For questions about recurrence relations, convergence tests, and identifying sequences. For questions on finite sums use the (summation) instead.

learn more… | top users | synonyms (5)

17
votes
3answers
2k views

Does uncountable summation, with a finite sum, ever occur in mathematics?

Obviously, “most” of the terms must cancel out with opposite algebraic sign. You can contrive examples such as the sum of the members of R being 0, but does an uncountable sum, with a finite sum, ...
5
votes
6answers
573 views

$\sum \limits_{n=1}^{\infty}n(\frac{2}{3})^n$ Evalute Sum [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: How can I evaluate $\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{2n}{3^{n+1}}$ How can you compute the limit of $\sum \limits_{n=1}^{\infty} n(2/3)^n$ Evidently it is equal to 6 by wolfram ...
4
votes
6answers
368 views

Does the following series converge?

Does the following series converge ? $$1+\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}+\frac{1}{\sqrt{3}}+\frac{1}{\sqrt{4}}+...+\frac{1}{\sqrt{n}}+\ldots$$ Let, $u_{n}=\frac{1}{\sqrt{n}}$ $\lim\limits_{n\to\infty}{u_{n}}=\...
7
votes
2answers
497 views

Finding the limit of $\frac{Q(n)}{P(n)}$ where $Q,P$ are polynomials

Suppose that $$Q(x)=a_{n}x^{n}+a_{n-1}x^{n-1}+\cdots+a_{1}x+a_{0} $$and $$P(x)=b_{m}x^{m}+b_{m-1}x^{m-1}+\cdots+b_{1}x+b_{0}.$$ How do I find $$\lim_{x\rightarrow\infty}\frac{Q(x)}{P(x)}$$ and what ...
56
votes
7answers
4k views

How to prove this identity $\pi=\sum\limits_{k=-\infty}^{\infty}\left(\frac{\sin(k)}{k}\right)^{2}\;$?

How to prove this identity? $$\pi=\sum_{k=-\infty}^{\infty}\left(\dfrac{\sin(k)}{k}\right)^{2}\;$$ I found the above interesting identity in the book $\bf \pi$ Unleashed. Does anyone knows how to ...
24
votes
2answers
2k views

Sum of reciprocals of numbers with certain terms omitted

I know that the harmonic series $1 + \frac12 + \frac13 + \frac14 + \cdots$ diverges. I also know that the sum of the inverse of prime numbers $\frac12 + \frac13 + \frac15 + \frac17 + \frac1{11} + \...
25
votes
4answers
4k views

Finding Value of the Infinite Product $\prod \Bigl(1-\frac{1}{n^{2}}\Bigr)$

While trying some problems along with my friends we had difficulty in this question. True or False: The value of the infinite product $$\prod\limits_{n=2}^{\infty} \biggl(1-\frac{1}{n^{2}}\biggr)$$ ...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

What's the limit of the sequence $\lim_{n \rightarrow \infty} \frac{n!}{n^n}$?

$\displaystyle \lim_{n \rightarrow \infty} \frac{n!}{n^n}$ I have a question: Is it valid to use Stirling's Formula to prove convergence of the sequence?
3
votes
1answer
236 views

Determine if the following series are convergent or divergent?

How to determine if the following series are convergent or divergent? I'm supposed to use here the limit comparison test, but I don't know how to choose the second series. $$\sum_{k=1}^\infty \ln(1+ \...
19
votes
8answers
4k views

How to determine equation for $\sum_{k=1}^n k^3$

How do you find an algebraic formula for $\sum_{k=1}^n k^3$? I am able to find one for $\sum_{k=1}^n k^2$, but not $k^3$. Any hints would be appreciated.
12
votes
3answers
734 views

Evaluate $\int_{0}^{+\infty }{\left( \frac{x}{{{\text{e}}^{x}}-{{\text{e}}^{-x}}}-\frac{1}{2} \right)\frac{1}{{{x}^{2}}}\text{d}x}$

Evaluate : $$\int_{0}^{+\infty }{\left( \frac{x}{{{\text{e}}^{x}}-{{\text{e}}^{-x}}}-\frac{1}{2} \right)\frac{1}{{{x}^{2}}}\text{d}x}$$
16
votes
3answers
1k views

Limit $\lim\limits_{n\rightarrow\infty}\left({2\sqrt n}-\sum\limits_{k=1}^n\frac{1}{\sqrt k}\right)$

How to find $\displaystyle\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}\left({2\sqrt n}-\sum_{k=1}^n\frac{1}{\sqrt k}\right)$ ? And generally does the limit of the integral of f(x) minus the sum of f(x) exist? How to ...
13
votes
1answer
369 views

