For questions about recurrence relations, convergence tests, and identifying sequences

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-3
votes
1answer
20 views

Show, directly from the definition, that the following series is convergent. [on hold]

Using the definition of a convergent series, how do you show that the series $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} (\frac{-2}3)^n $ converges.
0
votes
2answers
22 views

Recurrence sequences with two initial condition: how do I calculate the limit?

I've done some exercises with recurrence sequences with one initial condition. So, now that I'm attempting one exercise with two initial conditions I'm confused. Could you show me what to do? Let ...
2
votes
1answer
28 views

Is it true that $\sum_{n=1}^\infty \dfrac{Var(Y_n)}{n}<\infty$?

Suppose that $\{X_n\}$ is an i.i.d. sequence of random variables with $E|X_1|<\infty$.Define $Y_n=X_nI_{\{|X_n|<n\}}$ for all $n\geq1$. Is it true that $\sum_{n=1}^\infty ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

Limit of $a_{n+1}= \frac{n}{n+1} a_n$

I think that this sequence $$a_{n+1}= \frac{n}{n+1} a_n$$ can be rewritten as $$a_n= \frac{1}{n+1}a_0.$$ Therefore the limit should be $0$. But my proof by induction turns out wrong. Is my idea ...
2
votes
4answers
82 views

How to show convergence of $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\log(1 + \frac{1}n)$?

I am trying to prove whether \begin{equation*} \sum\limits_{n=1}^{\infty}\log(1 + \frac{1}n) \end{equation*} converges or diverges, but none of the normal tests (nth test, p test, etc. ) seem to ...
0
votes
4answers
44 views

Find the limit of the sequences: $a_{n+1}=3a_n - n + 1$ and $(a_n)^\frac{1}{n}$ with $a_0 > 0 $

Let $a_0 > 0 $ and $$a_{n+1}=3a_n - n + 1.$$ I have to find its limit. I have also to find the limit of $(a_n)^\frac{1}{n}$. But this seems even more complicated. For the first part I've used the ...
2
votes
3answers
57 views

Prove that a certain sequence is increasing and find its limit: $a_1 = 1$ and $a_{n+1}=n(1+\ln a_n)$ (and $(a_n)^\frac{1}{n}$)

Let $a_1 = 1$ and $$a_{n+1}=n(1+\ln a_n).$$ I have to find its limit. I want to prove that it is increasing for starters, but I'm already stuck. What should I do? I have also to find the limit of ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Find the value of $\sum^{n-1}_{m=1}\left(\frac{1}{n-m}+\frac{1}{n+m}\right)$.

Find the value of $$\sum^{n-1}_{m=1}\left(\frac{1}{n-m}+\frac{1}{n+m}\right)$$ I used WolframAlpha obtaining $$\psi^{(0)}(2n)-\frac{1}{n}+\gamma$$ where $\gamma$ is the Euler-Mascheroni constant and ...
0
votes
2answers
75 views

How to prove that the sum of a convergent geometric series of the form $1 + r + r^2 … + r^n > 1/2$?

I am trying to prove that the sum of a convergent geometric series of the form \begin{equation*} 1 + r + r^2 .... + r^n > \frac{1}{2} \end{equation*} but I have no idea how to go about this. ...
1
vote
2answers
37 views

Establishing a trigonometric identity for $n\in\mathbb{N}$

The original problem was showing that this infinite sum converges to $\tan\theta$: $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{\tan\dfrac{\theta}{2^n}}{\cos\dfrac{\theta}{2^{n-1}}}$$ One hint was given: the series ...
2
votes
1answer
22 views

Radius of convergence of a power series with $a_n$ convergent

Let $\{a_n:n \geq 1\}$ be a sequence of real numbers such that $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} a_n$ is convergent and $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} |a_n|$ is divergent. Let $R$ be the radius of convergence of the power ...
3
votes
2answers
21 views

Determine whether series converges or diverges

$$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{\sin\left(\frac{5\pi}{3}n\right)}{n^{\frac{5\pi}{3}}}$$ Hello, I thought about using Squeeze Theorem but the 5π/3 threw me off. Thanks in advance.
0
votes
2answers
31 views

Can one prove divergence by showing a series has at most one solution for an=0?

Say I have any series, I would think it was enough to show that this series equals 0 at most once to prove it diverges. My logic is, For a series: $\sum a_n →∞$, and diverges, if $a_n≠0$ for $n→∞$ ...
2
votes
3answers
70 views

Math about Geometric series

In a geometric series, the sum of $1^{st}$ term $+$ $2^{nd}$ term $+$ $3^{rd}$ term $= 38$, the sum of $2^{nd}$ term $+ 4^{th}$ term $= 17 \frac{1}{3}$; how to calculate the common ratio? ( it is ...
1
vote
0answers
40 views

Uniformly convergence question

I have the following exercise: Let $\varphi:[0,+\infty)\to \mathbb{R}$ an increasing continuous function that satisfies that $1/2\leq \varphi(x) <1$ for all $x>0$. Let $f_0:[0,+\infty)\to ...
4
votes
0answers
36 views

Positivity of alternating series

Let $\{a_n\}_{n=0}^{\infty}$ be a sequence of positive real numbers such that $\limsup_n \frac{1}{n}\log a_n=-\infty$. Then $$ f(x)=\sum_{n\geq 0}a_n x^n $$ converges absolutely for all $x$. Under ...
1
vote
0answers
15 views

Analytic function with alternating taylor series

Is there a characterization of the sequences of non-negative real numbers $\{a_n\}_{n=0}^{\infty}$ such that $$ f(x)=\sum_{n\geq 0}a_n (-x)^n $$ converges absolutely for all $x\geq 0$? It's not hard ...
2
votes
4answers
94 views

