Questions on special functions, useful functions that frequently appear in pure and applied mathematics (usually not including "elementary" functions).

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1
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1answer
168 views

Inequality concerning the Gamma function

For each $n>0$, how do we prove that $$\Gamma'(n+1)> \log{n} \cdot \Gamma(n+1)$$ I had spent about half an hour on this question, but just could find any way of proceeding for the solution. ...
24
votes
4answers
2k views

Proving a known zero of the Riemann Zeta has real part exactly 1/2

Much effort has been expended on a famous unsolved problem about the Riemann Zeta function $\zeta(s)$. Not surprisingly, it's called the Riemann hypothesis, which asserts: $$ \zeta(s) = 0 ...
1
vote
2answers
146 views

On functions similar to Hurwitz zeta function

Denoted as $\zeta(s,a)$ for a > 0 Where do I find topics on the Hurwitz zeta function for a < 0? Any links or resources would be appreciated. (Please dont mention wiki or mathworld) Thanks
5
votes
2answers
1k views

On deriving the arclength of a hyperbola

In my attempts to derive the closed form for the arclength of the hyperbola, I wound up with the following integral: $$\int\frac{\sqrt{1-m\;\sin^2 u}}{\sin^2 u}\mathrm{d}u$$ I am aware that such ...
12
votes
1answer
512 views

Proving $\sqrt{1-x^2}\ge \operatorname{erf}(\sqrt{-\log x})$

Can anyone see a nice way to prove the following for $0\le x \le 1$? $$\sqrt{1-x^2}\ge \operatorname{erf}(\sqrt{-\log x})$$ $\operatorname{erf}$ is defined as $$\operatorname{erf}(z) = ...
8
votes
3answers
588 views

Are there addition formulas for the Riemann Zeta function?

In particular for two real numbers $a$ and $b$, I'd like to know if there are formulas for $\zeta (a+b)$ and $\zeta (a-b)$ as a function of $\zeta (a)$ and $\zeta (b)$. The closest I could find ...
3
votes
2answers
321 views

Implicit function $y = e^{(y-1)/x}$

I'd like to know if the function $ y = f(x) : [0,1] \rightarrow [0,1]$ defined implicitly by the transcendental equation $$\displaystyle y = e^{(y-1)/x}$$ is "well known" (name, properties) or is ...
11
votes
1answer
1k views

Iterative refinement algorithm for computing exp(x) with arbitrary precision

I'm working on a multiple-precision library. I'd like to make it possible for users to ask for higher precision answers for results already computed at a fixed precision. My $\mathrm{sqrt}(x)$ can ...
3
votes
1answer
279 views

A singularity of hypergeometric functions

Do generalized hypergeometric functions $${}_p F_q(a_1,\ldots,a_p; b_1, \ldots,b_q; z) $$ with $p = q+1$ always possess a singularity at $z=1$, independent of the their parameters $a_1,\ldots,a_p$ ...
1
vote
2answers
397 views

Legendre functions in number theory

I have heard that Legendre functions are important in number theory. Can any one tell me how? The Legendre function of the first kind $P_s$ is defined by \begin{eqnarray*}P_s(x) =& ...
3
votes
1answer
551 views

The partial fraction expansion of $\frac{1}{x^n - 1}$

If $n$ is an integer, is there a nice way to write the partial fraction expansion of $\frac{1}{x^n - 1}$? I figure that if $\zeta$ is the $n$-th root of unity, then for some coefficients $a_0, a_1, ...
2
votes
2answers
192 views

Proving identity $\displaystyle\sum_{j\geq 1}[(j+t)^{-1}-j^{-1}]=\displaystyle\sum_{k\geq 1}\zeta (k+1)(-t)^{k}$

Motivation: In S.J. Patterson's An introduction to the theory of the Riemann Zeta-Function it is proved (p.132) that $\displaystyle -\Gamma ^{\prime }(t)/\Gamma (t)=\gamma +t^{-1}+\underset{j\geq ...
2
votes
1answer
280 views

