Questions on special functions, useful functions that frequently appear in pure and applied mathematics (usually not including "elementary" functions).

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5
votes
0answers
61 views

The number $\sum\limits_{n=-\infty}^{\infty} \frac{1}{2^{n^2}}$ is transcendental

Prove that the number: $$\sum_{n=-\infty}^{\infty} \frac{1}{2^{n^2}}$$ is transcendental. I don't have a direct proof but a round one. The series can be expressed in terms of $\vartheta_3$ ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

simplifying complex expression

Hi I am trying to simplify the following expression:$$ \left|\frac{1}{a+ib}\left(\frac{J_1(c x)}{J_1(c b)}-x\right)\right|^2,\quad a,b,x\in \mathbb{R}, \ c\in \mathbb{C} $$ Is there a simple way of ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

Integral $\int x^2\Re(J_1(ax))dx$

$$ \int x^2 \, \Re\left[{J_1(a x)}\right]dx,\quad a\in \mathbb{C}. $$ This integral cannot be done in terms of elementary functions, and since it's $x\cdot J_1(ax)$ we cannot reduce it to other ...
7
votes
5answers
350 views

New idea to solve this equation

I was teaching $\left \lfloor x \right \rfloor$ function properties and equation . I solved this equation in my class . My works are show below. Some students ask me for new Idea...,and now I am ...
0
votes
0answers
40 views

Does my derivation work?

I've been totally engaged with exponential integrals for a while. I came across to this limit in my work. I started to calculate the limit as below: currently, I am not sure about my handouts. would ...
4
votes
0answers
31 views

Generalized Trigonometric Functions in terms of exponentials and roots of unity

I am trying to come up with generalized trigonometric functions using the exponential definition that we use today for the trig functions sine and cosine $$\sin x=\frac{e^{ix}-e^{-ix}}{2i}; \cos x ...
0
votes
4answers
35 views

Find inverse operator

Let $D=\dfrac{d}{dx}.$ Consider the operator $$ D_{h,x}=\frac{e^{hD}-1}{h}. $$ Question. What is explicit form of the operator $D^{-1}_{h,x}?$ I think that $$ D^{-1}_{h,x}=\frac{h}{e^{hD}-1}, $$ ...
6
votes
0answers
46 views

How to solve this definite Integral containing $E_{1}${.}!

The integral is: $$\int_{N}^{\infty}\frac{E_{1}(cz+d)}{az+b}e^{-pz}dz$$ where, $E_{1}${.} is the exponential integral, and $$a>0,\ b>0,\ c>0,\ d>0,\ p>0,\ N>0.$$ This is similar ...
2
votes
1answer
50 views

Expressing a series involving the Riemann zeta function in terms of known functions

We have the series: $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\sin\left(\frac{\pi n}{2}\right)\frac{\zeta(n+1)}{(2\pi)^{n+1}}\frac{\Gamma(z)}{\Gamma(z-n)}\left[\psi^{0}(z-n)-\psi^{0}(z)\right]$$ Where $\psi^{0}(\cdot)$ ...
6
votes
1answer
64 views

Analytical approximation of integral of Bessel function

I am trying to approximate the integral: $$ \int_0^z \left(\frac{J_1(x\,\sin\theta)}{\sin\theta}\right)^2 {\rm d}\theta $$ My very naive approach was to do the Taylor series of the integrand. ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

Is it possible to get one Jacobian matrix of a 2-part continuous piecewise function?

For a 2-part continuous piecewise function, normally we can get two Jacobian matrix for each part. Is it possible to get just one Jacobian matrix of this function?
4
votes
2answers
102 views

Is there a name for the closed form of $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{1+ a^n}$?

I hope this is not a duplicate question. If we modify the well known geometric series, with $a>1$, to $$ \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{1+a^n} $$ is there a closed form with a name? I suspect ...
2
votes
0answers
29 views

Weierstrass-$\wp$ Function Asymptotics

Given the Weierstrass-$\wp$ function, $$\wp(2x+1+\tau \mid 1, \tau),$$ with half-periods $1$ and $\tau=\omega_2/ \omega_1$, I want to look at the case where $\rm{Re}(\tau) \in \mathbb{Z}$ and I want ...
2
votes
1answer
22 views

Will numerical routines for the Exponential Integral function E_n work when n is continuous?

