This tag is for set theory topics typically studied at the advanced undergraduate or graduate level. These include cofinality, axioms of ZFC, axiom of choice, forcing, set-theoretic independence, large cardinals, models of set theory, ultrafilters, ultrapowers, constructible universe, inner model ...

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Partition on a Closed Set A= [2,3]

Is it possible to define a partition on a closed set,such that the union of the partitions will give [2,3] and their intersection to be empty?
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3answers
239 views

Does every cover have an irredundant subcover?

While composing an answer for this question, I got troubled by a technical point. I wanted to assert the existence of an irredundant subcover of a given open cover, but realized I'm not sure how to ...
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0answers
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Definability in $L(\omega_1)$

I'm trying to solve problem II.6.35 in Kunen's book, which asks to prove that if $V=L$, then the set $B$ of $\beta<\omega_1$ such that $L(\beta)\models ZF-P$ and every element of $L(\beta)$ is ...
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2answers
85 views

How should the relativized Kleene pointclass $\Sigma^1_1(A)$ be defined?

How should the relativized Kleene pointclass $\Sigma^1_1(A)$ be defined, when $A$ is a set of reals ($A \subset \omega^\omega$)? I assume that there is a standard definition, but I can't seem to find ...
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3answers
119 views

Isn't the axiom of determinacy inconsistent with ZF? What am I overlooking?

I'm sure there's something I'm missing here; probably a naive confusion of mathematics with metamathematics. Regardless, I've come up with what looks to me like a proof that (first-order) ZF+AD is ...
4
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2answers
88 views

A Ramsey-type result for families of subsets

Let $S$ be a set of cardinality $\aleph_1$. Consider the directed family $\mathcal{C}$ (here directed means directed with respect to the inclusion) of all countably infinite subsets of $S$. Suppose ...
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2answers
34 views

show that there is a $\mathbb P$-name $\sigma$ such that $M[G]\vDash \exists x\phi (x) \iff M[G]\vDash \phi (\sigma [G])$

I want to show that there is a $\mathbb P$-name $\sigma$ such that for every $G$ a generic filter we will have $$M[G]\vDash \exists x\phi (x) \iff M[G]\vDash \phi (\sigma [G])$$ while $\phi (x)$ is a ...
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0answers
71 views

How can nontrivial elementary embeddings of the universe to some inner model be surjective?

Consider $\kappa$ to the least measurable cardinal, or equivalently $\kappa$ is the critical point for an elementary embedding $j:V \rightarrow M$ from the universe $V$ to an inner model $M$ (critical ...
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0answers
38 views

Adding bounded quantifiers increases complexity in $L$

I'm reading Devlin's Constructability to learn about $L$. Following the proof that $L_\alpha$ has a $\Sigma_1$ skolem function for limit $\alpha>\omega$ (II.6.5), the author notes Notice that ...
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2answers
37 views

The class of all functions between classes (NBG)

Is it possible in NBG (von Neumann-Bernays-Gödel set theory) to construct the class of all functions $X \to Y$ between two (proper) classes $X,Y$? I guess that this does not work. In the special case ...
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1answer
43 views

There is no sequence $X_n$ such that $\forall n(\mathscr P(X_{n+1})\preceq X_n)$.

I'm working on the following exercise from Kunen: Define, in ZF without the axiom of regularity, $\aleph(\{\alpha: > \exists f \in \, ^\alpha X(f \text{ is } 1-1\})$. Show: ...
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1answer
30 views

Using ordinal arithmetic calculate the following ordinal numbers

(ω + 1) x ω (ω + 1) x 2 For Question #2, I can simplify to the point where I get (ω + (ω + 1)), but I'm not sure how to proceed from there
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1answer
69 views

Hilbert–Bernays provability conditions

Let "provability formula" ${\rm Prf}(x, y)$ written in the manner that provability operator $\square A$ defined as $\exists x\ {\rm Prf}(x, \overline A)$ satisfying Hilbert–Bernays axioms: If ZF ...
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1answer
50 views

Exercise (3) of Chapter III from Kunen's Set Theory: Intro to Independence Proofs

I'm a little stumped on the aforementioned question. It's statement is as follows: Let $M$ Be any class such that $\forall$x (x $\subset$ $M$ $\rightarrow$ x $\in$ $M$). Show that $WF$ $\subset$ ...
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4k views

Does the open mapping theorem imply the Baire category theorem?

A nice observation by C.E. Blair1, 2, 3 shows that the Baire category theorem for complete metric spaces is equivalent to the axiom of (countable) dependent choice. On the other hand, the three ...
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2answers
71 views

Every II-finite set is III-finite

I need some help proving that if a set $X$ is II-finite then it is III-finite, i.e. if every non-empty family of subsets of $X$ which is linearly ordered by inclusion has a maximal element under ...
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6answers
11k views

Can you explain the “Axiom of choice” in simple terms?

