For questions about or related to Sobolev spaces, which are function spaces equipped with a norm combining norms of a function and its derivatives.

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17
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2answers
2k views

Sobolev space is an algebra

How do you prove that the Sobolev space $H^s(\mathbb{R}^n)$ is an algebra if $s>\frac{n}{2}$, i.e. if $u,v$ are in $H^s(\mathbb{R}^n)$, then so is $uv$? Actually I think we should also have $||uv||...
4
votes
1answer
1k views

relation between $W^{1,\infty}$ and $C^{0,1}$

I know that $f \in C^{0,1}_{loc}(U)\Leftrightarrow f \in W^{1,\infty}_{loc}(U)$ and I have a reference for this. I would like a reference or a explanation for $C^{0,1} = W^{1,\infty}$ on domain convex....
10
votes
1answer
1k views

Sobolev embedding for $W^{1,\infty}$?

From the Evans'PDE book I learned $W^{1,\infty}(U)$ coincide with Lipschitz continuous $C^{0,1}(U)$ with $U\in\Bbb{R}^n(n\geqslant1)$ is bounded and $\partial U\in C^1$. I wonder the counterpart ...
2
votes
1answer
3k views

question 9 - chap 5 evans PDE

The question is : Integrate by parts to prove : $$\int_{U} |Du|^p \ dx \leq C \left(\int_{U} |u|^p \ dx\right)^{1/2} \left(\int_{U} |D^2 u|^p \ dx\right)^{1/2}$$ for $ 2 \leq p < \infty$ ...
3
votes
4answers
2k views

Poincaré inequality for functions with large zero set

I have trouble proving the following problem (Evans PDE textbook 5.10. #15). Could anyone kindly help me solving the problem? I know that I should somehow use Poincaré inequality but I still cannot ...
5
votes
2answers
232 views

Sobolev spaces - about smooth aproximation

Consider $\Omega $ a open and bounded set of $\mathbb R^n$ . Let $u \in H^{1}(\Omega)$ a bounded function. I know that there exists a sequence $u_m \in C^{\infty} (\Omega) $ where $u_m \rightarrow u$...
3
votes
1answer
766 views

Sobolev Embedding (Case: p=N)

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^N$ be a regular bounded domain. Suppose $p=N$, then by Sobolev theorem, we have that for fixed $q\in [1,\infty)$ $$\|u\|_q\leq C\|u\|_{1,N}\ ,\forall\ u\in W^{1,N}(\...
4
votes
1answer
715 views

Relation between Sobolev Space $W^{1,\infty}$ and the Lipschitz class

I have a Sobolev space related question. In the book 'Measure theory and fine properties of functions' by Lawrence Evans. I know the result that states that for $f: \Omega \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$. $f$ ...
2
votes
1answer
356 views

Show that $u(x)=\ln\left(\ln\left(1+\frac{1}{|x|}\right)\right)$ is in $W^{1,n}(U)$, where $U=B(0,1)\subset\mathbb{R}^n$.

The entire problem statement is: Let $n>1$ and let $U=B(0,1)\subset\mathbb{R}^n$. Show that $u:U\to\mathbb{R}$ given by $$u(x)=\ln\left(\ln\left(1+\frac{1}{|x|}\right)\right)$$ is in $W^{1,n}(U).$...
10
votes
1answer
1k views

How is the acting of $H^{-1}$ on $H^1_0$ defined?

I have a question about the Sobolev Space $H^1_0(U)$, where $U$ is a open subset of $\mathbb{R}^n$. Let us denote with $H^{-1}(U)$ the dual space of $H^1_0$. How is the acting of $H^{-1}$ and $...
20
votes
2answers
333 views

Why are $L^p$-spaces so ubiquitous?

It always baffled me why $L^p$-spaces are the spaces of choice in almost any area (sometimes with some added regularity (Sobolev/Besov/...)). I understand that the exponent allows for convenient ...
11
votes
1answer
891 views

Why no trace operator in $L^2$?

