1
vote
0answers
22 views

Powerful numbers in Pell solutions (or, more generally, any Lucas sequence)

There are several definitive results regarding perfect powers in the Pell numbers — e.g., the only perfect power is $P_7=169=13^2$. On the other hand, when it comes to powerful numbers, I've only ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

What notation to use for a sequence of integers that end with digit 5?

I need to solve a low high school home work and I ask a question about the most correct notation. The problem is to build a set of circles with $r$ and $d$ such that $d=5, 15, 25, 35,...d_{+_1}$ and ...
0
votes
0answers
51 views

Proof of convergence of Kaprekar's Constant

I've tried googling this one a bit but nothing seems to come up, even though its considered to be a well known fact. Why does the kaprekar process of taking a 4 digit number: L, generating L' and L'' ...
3
votes
2answers
92 views

A transcendental number from the diophantine equation $x+2y+3z=n$

Let $\displaystyle n=1,2,3,\cdots.$ We denote by $D_n$ the number of non-negative integer solutions of the diophantine equation $$x+2y+3z=n$$ Prove that $$ \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

a finite induction question from burton's elementary number theory

this question comes from burton's elementary number theory, 4th edition. question 3 in 1.1 says to use the second principle of finite induction to establish that $$for\ all\ n\ge1,\ ^{(a)}\ ...
5
votes
1answer
63 views

How many decimal representations are possible for the number 1

I know that there at least two $0.\overline{9}$ and 1 Is there a neat and more concrete way to understand this problem.
2
votes
0answers
87 views

Questions about central polygonal numbers $1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, 22, 29, 37, 46,\cdots$

Formula for Central polygonal numbers is $\frac{n(n+1)}{2} + 1$, if $n=1$ or $n$ is prime, we get the new sequence $A$: 2, 4, 7, 16, 29, 67, 92, 154, 191, ... It seems that all primes either is ...
0
votes
0answers
49 views

A general question on positive integer sequence of a certain formula

Let $A=\{\ $ a certain polynomial | all variables$\ \in\mathbb N\ \},\ A\ \subseteq\ \mathbb Z^+,\ $ such as $A = \{2n−1\ |\ n\in\mathbb N\}$. Let $B=\mathbb Z_{\ge 0}-A$. Let $C$ be the set that ...
2
votes
0answers
43 views

Proving a quantity negative.

For $j\in{1,2,3}$ let $x_j,y_j \in R$ be nonzero and let $v_j=x_j+y_j$. Suppose that following holds: $$x_1x_2x_3=−y_1y_2y_3 \quad \text{and} \quad x^2_1+x^2_2+x^2_3=y^2_1+y^2_2+y^2_3$$ nd that ...
1
vote
0answers
62 views

How to generilize the the following summation.

While searching for a summation formula I come accross the following equation on wikipedia Equation $$\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n}{k^m z^k}=\left(z\frac{d}{dz}\right)^m\frac{z-z^{n+1}}{1-z}$$ So I tried to ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

Frogs on lotus trees [duplicate]

$n(>1)$ lotus leaves are arranged in a circle. A frog jumps from a particular leaf by the following rule: It always moves counter clockwise. From starting point it skips one leaf and jumps to the ...
6
votes
3answers
972 views

To prove the sequence 11,111,1111,… does not contain a perfect square number. [duplicate]

I have to prove that the sequence $\{11,111,1111, \dots \} $ doesn't contain any perfect square numbers. I can realize it but I am unable to prove it. Please help.
1
vote
2answers
78 views

Find $\sum\frac{a(n)}{n(n+1)}$, where $a(n)$ — number of 1's in binary expansion of n. [duplicate]

Let $a(n)$ is a number of 1's in binary expansion of n, find the sum $$ \sum\limits_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{a(n)}{n(n+1)}. $$
3
votes
0answers
153 views