So I am a mathematical biologist of sorts. I rely heavily on Mathematica which often provides analytic results couched in terms of special functions which I then try to go and learn about. Right now ...
6
votes
3answers
239 views

Not the toughest integral, not the easiest one

Perhaps it's not amongst the toughest integrals, but it's interesting to try to find an elegant approach for the integral $$I_1=\int_0^1 \frac{\log (x)}{\sqrt{x (x+1)}} \, dx$$ $$=4 ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

equally spaced on circle question

Define $$\|\vec{x}\|:=\sqrt{\alpha^2+\beta^2},$$ where $\vec{x}:=(\alpha,\beta)\in \mathbb{R}^2.$ Set $$\mathbb{S}^1:=\{\vec{x}\in \mathbb{R}^2: \|\vec{x}\|=1\}\quad \quad and\quad \quad ...
0
votes
2answers
53 views

A question about Idempotent functions [closed]

some functions are such that $f\circ f(x)=f(x)$ like these 1) $$f(x)=x \implies f\circ f(x)=x=f(x)\\$$ 2)$$f(x)=\lvert x\rvert \implies f\circ f(x)=\lVert x\rVert=\lvert x\rvert=f(x)\\$$ 3) ...
3
votes
1answer
51 views

Help on finding the closed form of the integral

Can anyone help me to find closed solution of the integral $$\int_0^{1-e^{-\lambda x}}\frac{u^{b-1}\,(1-u)^{a+c-1}}{[1-(1-e^{-\lambda_1 t_1})u]^{a+b+c}}\,{\rm d}u,$$ where ...
3
votes
0answers
74 views

Calculating in closed form $\int_0^{\infty} \frac{\text{PolyLog}^{(1,0)}(1,-x)}{1+x^2} \, dx$

Can you confirm the following result? Mathematica and other computational stuff I used seem unable to do anything about this result. Maybe to confirm it numerically? $$\int_0^{\infty} ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Prove that $T_n(x)={}_2F_1\left(-n,n;\tfrac 1 2; \tfrac{1}{2}(1-x)\right) $

Prove that, for Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind, \begin{align} T_n(x) & = \tfrac{n}{2} \sum_{k=0}^{\left \lfloor \frac{n}{2} \right \rfloor}(-1)^k \frac{(n-k-1)!}{k!(n-2k)!}~(2x)^{n-2k} ...
-1
votes
1answer
34 views

prove $\max \mathbf{a}^T \mathbf{b}_i \leq \mathbf{a}^T \mathbf{c}_i$

Can I prove the following (with or without assumptions, e.g. all the elements in $\mathbf{a}$ or $\mathbf{b}$ are positive? $\max \mathbf{a}^T \mathbf{b}_i \leq \mathbf{a}^T \mathbf{c}_i$ where ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Is it possible to prove $\arg\min_a f(\max(\mathbf{a}^T\mathbf{b}_i)) = \arg\min_a f(\mathbf{a}^T\max(\mathbf{b}_i))$

I have the following optimization problem, $ \arg\min_\mathbf{a} f(\max(\mathbf{a}^T\mathbf{b}_i))\;\; i=1, \dots ,N$ where $\mathbf{a}$ and $\mathbf{b}_i$ are vectors of dimension $d$. Let $B = ...
-1
votes
0answers
25 views

Confluent hypergeometric function recurrence relation

How to prove the following contiguous relation for the Kummer function $M(a,b,z)$: $$(a−1+z)M(a,b,z)+(b−a)M(a−1,b,z)+(1−b)M(a,b−1,z)=0.$$
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Are the polynomials that are orthogonal in the continuous case, still continuous in the discrete case?

One of my friends asked me this question. "Are the polynomials that are orthogonal in the continuous case, still continuous in the discrete case?" It is curious how even the most trivial questions ...
-1
votes
0answers
19 views

Fourier Transform of $|x|^\frac{7}{6} K_{-\frac{1}{6}}(|x|)$ [closed]

What is the Fourier Transform of $|x|^{\frac{7}{6}} K_{-\frac{1}{6}}(|x|)$ with $K_{-\frac{1}{6}}$ the modified bessel function of the second kind?
9
votes
0answers
90 views

A conjectured identity for tetralogarithms $\operatorname{Li}_4$

I experimentally discovered (using PSLQ) the following conjectured tetralogarithm identity: $$\begin{align}&\phantom{+\;}19\!\;\pi^4-570\ln^42-90\ln^43\\ ...
1
vote
1answer
107 views