We have trace operator which allows us to define boundary values of an $H^1$ function. This is because of the fact that $C^\infty$ is dense in $H^1$ under the $H^1$ norm, I believe. I'm sure either $...
7
votes
1answer
1k views

The dual of the Sobolev space $W^{k,p}$

The dual of the Sobolev space if defined to be $$(W^{k,p}(\Omega))' = W_0^{-k,p'}(\Omega)$$ where $\frac 1 p + \frac 1 {p'} = 1$. Why makes this definition sense, especially why do we have $L^{p'}$-...
13
votes
3answers
620 views

Are polynomials dense in Gaussian Sobolev space?

Let $\mu$ be standard Gaussian measure on $\mathbb{R}^n$, i.e. $d\mu = (2\pi)^{-n/2} e^{-|x|^2/2} dx$, and define the Gaussian Sobolev space $H^1(\mu)$ to be the completion of $C_c^\infty(\mathbb{R}^n)...
5
votes
1answer
214 views

Can $u\in W_0^{1,p}\cap L^\infty$ be approximated by a sequence $u_k\in C_0^\infty $ with $\|u_k\|_\infty$ bounded?

Assume that $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^N$ is a bounded Lipschitz domain and let $p\in [1,\infty)$. Suppose that $u\in W_0^{1,p}(\Omega)\cap L^\infty (\Omega)$. Is it possible to approximate $u$ by a ...
4
votes
2answers
225 views

Boundedness of functions in $W_0^{1,p}(\Omega)$

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^N$ be a bounded regular domain and $p\in (1,\infty)$. Suppose that $u\in W_0^{1,p}(\Omega)$ and $u$ is locally essentially bounded. Does this implies that $u$ is globally ...
4
votes
1answer
363 views

Sobolov Space $W^{2,2}\cap W^{1,2}_0$ norm equivalence

I would like to know why on $W^{2,2}\cap W^{1,2}_0$ the norms $$ ||u|| _{W^{2,2}}=\sum_{|\alpha|\leq 2}||D^\alpha u||_{L^2}$$ and $$||\Delta u||_{L^2}$$ are equivalent.
1
vote
1answer
519 views

Delta Dirac Function

Show that $\delta$, function of Dirac, defined than $\left<{\delta_0,\phi}\right> = \phi(0)$ belongs to $W^{-1,p}(]-1,1[)$ and $\delta_0 \notin L^p(-1,1)$ $\forall p\geq 1$. How I will be able ...
2
votes
0answers
766 views

Stampacchia Theorem: $\nabla G(u)=G'(u)\nabla u$?

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^N$ be a bounded domain and $G:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ a Lipschitz function with $G(0)=0$. Stampacchia's Theorem states that if $u\in W_0^{1,p}(\Omega)$, then $G(u)\in W_0^...
3
votes
1answer
699 views

eqiuvalent norms in $H_0^2$

I have found that the $H^2(D)$ norm of a field with zero Cauchy data on $\partial D$ (i.e. in $H_0^2(D)$) is equivalent to the $L^2(D)$ norm of its Laplacian, where D is simply connected with smooth ...
2
votes
1answer
304 views

The question regrading to density argument in analysis.

I know the density argument in $L^p$ space, in Sobolev spaces, and even in BV are really sweet in many many cases. However, some times author just work on nice functions and comment by "the rest can ...
1
vote
2answers
141 views

$\Delta u$ is bounded. Can we say $u\in C^1$?

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ be a bounded open set. Let us say it has a Lipschitz boundary. Consider the Laplacian $\Delta$ in the classical sense. Suppose $\Delta u=\frac{\partial^2}{\partial x_1^...
1
vote
1answer
291 views

Prove a Poincare-Like Inequality [duplicate]

Here is the question. Given any $\alpha>0$ and $u\in H^1(\Omega)$, $\Omega=B(0,1)$ in $n$ dimensions. Then we have $$\int_\Omega |u|^2 dx\leq C(\alpha)\int_\Omega |\nabla u|^2dx $$ provided that ...
6
votes
1answer
421 views

Question about definition of Sobolev spaces

I'm trying to understand the following definition: which can also be found here on page 136. Question 1: Closure with respect to what norm? It's not given in the definition. Question 2: Do I have ...
2
votes
2answers
235 views

variational problem-exercice

Let $\Omega$ an open bounded connexe and regular, and let $f \in L^2(\Omega)$ We consider the variational problem: find $u \in H^1(\Omega)$ such: $$\displaystyle\int_{\Omega} A \nabla u \cdot \nabla v ...
14
votes
2answers
2k views