Conjecture on OEIS A167055

OEIS A167055 Numbers n such that $12n + 5$ is prime. $0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 16, 19, 21,...$ are items of OEIS A167055. I conjecture that the set of the sum of every two items of this ...
14
votes
1answer
125 views

How to sum this infinite series

How to sum this series: $$\frac{1}{1}+\frac{1}{11}+\frac{1}{111}+\frac{1}{1111}+\cdots$$ My attempt: Multiply and divide the series by $9$ ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

Commuting limits in relating the harmonic series to coprimality densities

Let $f(b, q)$ be the reciprocal proportion of naturals less than $b$ which are not divisible by any prime less than $q$. Note that $\displaystyle \lim_{q \to \infty} f(b, q) = b$, while $\displaystyle ...
1
vote
1answer
39 views

Help with this hard recurrence relation question

Please help with this. Suppose $\{a_n\}$ satisfies $$a_n=(n+1)a_{n-1}-(n-2)a_{n-2}-(n-5)a_{n-3}+(n-3)a_{n-4},$$ and $a_0=a_1=1,a_2=a_3=0$. Please sort out the general form of $a_n$. I guess $a_n$ ...
4
votes
1answer
62 views

Number of occurances of a number $n$ in $\lfloor \sqrt{0} \rfloor, \lfloor \sqrt{1} \rfloor, \lfloor \sqrt{2} \rfloor, \dots$

Recently, while learning Python (the programming language), I started playing around to generate the following sequence: $$\lfloor \sqrt{0} \rfloor, \lfloor \sqrt{1} \rfloor, \lfloor \sqrt{2} ...
3
votes
1answer
60 views

Number of palindromic numbers less than a power of $10$

I noticed that every $10^{n}$ there is a certain number of palindromic numbers that I collected in this sequence: $$S=\{a_n,a_{n+1},a_{n+2}...\}=\{10,9,90,90,900,900...\}$$ where every number $a_n$ is ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

Is there name to the following sequence: $c_n = c_1c_2…c_{n-1} + 1$

I just saw the sequence $c_n = c_0c_1c_2...c_{n-1} + 1$ and is thinking whether sequence $(c_n)$ has some name. Add: What if $c_0 \neq 2$?
1
vote
2answers
72 views

summation of ceil and floor function

I need a closed solution or a faster algorithm for calculating $$ \sum_{k=1}^{n-1} \left\lceil \frac{n}{k}-1 \right\rceil $$ and $$ \sum_{k=1}^{n-1} \left\lfloor \frac{n}{k} \right\rfloor $$ where $ ...
0
votes
0answers
32 views

Logarithmic derivative of Riemann zeta, is this derivation correct?

Let matrix $T_2$ be defined below as the Dirichlet inverse of the Euler totient function as a function of the Greatest Common Divisor (GCD) of row index $n$ and column index $k$; $$T_2(n,k) = ...
7
votes
1answer
131 views

Find all natural numbers such that $\sum_{k=1}^{n} \frac{n^k}{k!}$ is an integer

Find all natural numbers such that $\sum_{k=1}^{n} \frac{n^k}{k!}$ is an integer. I've tried to bring all fractions under commmon denominator and it didn't helped me much. With guessing I find out ...
1
vote
0answers
60 views

Irrational numbers and series

Let $$f(x) = \prod_{n = 0}^\infty \left(1 + \frac{x}{2^n}\right)$$ According to an exercise in a packet of problems in elementary number theory, this function and all its derivatives are irrational ...
41
votes
5answers
4k views

Does every prime divide some Fibonacci number?