If the positive series $\sum a_n$ diverges and $s_n=\sum\limits_{k\leqslant n}a_k$ then $\sum \frac{a_n}{s_n}$ diverges as well

So I've been trying to figure out how to prove the following. Let $(a_n)$ be a sequence of positive numbers such that $\sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty a_n =\infty$, and define $s_n=\sum\limits_{i=1}^n ...
13
votes
5answers
1k views

$\int_0^{\infty}\frac{\ln x}{x^2+a^2}\mathrm{d}x$ Evaluate Integral

Anyone remember the method for this? I think this should been done on the site $$\int_0^{\infty}\frac{\ln x}{x^2+a^2}\mathrm{d}x$$
7
votes
6answers
965 views

Convergence of the series $\sum \limits_{n=2}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n\log^s n}$

We all know that $\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n^s}$ converges for $s>1$ and diverges for $s \leq 1$ (Assume $s \in \mathbb{R}$). I was curious to see till what extent I can push the ...
17
votes
2answers
1k views

Showing that $\lim_{n\to\infty}\sum^n_{k=1}\frac{1}{k}-\ln(n)=0.5772\ldots$

How to show that $$\lim_{n\to\infty}\left[\sum^n_{k=1}\frac{1}{k}-\ln(n)\right]=0.5772\ldots$$ No clue at all. Need help! Appreciated!
28
votes
4answers
1k views

How find this sum $\sum\limits_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{1}{(3n+1)(3n+2)(3n+3)}$

Find this sum $$I=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\dfrac{1}{(3n+1)(3n+2)(3n+3)}$$ My try: let $$f(x)=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\dfrac{x^{3n+3}}{(3n+1)(3n+2)(3n+3)},|x|\le 1$$ then we have $$f^{(3)}(x)=\sum_{n=...
10
votes
1answer
4k views

Convergence of Ratio Test implies Convergence of the Root Test

In Elias Stein and Rami Shakarchi's Complex Analysis textbook, we have the following exercise: Show that if $\{a_n\}_{n=0}^\infty$ is a sequence of complex numbers such that $$\lim_{n\to\infty}\...
17
votes
7answers
8k views

Prove the divergence of the sequence $\left\{ \sin(n) \right\}_{n=1}^{\infty}$.

I am looking for nice ways of proving the divergence of the sequence $\left\{x_n\right\}_{n=1}^{\infty}$ defined by $$x_n=\sin{(n)}.$$ One (not so nice) way is to construct two subsequences: one where ...
11
votes
1answer
9k views

The $ l^{\infty} $-norm is equal to the limit of the $ l^{p} $-norms. [duplicate]

If we are in a sequence space, then the $ l^{p} $-norm of the sequence $ \mathbf{x} = (x_{i})_{i \in \mathbb{N}} $ is $ \displaystyle \left( \sum_{i=1}^{\infty} |x_{i}|^{p} \right)^{1/p} $. The $ l^{\...
7
votes
3answers
2k views

Stolz-Cesàro Theorem

Recently I've been trying to find a satisfactory proof of the Stolz-Cesàro Theorem but I havent found any. As I remember the claim is as follows: Let $${\left\{ {{b_n}} \right\}_{n \in {\Bbb N}}}$$ ...
16
votes
4answers
3k views

Limit of the nested radical $\sqrt{7+\sqrt{7+\sqrt{7+\cdots}}}$ [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: On the sequence $x_{n+1} = \sqrt{c+x_n}$ Where does this sequence converge? $\sqrt{7},\sqrt{7+\sqrt{7}},\sqrt{7+\sqrt{7+\sqrt{7}}}$,...
9
votes
4answers
730 views

$X_n\leq Y_n$ implies $\liminf X_n \leq \liminf Y_n$ and $\limsup X_n \leq \limsup Y_n$

Can anyone prove this question? I tried but I didn't get any I idea, so I hope someone can solve it. Let $X_n\leq Y_n$ for each $n\in \Bbb N$. Show that $\liminf X_n \leq \liminf Y_n$ and $\limsup ...
7
votes
1answer
2k views

Can you please check my Cesaro means proof

I wanted to prove the following: if $x_n \to x$ then $y_n \to x$ where $$ y_n = {x_1 + \dots + x_n \over n}$$ Please can you tell me if my proof is correct? My proof is this: Let $\varepsilon > ...
4
votes
6answers
2k views

Limit of the sequence $\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}\sqrt[n]n$ [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: $\lim_{n \to +\infty} n^{\frac{1}{n}} $ I know that $$\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}\sqrt[n]n=1$$ and I can imagine that $n$ grows linearly while $n$th root compresses it ...
13
votes
5answers
858 views

Why doesn't $d(x_n,x_{n+1})\rightarrow 0$ as $n\rightarrow\infty$ imply ${x_n}$ is Cauchy?

