_k=0$$ but slowly decreasing, the coefficients $a_k$ are somehow related to $1/k^2$ ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

How to update the probabilities so that it still sum up to $1$?

At time $t$, I have a probability vector $\mathbf{\pi}^{t}=\left({\pi}_{1}^{t}, \cdots, {\pi}_{n}^{t} \right)$. I would like to construct a function $f(\cdot)$ and update the vector ...
1
vote
2answers
213 views

solution of another definite integral

Does the following integral converge or not? \begin{align} && \sum_{k=0}^{\infty} (-\varphi)^k \binom{\frac1\varphi+k}{k}\int_{-\infty}^\infty\beta x^n e^{-\beta x(k+1)}dx&& ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

What is the sigmoid *squashing* function?

I've just read the following The basic unit ("neuron" i) performs the following computation to update its state $y_i$: it computes a weighted sum $v_i$ of its inputs $x:j$ which is passed ...
12
votes
1answer
198 views

Closed form for $\int_{-\infty}^0\operatorname{Ei}^3x\,dx$

Let $\operatorname{Ei}x$ denote the exponential integral: $$\operatorname{Ei}x=-\int_{-x}^\infty\frac{e^{-t}}tdt.\tag1$$ It's not difficult to find that ...
15
votes
2answers
331 views

Integral $\int_0^\infty F(z)\,F\left(z\,\sqrt2\right)\frac{e^{-z^2}}{z^2}dz$ involving Dawson's integrals

I need you help with evaluating this integral: $$I=\int_0^\infty F(z)\,F\left(z\,\sqrt2\right)\frac{e^{-z^2}}{z^2}dz,\tag1$$ where $F(x)$ represents Dawson's integral: $$F(x)=e^{-x^2}\int_0^x ...
37
votes
4answers
2k views

Why can't we define more elementary functions?

$\newcommand{\lax}{\operatorname{lax}}$ Liouville's theorem is well known and it asserts that: The antiderivatives of certain elementary functions cannot themselves be expressed as elementary ...