I am tring to show that $\forall a \in \Bbb P\; \exists n\in\Bbb N : a|F_n$, where $F$ is the fibonacci sequence defined as $\{F_n\}:F_0 = 0, F_1 = 1, F_n = F_{n-1} + F_{n-2}$ $(n=2,3,...)$. How can ...
0
votes
2answers
35 views

A formula for a sequence which has three odds and then three evens, alternately

We know that triangular numbers are 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28, 36... where we have alternate two odd and two even numbers. This sequence has a simple formula $a_n=n(n+1)/2$. What would be an example ...
5
votes
1answer
176 views

Sequence where the sum of digits of all numbers is 7

BdMO 2014 We define a sequence starting with $a_1=7,a_2=16,\ldots,\,$ such that the sum of digits of all numbers of the sequence is $7$ and if $m>n$,then $a_m>a_n$ i.e. all such numbers are ...
1
vote
1answer
69 views

Eliminating numbers from the sequence $1,2,3,4,5,6,7…400$

BdMO 2014 Let us take the sequence $1,2,3,4,5,6,7....400$ .We are going to remove numbers from the sequence such that the sum of any 2 numbers of the remaining sequence is not divisible by 7.What ...
9
votes
2answers
170 views

Has anyone noticed this pattern?

I've been messing around a bit and I noticed a curious pattern when it comes to progressions of powers. Let's take the progression of consecutive integers: $1,2,3,4,5,6,7,...$ Obviously it's an ...
1
vote
5answers
113 views

Sum of elements in the nth set of the sequence of sets of squares $\{1\}$, $\{4,9\}$, $\{16,25,36\}$, …

Let $S_n$ denote the sum of the elements in the $n^{th}$ set of the sequence of sets of squares: $\{1\}$, $\{4,9\}$, $\{16,25,36\}$, $\{49,64,81,100\}$,.... i.e. $S_1 = 1$, $S_2 = 13$, ... How do you ...
2
votes
0answers
50 views

Distribution of Omega values modulo m

Define $\Omega(2^{a_1}3^{a_2}...p_k^{a_k})=a_1+...+a_k$ . I am interested in the density of the values of Omega mod m. If we define the set $S=(x:\Omega(x)\equiv k \text{ mod m})$, I would like to ...
3
votes
1answer
256 views

Find the $n^{\rm th}$ digit in the sequence $123456789101112\dots$

Basically, the question asks us to find the nth digit in the following sequence: $$12345678910111213\dots9899100101\dots$$ where the 10th digit is $1$, the 11th digit is $0$, etc. EDIT: Here are my ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

Uniqueness proof of binary representation

I'm having trouble understanding this proof of uniqueness of binary representation of integers: Suppose there exists an integer $n$ with two different binary representations. Let these be: ...
10
votes
2answers
120 views

Let $a_k=\frac1{\binom{n}k}$, $b_k=2^{k-n}$. Compute $\sum_{k=1}^n\frac{a_k-b_k}k$

Let $a_k=\frac1{\binom{n}k}$, $b_k=2^{k-n}$. Compute $$\sum_{k=1}^n\frac{a_k-b_k}k$$ By computing some partial sums, the answers are 0. It seems an inductive argument is possible.
3
votes
1answer
71 views

Schnirelmann Density: if $d(A) + d(B) \ge 1$, does it follow that $d(A+B)=1$

I am still trying to get my head around the basic properties of Schnirelmann Density. If I'm reading PlanetMath.org correctly, it states that if $d(A) + d(B) \ge 1$, then $d(A+B)=1$ Here's the exact ...
4
votes
1answer
68 views

Summation of a floored square root

I am working on a little something and have hit a roadblock of sorts. I have arrived at this equation:$$\sum_{n=1}^{r}\left\lfloor\sqrt{2nr-{n}^{2}}\right\rfloor$$ I am attempting to find some way of ...
2
votes
0answers
78 views

Need to find a better algorithm to solve a project euler problem dealing with coprime pairs.