Calculating in closed form $\int_0^1 \log(x)\left(\frac{\operatorname{Li}_2\left( x \right)}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}\right)^2 \,dx$

What real tools excepting the ones provided here Closed-form of $\int_0^1 \frac{\operatorname{Li}_2\left( x \right)}{\sqrt{1-x^2}} \,dx $ would you like to recommend? I'm not against them, they might ...
0
votes
1answer
13 views

Definition of sigmoidal curve with epsilon

I want to create a sigmoidal curve $f(x)$ with the parameters $s$ and $\epsilon$ so that it has the following features: $f(0) = 0 +\epsilon$ $f(s) = 1 - \epsilon$ $f'(s/2)=1$ Is this possible? If ...
0
votes
0answers
2 views

A saturation-type function that transitions from a linear function to a step function

Let $s = g(t;\theta)$ be some saturation function for a signal in the range $[0,1]$ and a parameter $\theta\in[0,1]$. I would like $g(t;\theta)$ to have the following properties: for $\theta=0$, ...
0
votes
0answers
118 views

A double integral consisted of hypergeometric functions [closed]

Calculate in closed form $$\small\int _0^1\int _0^{\infty }\left(-\frac{9 \sqrt{\frac{3}{\pi }} \Gamma \left(\frac{4}{3}\right) \Gamma \left(\frac{5}{3}\right) \, ...
0
votes
3answers
43 views

Finding the Correct Function that fits the Scenario

i have been trying to find a function that fits the following scenario: $$ f'(c) = 1^0 $$ $$ f''(c) = 2^1 $$ $$ f^{(3)}(c) = 3^2 $$ $$ f^{(4)}(c) = 4^3 $$ and so on, the purpose is to derive a way to ...
1
vote
1answer
83 views

Calculating in closed form an integral in Airy function

Can we hope for a nice closed form for the integral below? $$\int_0^1 \frac{\displaystyle \text{Ai}\left(-\frac{t}{2^{2/3} \sqrt[3]{3-3 t}}\right)^2+\text{Bi}\left(-\frac{t}{2^{2/3} \sqrt[3]{3-3 ...
2
votes
0answers
27 views

Does the Borel-transform of the Lerch-Transcendent have a name/simple expression?

The Lerch-transcendent as given in Mathworld is $$ \Phi(z,s,a)= \sum_{k=0}^\infty {z^k\over (a+k)^s}$$ I'm fiddling with series of the form $$ f_n(z)=\sum_{k=0}^\infty {z^k\over (1+k)^n} $$ and their ...
1
vote
0answers
49 views

integral from gradshteyn and ryzhik

I'm interested in evaluating the integral $$ \int_{a}^\infty e^{-x\cosh\alpha}\,K_{\nu}(x\sinh\alpha)\,\frac{dx}{x}, $$ where $a>0$ and $\nu$ is purely imaginary. Here $K$ denotes the MacDonald ...
2
votes
2answers
17 views

Lipschitz-like behaviour of quartic polynomials

I have observed the following phenomenon: Let the biquadratic $q(x)=x^4-Ax^2+B$ have four real roots and perturb it by a linear factor $p(x)=q(x)+mx$, so that $m$ not too large with respect to ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

Prove that $T_n$ satisfy $ \sum_{k=0}^{N-1}{T_i(x_k)T_j(x_k)} = \begin{cases} 0 &: i\ne j \\ l\neq 0 &: i=j \end{cases} \,\! $

The Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind satisfy the recurrence relation $$ \begin{cases} T_{n}(x)=2xT_{n-1}(x)-T_{n-2}(x) \qquad n \geq 2 \\ T_{0}(x)=1, \ \ T_{1}(x)=x \\ \end{cases} $$ The ...
0
votes
1answer
115 views

Solve $x^a = 1 - \exp(-x)$ for $x$

I would like to obtain a closed-form solution for the equation $x^a = 1 - \exp(-x)$, in which $x$ is the (real strictly positive) unknown and $a$ is a real positive parameter. So far, I have tried ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Integral that resembles an exponential integral

$$ I(y;c,\lambda) \equiv\int_{0}^\infty \frac{\lambda c}{x} \exp\left(-\lambda x\right)\exp\left(-\frac{c}{x}y\right)dx$$ where $c,\lambda>0$. Q: Can this integration be made in analytic form ...
8
votes
0answers
165 views