As I'm sure many of you do, I read the XKCD webcomic regularly. The most recent one involves a joke about the Axiom of Choice, which I didn't get. I went to Wikipedia to see what the Axiom of ...
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1answer
161 views

how many infinite cardinals are smaller than $\aleph$?

What can be said in general (if we do not assume the continuum hypothesis) about the cardinality of the set of all infinite cardinals smaller than $\aleph$?
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0answers
53 views

$\phi(\mathbb{P}\ast \mathbb{\dot{Q}})$ has property $\mu$-linked and $\mu$-centered.

Let $\mathbb{P}$ be a poset and $\mathbb{\dot{Q}}$ be a $\mathbb{P}$-name of a poset. If $\phi(\mathbb{P})$ and $\Vdash_{\mathbb{P}} \phi(\mathbb{\dot{Q}})$, then $\phi(\mathbb{P}\ast ...
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1answer
39 views

forcing over a dense set.

I want to show that given a countable transitive model $M$ a notion of forcing $\mathbb P$ and a generic filter $G$, then forcing over a dense set of $\mathbb P$, $D$ is just as forcing over $\mathbb ...
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16answers
8k views

Why did mathematicians take Russell's paradox seriously?

Though I've understood the logic behind's Russell's paradox for long enough, I have to admit I've never really understood why mathematicians and mathematical historians thought it so important. Most ...
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96 views

Order-preserving map of regressive functions on $\omega_1$

I posted the following question a year ago on MO. It did receive some attention, but the answer there remains incomplete (as discussed in some detail in its comments). Meanwhile I got the impression ...
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1answer
85 views

No Borel well-order of the reals?

I'm told there is no Borel well-order of the reals (in ZFC). I'm told, in fact, that this is because of Borel determinacy. However, this is usually a vague handwave of the form (a) take the usual ...
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1answer
33 views

Function on a well-ordered set

Let $(W,<)$ be a well ordered set. Let $f : W\rightarrow W$ be a function such that $u < v$ implies $f(u) < f(v)$. Show that $\forall w \in W, w \leq f(w)$. I was thinking to consider $T=\{x ...
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1answer
45 views

The Amoeba poset has property Knaster.?

The Amoeba poset has property Knaster.? Amoeba poset $\mathbb{P}=\{p \subseteq \mathbb{R}: p$ $\text{is open} \wedge \mu(p)< \epsilon\}$ for $\epsilon>0$. Any suggestion. Thanks
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3answers
218 views

Proof of exchange principle in set theory

How would one use the Axiom of Foundation (that every non-empty set has an $\in$-minimal element) to prove that for any two sets $x,y$ we can find a set $x'$ so that $x'$ and $y$ are disjoint and $x'$ ...
3
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1answer
40 views

A generalization of “any countable limit ordinal is the union of a sequence of increasing ordinal”

Using the fact that every countable ordinal is isomorphic to a closed subset of $\mathbb Q$, I find out that any countable limit ordinal is the union of a sequence of increasing ordinal. Now I'm ...
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4answers
195 views

Is $2^{\aleph_0} = \aleph_1$?

I was reading a thread on Examples of Common False Beliefs in Mathematics on MathOverflow, in which a user wrote: $$2^{\aleph_0} = \aleph_1$$ This is a pet peeve of mine, I'm always surprised ...
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2answers
128 views

Do we know if the consistency of $ \mathsf{ZFC} $ is sufficient to prove that $ \mathsf{ZFC} \nvdash \text{Con}(\mathsf{ZFC}) \to \mathsf{SM} $?

This is basically a sequel to this earlier post. There, I asked: If $ \mathsf{ZFC} $ is consistent, then is $ \mathsf{ZFC} \nvdash \neg \text{Con}(\mathsf{ZFC}) $, i.e., $ \neg ...
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1answer
77 views

Breaking the AC barrier using Kelley-Morse set theory

In her blog post Variants of Kelley-Morse set theory, Prof. Gitman proves that every model of the the common version of Kelley-Morse set theory ($\mathsf{KM}$) is a model of the Wikipedia version of ...
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1answer
35 views

uncountable repetitions

I have a question (or two) about recursive naming conventions. Consider the following recursive naming sequence: Base step: Let S be any nonempty set. Let x be any arbitrary element of S. Let S* be ...
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1answer
52 views

informal semantics regarding CH and AC

why is the assertion $\aleph_1=2^{\aleph_0}$ referred to as a hypothesis, whereas $$\forall \alpha( S_\alpha \ne \varnothing) \Rightarrow \prod_\alpha S_\alpha \ne \varnothing$$ is called an axiom? ...
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1answer
94 views

Reference request for the independence of $ \text{Con}(\mathsf{ZFC}) $.