I've been working on this for a while and found several solutions so far, but none are fast enough to find the necessary $S(10^7)$. Here is the question: For an integer $M$, we define $R(M)$ as ...
6
votes
2answers
114 views

$a_1=1,a_{n+1}=\frac{n}{a_n}+\frac{a_n}{n}$. Prove that for $n\ge4$, $\lfloor{a_n^2}\rfloor=n$

Define a sequence $\left\lbrace a_{n}\right\rbrace$ by $\displaystyle{a_{1} = 1\,,\ a_{n + 1} = {n \over a_n} + {a_n \over n}.\quad}$ Prove that for $n \geq 4,\,\,\left\lfloor ...
0
votes
0answers
142 views

Is there a elementary way to prove $\zeta(2)=\frac{\pi^2}{6}$

The proof in the Wikipedia is still much complicated, can any one provide a really simple way to prove this.
1
vote
2answers
914 views

the nth root of n!?

I am playing around with the root/ratio test to practice with series. I just showed that $\sum \frac{1}{n!}$ converges by using the ratio test. I decided to see how things would go with the root test ...
2
votes
1answer
245 views

Need help with a zeta-like function?

Some time ago I found interesting modifications to Euler's prime product that produces a square number and its square root. The parts that were still unknown were the corresponding sums. I have ...
1
vote
1answer
54 views

On the rational Beatty sequence

Let $S(p/q, b) = \{[pn/q + b]|n\in\mathbb{Z}\}$, where $p, q$ are coprime positive integers and $b$ is any integer, be a rational Beatty sequence. I can't see why the following conclusion is true: ...
3
votes
2answers
143 views

On proving the convergence of $1/n^2\sum_{1\le k\le n}\varphi(k)$

Let $$\Phi_n=\frac{1}{n^2}\sum_{k=1}^n\varphi(k).$$ How one can show that $\Phi_n$ is convergent sequence? (Here, $\varphi$ denotes the Euler's totient function.) And please, without any monster ...
1
vote
2answers
117 views

Divisibility of sequence

Let the sequence $x_n$ be defined by $x_1=1,\,x_{n+1}=x_n+x_{[(n+1)/2]},$ where $[x]$ is the integer part of a real number $x$. This is A033485. How to prove or disprove that 4 is not a divisor of any ...
7
votes
1answer
184 views

Is $\sum_{k=0}^{\infty}\frac1{2^{k^2}}$ rational? Transcendental?

Is $\sum_{k=0}^{\infty}\frac1{2^{k^2}}$ rational? Clearly this series is convergent (compare to geometric series with ratio 1/2). I'm sure it's irrational since a rational number written in base 2 ...
5
votes
2answers
216 views

Is Collatz' conjecture the only stable solution of its type?

The Collatz Conjecture is well known with the sequence $$f(n) = \begin{cases} n/2 &;\text{if } n \equiv 0 \pmod{2}\\ k\,n+1 &; \text{if } n\equiv 1 \pmod{2} \end{cases}$$ and $k=3$; the ...
1
vote
2answers
73 views

Irrationality proof by rational approximations

Assume we have a sequence of rational numbers $\left(\frac{p_n}{q_n}\right),$ where $\gcd(p_n,q_n)=1, \ \forall n \in \mathbb N$. We know that $$\lim_{n\to\infty} \left(\frac{p_n}{q_n}\right)= x$$ ...
2
votes
2answers
113 views

Is Fibonacci sequence the minimum of unique pairwise sum sequence?

Let $(a_n)_{n=1}^\infty$ be a strictly increasing (condition added per earlier answer of Amitesh Datta) sequence of natural numbers where all pairwise element sums are unique. Can anyone prove or ...
1
vote
2answers
200 views

“Interesting” Sequences

Well, here's a question i myself made up and i thought it's interesting if i share it with everyone. We call a sequence of natural numbers (for example $a$) Interesting if (all three must be true): ...
4
votes
2answers
247 views

summation of consecutive natural numbers does not end in 7,4,2,9

I calculated sum of n consecutive natural numbers where n = 1 to 100 .What I mean is $$\sum_{n=1}^{1}n = 1 $$ $$\sum_{n=1}^{2}n = 3 $$ $$\sum_{n=1}^{3}n = 6 $$ And I got answers and noticed that ...