Help with the integral $\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{\log(1\pm ix)^{2}}{\left(\frac{t}{2}\log(1 \pm ix) \right )^{2}-\pi ^{2}n^{2}}e^{-2\pi mx}dx$

Referring to a previous question, i want help with the integral : $$\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{\log(1\pm ix)^{2}}{\left(\frac{t}{2}\log(1 \pm ix) \right )^{2}-\pi ^{2}n^{2}}e^{-2\pi mx}dx$$ Where $n,m$ ...
4
votes
0answers
36 views

Laplace transform of the logarithmic integral function

What is the Laplace transform of the logarithmic integral function $\text{li}(t)$. Meaning, how to compute the integral : $$\int_{0}^{\infty}\text{li}(t)e^{-st}dt$$
6
votes
0answers
41 views

Asymptotic behavior of the generalized polygamma function

The generalized polygamma function$^{[1]}$$\!^{[2]}$ is defined as $$\psi^{(\nu)}(z)=e^{-\gamma\!\;\nu}\;\partial_\nu\!\left(\frac{e^{\gamma\!\;\nu}\;\zeta(\nu+1,z)}{\Gamma(-\nu)}\right),\tag1$$ where ...
2
votes
0answers
98 views

A difficult integral $\int_0^{\infty} \frac{\sin 2t}{1+t^3}\, {\rm d}t$

Here is an integral that I want to see a different approach: $$\int_0^{\infty} \frac{\sin 2t}{1+t^3}\, {\rm d}t$$ Well, for someone who is deeply aware of the exponential integral function and the ...
0
votes
2answers
73 views

Another integral involving a Gaussian and a logarithm

By generalizing methods used in An integral involving a Gaussian and a logarithm. I have computed the following integral below: \begin{eqnarray} \tilde{\mathcal I}(A) &:=& ...
2
votes
0answers
89 views

The ratio of jacobi theta functions

Let $q=e^{2\pi i\tau}$. If $\theta_2$ and $\theta_3$ are jacobi theta functions , is it true that the ratio of the two functions can be expressed as a continued fraction of the form $$ ...
6
votes
0answers
68 views

Why is it that the Lambert W relation cannot be expressed in terms of elementary functions?

According to this Wikipedia page, the Lambert W relation cannot be expressed in terms of elementary functions. However, it does not explain why this is the case. An elementary function is "a ...
1
vote
3answers
31 views

Switching the order of summations of a certain function

I am looking to switch the order of the summations of the following function: $$ \lambda = -\sum_{c=1}^{n-1} \sum_{k=c}^n {k \choose c} \frac{(-1)^k}{k!} f^{k-c}U(-c,k-2c+1,-f)\phi(n,k) $$ I don't ...
6
votes
3answers
186 views

Why is the Gamma function off by 1 from the factorial? [duplicate]

Why didn't they define it as $$ \tilde \Gamma(x) = \int_0^\infty t^x e^{-t} \, dt ?$$ Then the definition would have two less characters than the standard definition of $\Gamma(x)$, and we would have ...
7
votes
1answer
140 views

Computing a double gamma-digamma-trigamma series

What are your thoughts on this series? $$\sum _{k=1}^{\infty } \sum _{n=1}^{\infty } \frac{\Gamma (k)^2 \Gamma (n) }{\Gamma (2 k+n)}((\psi ^{(0)}(n)-\psi ^{(0)}(2 k+n)) (\psi ^{(0)}(k)-\psi ^{(0)}(2 ...
1
vote
0answers
70 views

a q-continued fraction related to the octahedral group

Let $q=e^{2\pi i\tau}$. If $u(\tau)$ is Ramanujan's octic continued fraction, $$u(\tau)=\cfrac{\sqrt{2}\,q^{1/8}}{1+\cfrac{q}{1+q+\cfrac{q^2}{1+q^2+\cfrac{q^3}{1+q^3+\ddots}}}}$$ is it true that ...
0
votes
2answers
27 views

Logarithmic derivative of Polygamma functions

While studying Gamma function and related functions I noticed that its logarithmic derivative (the so-called Digamma function) is studied more than its "normal" derivative but on the other hand I ...