Gödel’s Second Incompleteness Theorem says that if $ \mathsf{ZFC} $ is consistent, then $ \mathsf{ZFC} \nvdash \text{Con}(\mathsf{ZFC}) $, i.e., $ \text{Con}(\mathsf{ZFC}) $ is not provable in $ ...
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0answers
52 views

Dependence of axioms of Zermelo set theory

I'm reading a book about Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, and I was told that there are a lot of dependence relation among the commonly used axiom system (in the question What axioms does ZF have, ...
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1answer
103 views

Without AC, it is consistent that there is a function with domain $\mathbb{R}$ whose range has cardinality strictly larger than that of $\mathbb{R}$?

I stumbled across this question earlier, and the top comment on the bottom answer asserts two claims: Without the Axiom of Choice, It is consistent that there exists a function with domain ...
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0answers
36 views

Surreal numbers in set theories other than ZFC

This isn't really a question rather than my thoughts on these things; I initially had questions but believe I managed to answer them. Regardless, here goes. Feel free to correct any mistakes, as I'm a ...
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1answer
32 views

Every set with more than point admits a permutation with no fixed point and the Axiom of Choice [duplicate]

Assuming axiom of choice , for any set $S$ with more than one point , there exist a bijection $f:S \to S$ such that $f(s) \ne s , \forall s \in S$ . Is the converse true , i.e. Does the statement " ...
2
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1answer
48 views

How to define “is a structure” by a first-order formula of ZFC

So, I've been trying to define a series of notions by first-order formulas in ZFC, and I'd like to know if I'm getting this right. In particular, I'd like to know if my formula for defining a ...
2
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2answers
153 views

Isomorphic Free Groups and the Axiom of Choice

When I read about free group, the proof which concerns about two free groups $F(X)$ and $F(Y)$ are isomorphic only if $\operatorname{card}(X) = \operatorname{card}(Y)$ has a sentence going as follows: ...
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1answer
53 views

Consequences of the negation of the Axiom of Dependent Choice

It seems to me that a proper reason to include The Axiom of Choice as a foundational axiom of set theory should be based on the observation that the negation of The Axiom of Choice has absurd ...
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0answers
26 views

Cardinal numbers greater than $\omega$ , ZF [duplicate]

Prove in $ZF$ that for every cardinal number exists a greater cardinal number. I managed to prove this fact in $ZFC$. But without using axiom of choice I can't well-order P(A), and can't build ...
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0answers
54 views

Pathologies involving non-generic filters

This is a question regarding exercise (IV.2.46) in Kunen's Set Theory (2011); it reads: "Assume that $M$ is a ctm for $ZFC$, and let $\mathbb{P}$ $=$ Fn$(\omega,2)$. Then there is a filter $G$ on ...
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1answer
363 views

Cardinality of the set of ultrafilters on an infinite Boolean algebra

Let $\mathfrak B$ be a Boolean algebra with an infinite power $\kappa$. My question is how many ultrafilters does it have? $\kappa$ or $2^\kappa$? Or even smaller?
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0answers
73 views

Infinite palindromes in number of nonisomorphic posets is independent of $\mathsf{ZF}$

The following is an "exercise" in P. Stanley's book "Enumerative Combinatorics": Let $f(n)$ be the number of nonisomorphic $n$-element posets (...) let $\mathcal{P}$ denote the statement that ...
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6answers
520 views

Is Pigeonhole Principle the negation of Dedekind-infinite?

From Wiki, "The Pigeonhole Principle": In mathematics, the pigeonhole principle states that if n items are put into m pigeonholes with n > m, then at least one pigeonhole must contain more ...
5
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1answer
148 views

Is category theory constructive?

Roughly: This question concerns the process and the constructive nature of formalizing and proving category theoretic statements within $\textsf{ZFC}$. $\textsf{ZFC}$ can only talk about sets, ...
4
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1answer
88 views

Integer induction without infinity

In ZFC minus infinity (let us call this T), one can still define ordinals, and then define integers as ordinals all of whose members are zero or successor ordinals. I am looking for a formula $\psi$ ...
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1answer
80 views

Why does a nontrivial $V \to V$ have a critical point?

Let $V$ denote the von Neumann universe, and let $j: V \to V$ be a nontrivial (non-identity) elementary embedding. The critical point is the smallest $\kappa$ such that $j(\kappa) > \kappa$. The ...
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1answer
68 views

Is the cofinality function monotonic?

Is the cofinality function $\operatorname{cf}$ monotonic? I.e., if $\lambda \le \kappa$ for cardinals $\lambda$ and $\kappa$, does it then follow that $\operatorname{cf}(\lambda) \le ...
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2answers
148 views

Equivalent condition for a nonprincipal ultrafilter to be Ramsey

I came across this problem in my study of set theory and am not quite sure how to approach it. A solution or starting point would be welcome. Prove that if $\mathcal U$ is a nonprincipal ultrafilter ...