Dual space of $H^1$

It holds that $W^{1,2}=H^1 \subset L^2 \subset H^{-1}$. This is clear since for every $v \in H^1(U)$, $u \mapsto (u,v)_{H^1}$ is an element of $H^{-1}$. Moreover for every $v \in L^2(U)$, $u \mapsto (...
10
votes
1answer
2k views

Spectrum of Laplace operator

How can I prove that the spectrum of the Laplace operator $\Delta: H^2(\mathbb{R}^N)\subset L^2(\mathbb{R}^N)\rightarrow L^2(\mathbb{R}^N)$ is $\sigma(\Delta)=]-\infty,0]$?
3
votes
2answers
1k views

$u\in W^{1,p}(0,1)$ is equal a.e. to an absolutely continuous function?

I have a simple question on Sobolev space theory. Let $1\le p \le \infty. $How can one prove that $u\in W^{1,p}(0,1)$ is equal a.e. to an absolutely continuous function and that $u'$ exists a.e. and ...
5
votes
1answer
1k views

Poincaré Inequality

In page 290 of this book, Evans proves the Poincaré inequality (Theorem 1) arguing by contradiction. Is there a direct proof of this theorem (Theorem 1) without arguing by contradiction?
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Prove Friedrichs' inequality

I'm trying to show that the theorem (Friedrichs' inequality) in my book: Assume that $\Omega$ be a bounded domain of Euclidean space $\Bbb R^n$. Suppose that $u: \Omega \to \Bbb R$ lies in the ...
2
votes
1answer
328 views

Sobolev inequality

If $f\in H^2(\mathbb R^2)$, I want to show that $||f||_{L^\infty}\le c||f||_{H^2}$ $||f||_{L^\infty}\le c||f||_{H^1} [1+\ln(1+||f||_{H^2})]$ For 1, I use $||f||_{L^\infty}\le \sup_{x\in \mathbb R^...
10
votes
1answer
531 views

Understanding a theorem concerning Sobolev spaces

I have two doubts in the proof of the theorem below. If you want the detaIls can be found here. Theorem A Let $q$ a given real number $q>p$. Let $u \in W^{1,p}$ be a solution to (E2). Assume ...
5
votes
1answer
141 views

Explicit characterization of dual of $H^1$

Let's start by some well-known facts: $H^1(\mathbb{R})$ is a Hilbert space, hence there holds the Riesz representation theorem, stating that any linear functional on it can be represented as $L = \...
4
votes
1answer
61 views

Exists $C = C(\epsilon, p)$ where $\|u\|_{L^\infty(0, 1)} \le \epsilon\|u'\|_{L^p(0, 1)} + C\|u\|_{L^1(0, 1)}$ for all $u \in W^{1, p}(0, 1)$?

Let $p > 1$. For all $\epsilon > 0$, does there exist $C = C(\epsilon, p)$ such that$$\|u\|_{L^\infty(0, 1)} \le \epsilon\|u'\|_{L^p(0, 1)} + C\|u\|_{L^1(0, 1)}$$for all $u \in W^{1, p}(0, 1)$?
3
votes
1answer
283 views

Gauss–Ostrogradsky formula for Distributions

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^N$ be a bounded domain and $u\in W^{1,p}(\Omega)$, $v\in L^{p'}(\Omega)^N$ with $p\in (1,\infty)$. Let $\operatorname{div}(v)$ be the divergence of $v$ in the sense of ...
2
votes
3answers
1k views

Equivalent Norms on Sobolev Spaces

Let $u$ be in the Sobolev space $H^2$. Then the standard definition of the norm is $$ ||u||_{H^2}^2 = \sum_{|\alpha| \leq 2} ||D^{\alpha} u||_{L^2}^2. $$ However, I have also seen it defined this ...
2
votes
1answer
587 views

Function always continuous in a Sobolev Space?

Hy everybody got a quick question. I know that all function F in a Sobolev Space has a continuous representative called U such as U=F almost everywhere. Lets take for example: The Sobolev space on ]-...
1
vote
3answers
1k views

Weak convergence and strong convergence

Suppose $f_i$ is uniformly bounded in $W^{1,p}$ for some $+\infty>p>1$, then by passing to a sub-sequence, we can suppose $f_i$ is weakly convergent to $f$ in $W^{1,p}$. Assume furthermore that $...
8
votes
3answers
346 views

For which $s\in\mathbb R$, is $H^s(\mathbb T)$ a Banach algebra?