What is an example of a sequence in $\mathbb R$ with this property that is not Cauchy?
12
votes
2answers
8k views

Prove that if $\sum{a_n}$ converges absolutely, then $\sum{a_n^2}$ converges absolutely

I'm trying to re-learn my undergrad math, and I'm using Stephen Abbot's Understanding Analysis. In section 2.7, he has the following exercise: Exercise 2.7.5 (a) Show that if $\sum{a_n}$ converges ...
7
votes
2answers
2k views

Show $\sum\limits_{n=0}^{\infty}{2n \choose n}x^n=(1-4x)^{-1/2}$

How do you prove that $\sum\limits_{n=0}^{\infty}{2n \choose n}x^n=(1-4x)^{-1/2}$? I tried to identify the sum as a binomial series, but the $4$ and the $-1/2$ puzzle me. (This series arises in ...
105
votes
5answers
3k views

Proof of $\frac{1}{e^{\pi}+1}+\frac{3}{e^{3\pi}+1}+\frac{5}{e^{5\pi}+1}+\ldots=\frac{1}{24}$

I would like to prove that $\displaystyle\sum_{\substack{n=1\\n\text{ odd}}}^{\infty}\frac{n}{e^{n\pi}+1}=\frac1{24}$. I found a solution by myself 10 hours after I posted it, here it is: $$f(x)=\...
8
votes
1answer
5k views

Inequality between $\ell^p$-norms

Suppose that a sequence $x=(x_n)$ belongs both to $\ell^p$ and $\ell^q$ ($p,q>1$, $p\neq q$). Is there any inequality between $\|x\|_p$ and $\|x\|_q$. Can one $\ell^p$ be continuously embedded into ...
18
votes
4answers
806 views

A log improper integral

Evaluate : $$\int_0^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\ln ^2\left(\cos ^2x\right)\text{d}x$$ I found it can be simplified to $$\int_0^{\frac{\pi}{2}}4\ln ^2\left(\cos x\right)\text{d}x$$ I found the exact value in the ...
10
votes
8answers
6k views

Series that converge to $\pi$ quickly

I know the series, $4-{4\over3}+{4\over5}-{4\over7}...$ converges to $\pi$ but I have heard many people say that while this is a classic example, there are series that converge much faster. Does ...
16
votes
8answers
2k views

Need to prove the sequence $a_n=1+\frac{1}{2^2}+\frac{1}{3^2}+\cdots+\frac{1}{n^2}$ converges

I need to prove that the sequence $a_n=1+\frac{1}{2^2}+\frac{1}{3^2}+\cdots+\frac{1}{n^2}$ converges. I do not have to find the limit. I have tried to prove it by proving that the sequence is monotone ...
15
votes
1answer
13k views

Is the $\sum\sin(n)/n$ convergent or divergent? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Proving that the sequence $F_{n}(x)=\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n} \frac{\sin{kx}}{k}$ is boundedly convergent on $\mathbb{R}$ So, in my calculus class (one I'm teaching, not taking)...
16
votes
2answers
937 views

Alternating harmonic sum $\sum_{k\geq 1}\frac{(-1)^k}{k^3}H_k$

How to analytically prove $$\sum_{k\geq 1}\frac{(-1)^k}{k^3}H_k=-\frac{11\pi^4}{360}+\frac{\ln^42-\pi^2\ln^22}{12}+2\mathrm{Li}_4\left(\frac12\right)+\frac{7\ln 2}{4}\zeta(3) $$ As O.L answer ...
18
votes
3answers
388 views

The set of functions which map convergent series to convergent series

Suppose $f$ is some real function with the above property, i.e. if $\sum\limits_{n = 0}^\infty {x_n}$ converges, then $\sum\limits_{n = 0}^\infty {f(x_n)}$ also converges. My question is: can ...
16
votes
5answers
785 views

Do these series converge to logarithms?