Deriving Eulers Addition Theorem for Elliptic Integrals

In the book Elliptic Curves - McKean & Moll we are given the outline for a proof of Eulers addition theorem: The (projective) quartic $\mathbf y^2 = (1-\mathbf x^2)(1-k^2 \mathbf x^2)$ has ...
11
votes
1answer
1k views

Integral Representation of Infinite series

Let's take a look at the following integrals : 1) $\displaystyle \int\limits_{0}^{1} \frac{\log{x}}{1+x} \ dx = -\frac{\pi^{2}}{12} = -\frac 1 2 \sum\limits_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n^2}= -\frac 1 2 ...
3
votes
1answer
352 views

Gamma integrals

Is anything known about these integrals? Textbook suggestions are welcome \begin{equation*} f(n,p)=\int_{x=-0.5}^p \frac{n!}{x!(n-x)!} dx, \end{equation*} $n>0, p\le n+0.5$. For instance, as $n$ ...
16
votes
2answers
3k views

Beta function derivation

How do I derive the Beta function using the definition of the beta function as the normalizing constant of the Beta distribution and only common sense random experiments? I'm pretty sure this is ...
3
votes
3answers
830 views

Hint on how to prove $\zeta ( 2) =\pi ^{2}/6$ using the complex Fourier series of $f(x)=x$

I know how to prove $\zeta (2)=\pi ^{2}/6$ by using the trigonometric Fourier series expansion of $x^{2}/4$. How can one prove the same result using the complex Fourier series of $f(x)=x$ for $0\leq ...
5
votes
2answers
888 views

Two ways of defining the gamma function $\Gamma (x)$. How to show they are equivalent?

In the Portuguese book Análise Matemática (Mathematical Analysis) by C. Sarrico, it is proved there exist $$\displaystyle\lim_{n\rightarrow +\infty}f_{n}(x)=\lim_{n\rightarrow +\infty }e^{\log ...
7
votes
1answer
241 views

Is the Gamma function superadditive?

A function $f$ is superadditive if $f(x) + f(y) \le f(x+y)$. The question is: Does a real number $a$ exists such that for all real numbers with $x, y\ \ge \ a $ $$ \Gamma(x) + \Gamma(y) \le ...
8
votes
2answers
2k views

How to evaluate Riemann Zeta function

How do I evaluate this function for given $s$? $$\zeta(s) = \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac1{n^s} = \frac{1}{1^s} + \frac{1}{2^s} + \frac{1}{3^s} + \cdots$$
9
votes
2answers
907 views

Minimum of the Gamma Function $\Gamma (x)$ for $x>0$. How to find $x_{\min}$?

The $\Gamma (x)$ function has just one minimum for $x>0$ . This result uses some properties of the gamma function: $\Gamma ^{\prime \prime }(x)>0$ and $\Gamma (x)>0$ for all $x>0$ $\Gamma (1)=\Gamma ...
4
votes
2answers
602 views

Question Relating Gamma Function to Riemann Zeta function evaluated at integers

I was just reading a paper of Ramanujan entitled " On question 330 of Professor Sanjana" when i got stuck up with a Proposition which i am unable to answer. The proposition is if $ \displaystyle ...
91
votes
9answers
6k views

Why is Euler's Gamma function the “best” extension of the factorial function to the reals?

There are lots (an infinitude) of smooth functions that coincide with f(n)=n! on the integers. Is there a simple reason why Euler's Gamma function $\Gamma (z) = \int_0^\infty t^{z-1} e^t dt$ is ...
8
votes
4answers
4k views

How to accurately calculate the error function erf(x) with a computer?

I am looking for an accurate algorithm to calculate the error function I have tried using [this formula] (http://stackoverflow.com/a/457805) (Handbook of Mathematical Functions, formula ...