According to Theorem 4.39 in Adams & Fournier Sobolev Spaces: If $mp>n$, $m\in\mathbb N$, then $W^{m,p}(\Omega)$ is a Banach algebra, provided that $\Omega\subset\mathbb R^n$ satisfies the ...
7
votes
1answer
1k views

Why is the dual space of $H_0^1(\Omega)$ denoted $H^{-1}(\Omega)$?

Why is the dual of the Sobolev space $H_0^1(\Omega)$ denoted $H^{-1}(\Omega)$ ? For a positive integer $k$, $H^k(\Omega)=W^{k,2}(\Omega)$. What is the motivation behind the $-1$ exponent?
5
votes
1answer
165 views

Sobolev spaces in one-dimensional vs multidimensional

Here in Wikipedia, it is said that in the one-dimensional case, it is enough to assume that the $(k-1)$-th derivative of the function $f$, is differentiable almost everywhere and is equal almost ...
4
votes
1answer
578 views

Function in $H^1$, but not continuous

By the Sobolev embedding theorem, if $\Omega$ is bounded, $H^s(\Omega)\subset C(\Omega)$ for $s>1$, in $\mathbb R^2$. Where I can find a counterexample (if one exists) for the case $s=1$? I mean a ...
3
votes
2answers
236 views

Characterisation of one-dimensional Sobolev space

I've got some doubts proving that $$H^1_0((a,b))=\{u\in AC([a,b]): u'\in L^2 \text{ and } u(a)=u(b)=0\}:=X.$$Let $$\mathcal A=\{v\in C^2([a,b]):v(a)=v(b)=0\}.$$ $H^1_0((a,b))\subseteq X.$ Let $u\...
2
votes
1answer
55 views

Do we necessarily have that $W^{2, p}(I) \subset C^1(\overline{I})$ with compact injection?

Let $I = (0, 1)$ and $p > 1$. Do we necessarily have that$$W^{2, p}(I) \subset C^1(\overline{I})$$with compact injection?
1
vote
1answer
165 views

$C_c^{\infty}(\mathbb R^n)$ is dense in $W^{k,p}(\mathbb R^n)$

As the title say, I want to prove that $C_c^{\infty}(\mathbb R^n)$ is dense in $W^{k,p}(\mathbb R^n)$ i.e. $\displaystyle{ W^{k,p} (\mathbb R^n) = W_0^{k,p}(\mathbb R^n) \quad (\star)}$. In a book ...
0
votes
1answer
467 views

If $u \in H^1(U)$, then $Du=0$ a.e. on the set $\{u=0\}$

Provide details for the following alternative proof that if $u \in H^1(U)$, then $$Du = 0 \text{ a.e. } \, \text{ on the set } \{u=0\}. $$ Let $\phi$ be a smooth, bounded and nondecreasing function, ...
0
votes
1answer
609 views

sobolev spaces - product of two functions

I am working in a exercise, to my solution works I need the following affirmation is true: Let $\varphi : R \rightarrow R$ a convex and smooth function. Let $u \in H^{1}(U)$ a bounded function and $v ...
0
votes
2answers
138 views

finite elements-exercice

We consider in $\mathbb{R}^2$ the set of points $$\{M_1(-1,1),M_2(0,1), M_3(2,1),M_4(-1,0),M_5(1,0),M_6(2,0)\}$$ Let $\Omega$ a rectangular structure consisting of the heads $\{M_4(-1,0),M_6(2,0), ...
3
votes
1answer
139 views

variational question

Let $\Omega$ a bounded domain, connexe and regular, and let $f \in L^2(\Omega).$ Let the variational problem: Find $u \in H^1(\Omega)$ such $$\int_{\Omega} \nabla u \nabla v dx + (\int_{\Omega} u dx)(...
3
votes
1answer
4k views

Dual space of the sobolev spaces.

What is the dual space of $ H¹(\Omega) = W^{1,2}(\Omega) $? What is the dual space of $ W^{m,p}(\Omega) $? I know for example that the dual space of $ L^{p}(\Omega) $ for $ 1 \le p < \infty $ is $ ...