It is well known that $$1-\frac{1}{2}+\frac{1}{3}-\frac{1}{4}+\frac{1}{5}... =\log(2).$$ If we consider the array: $T(n,k) = -(n-1)\; \text{ if }\; n|k, \;\text{ else } \;1,$ Starting: $$\begin{...
5
votes
0answers
265 views

An interesting identity involving powers of $\pi$ and values of $\eta(s)$

It happens that, for any $m\geq 1$, $$\sum_{n=0}^{+\infty}\frac{(-1)^n}{(2n+1)^{2m+1}}=\frac{E_{2m}}{2\cdot(2m)!}\left(\frac{\pi}{2}\right)^{2m+1}\tag{1}$$ where $E_{2m}$ is an integer number. My ...
5
votes
3answers
370 views

How to solve this : $\prod^{\infty}_{n=2} \frac{n^3-1}{n^3+1}$

How to find the sum of this : $$\prod^{\infty}_{n=2} \frac{n^3-1}{n^3+1}$$ My Working : $$\prod^{\infty}_{n=2} \frac{n^3-1}{n^3+1}= 1 - \prod^{\infty}_{n=2}\frac{2}{n^3+1} = 1-0 = 1$$ Is it ...
1
vote
5answers
516 views

Generate solutions of Quadratic Diophantine Equation

Recently I've asked a question for how to solve Quadratic Diophantine Equation and I got one interesting answer. Link to question: How to solve Quadratic Diophantine Equation Here's the answer: $$ ...
14
votes
2answers
2k views

Do these series converge to the von Mangoldt function?

Jeffrey Shallit formulated this recurrence for me: $\displaystyle T(n,1)=1, k>1: T(n,k) = \sum\limits_{i=1}^{k-1} T(n-i,k-1)-\sum\limits_{i=1}^{k-1} T(n-i,k)$ which is the lower triangular array ...
3
votes
1answer
729 views

Summation of natural number set with power of $m$ [duplicate]

Who knows about the summation of this series: $$\sum\limits_{i=1}^{n}i^m $$ where $m$ is constant and $m\in \mathbb{N}$? thanks
74
votes
3answers
6k views

Are there any series whose convergence is unknown?

Are there any infinite series about which we don't know whether it converges or not? Or are the convergence tests exhaustive, so that in the hands of a competent mathematician any series will ...
28
votes
3answers
3k views

Evaluating the nested radical $ \sqrt{1 + 2 \sqrt{1 + 3 \sqrt{1 + \cdots}}} $.

How does one prove the following limit? $$ \lim_{n \to \infty} \sqrt{1 + 2 \sqrt{1 + 3 \sqrt{1 + \cdots \sqrt{1 + (n - 1) \sqrt{1 + n}}}}} = 3. $$
21
votes
1answer
4k views

Infinite product of sine function

How to prove the following product? $$\frac{\sin(x)}{x}= \left(1+\frac{x}{\pi}\right) \left(1-\frac{x}{\pi}\right) \left(1+\frac{x}{2\pi}\right) \left(1-\frac{x}{2\pi}\right) \left(1+\frac{x}{3\pi}\...
27
votes
2answers
3k views

Definition of convergence of a nested radical $\sqrt{a_1 + \sqrt{a_2 + \sqrt{a_3 + \sqrt{a_4+\cdots}}}}$?

In my answer to the recent question Nested Square Roots, @GEdgar correctly raised the issue that the proof is incomplete unless I show that the intermediate expressions do converge to a (finite) limit....
32
votes
3answers
3k views

Why is this series of square root of twos equal $\pi$?

Wikipedia claims this but only cites an offline proof: $$\lim_{n\to\infty} 2^n \sqrt{2-\sqrt{2+... \sqrt 2}} = \pi$$ for $n$ square roots and one minus sign. The formula is not the "usual" one, like ...
19
votes
4answers
474 views

A closed form of $\sum_{k=0}^\infty\frac{(-1)^{k+1}}{k!}\Gamma^2\left(\frac{k}{2}\right)$

I am looking for a closed form of the following series \begin{equation} \mathcal{I}=\sum_{k=1}^\infty\frac{(-1)^{k+1}}{k!}\Gamma^2\left(\frac{k}{2}\right) \end{equation} I have no idea how to ...
25
votes
3answers
1k views

Result of the product $0.9 \times 0.99 \times 0.999 \times …$

My question has two parts: How can I nicely define the infinite sequence $0.9,\ 0.99,\ 0.999,\ \dots$? One option would be the recursive definition below; is there a nicer way to do this? Maybe put ...
20
votes
5answers
1k views

Closed form for the sequence defined by $a_0=1$ and $a_{n+1} = a_n + a_n^{-1}$

Today, we had a math class, where we had to show, that $a_{100} > 14$ for $$a_0 = 1;\qquad a_{n+1} = a_n + a_n^{-1}$$ Apart from this task, I asked myself: Is there a closed form for this ...