Compute $\lim_{n \to \infty} \left(\frac{1}{\sqrt{n^3+1}} + \frac{1}{\sqrt{n^3+4}} + \cdots + \frac{1}{\sqrt{n^3+n^2}}\right)$

How do I evaluate the following limit? I guess I should do a comparison, but I've got no clue about what to do. Could you give me a hand? $$\lim_{n \to \infty}\left( \frac{1}{\sqrt{n^3+1}} + ...
0
votes
2answers
41 views

Calculate: $\lim_{n \to \infty} \frac{2^{\sqrt{(\ln n)^2 + \ln n^2}}}{n^2+1}$ and $\lim_{n \to \infty} \frac{10^{\sqrt{(\ln n)^2 + \ln n^2}}}{n^2+1}$

I have to evaluate the following limits (which are similar). However, I don't know how to evaluate them. Could you give me a hand? $$\lim_{n \to \infty} \frac{2^{\sqrt{(\ln n)^2 + \ln ...
5
votes
3answers
106 views

How can I calculate $\lim_{n \to \infty} (1 + \frac{1}{n!})^n$ and $\lim_{n \to \infty} (1 + \frac{1}{n!})^{n^n}$?

How do you calculate the following limits? $$\lim_{n \to \infty} \left(1 + \frac{1}{n!}\right)^n$$ $$\lim_{n \to \infty} \left(1 + \frac{1}{n!}\right)^{n^n}.$$ I really don't have any clue ...
-4
votes
2answers
61 views

Why is $n^\sqrt n - 2^n \to - \infty$ and $\sqrt n ^n - 2^n \to +\infty$ [on hold]

Can you explain technically why the following limits are correct? $$n^\sqrt n - 2^n \to - \infty$$ and $$\sqrt n ^n - 2^n \to +\infty$$
-1
votes
2answers
48 views

How do I calculate the following limit? $\lim_{n \to \infty} n ((8 + \sin (2^\frac{1}{n}))^\frac{1}{3} -2)$

How do I calculate the following limit? I'm short on ideas for this one: $$\lim_{n \to \infty} n ((8 + \sin 2^\frac{1}{n})^\frac{1}{3} -2)$$
3
votes
4answers
74 views

How do I calculate $\lim_{n \to \infty} n^\frac{1}{n} (n+1)^\frac{1}{n+1} … (2n)^\frac{1}{2n}$

How do I calculate the limit of the following sequence? $$\lim_{n \to \infty} n^{\frac{1}{n}} (n+1)^\frac{1}{n+1} ...... (2n)^\frac{1}{2n}$$
0
votes
1answer
12 views

Find limit inferior and limit superior of $[1+\sin n]$ and $n - [\sqrt n]$

I have to find the limit inferior and limit superior of the following sequences: $$[1+\sin n]$$ and $$n - [\sqrt n].$$ I have done similar exercises before, but never with the integer part function ...
2
votes
3answers
42 views

Prove $\lim_{n\to\infty} \left(\sin \frac{\pi n}{2} \cdot \cos \left(\sin \frac{1}{n} \right ) \right)$ doesn't exist

I must prove that the limit $$\lim_{n\to\infty} \left(\sin \frac{\pi n}{2} \cdot \cos \left(\sin \frac{1}{n} \right ) \right)$$ doesn't exist and also find all of its partial limits. Apparantely ...
2
votes
1answer
17 views

Sequences formed by integer evaluations of polynomials modulo $ p^{k} $, where $ p $ is a prime number and $ k \in \Bbb{N} $.

I have the following question. Let $ p $ be a prime number and $ k $ a positive integer. Let $ (a_{n})_{n \in \Bbb{Z}} $ be a two-way sequence in $ \Bbb{Z} / p^{k} \Bbb{Z} $. Then is it true that ...
3
votes
2answers
34 views

Limit of cos function in a sequence

In my assignment I have to calculate to following limit. I wanted to know if my solution is correct. Your help is appreciated: $$\lim_{n \to \infty}n\cos\frac{\pi n} {n+1} $$ Here's my solution: ...
-6
votes
3answers
28 views

Working out a sequence from later terms [on hold]

Question on a sequence: 50th term is 349, 51st is 354, 52nd is 359. Find 1st term and 100th? I really need help to get started on this. Please can you explain in a less complex way im only a ...
1
vote
0answers
27 views

Prove that one eight of Gauss circle problem counts integer sided acute triangles with largest side n.

In the OEIS there is the sequence A247588 starting: 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17, 21, 25, 27,... It has the name "Number of integer sided acute triangles with largest side n." Let $a(n)$ be that ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Prove a limsup and liminf inequality.

Let $(a_n)_{n\in\mathbb{N}}$ be a bounded sequence and let $B_n = \frac{1}{n} \sum_{i=1}^n a_i$ for each $n \in \mathbb{N}$. Prove that $\liminf a_n \le \liminf B_n \le \limsup B_n \le \limsup a_n$. ...
0
votes
2answers
65 views

Solve $x^2=\cos x$ using Taylor series for cosx

I have the following equation:$x^2=\cos x$ and calculating the Taylor series of $3rd$ degree around $0$ I've got: $x\approx \pm\sqrt{\frac{2}{3}}$ However, now I need to prove that if x is a ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Math Software for a Identifying/Generating Sequences [on hold]

I'm looking for (preferably Windows or DOS) software that I can feed number sequences that I've designated as "good", and possibly number sequences that I've designated as "bad" -- although the latter ...
0
votes
3answers
48 views

Is there another way to solve this Trigo in series? [duplicate]

Find the value of $$\cos ^2\theta+\cos^2 (\theta+1^{\circ})+\cos^2(\theta+2^{\circ})+...... +\cos^2(\theta+179^{\circ})$$ Attempt, $$\cos x=-\cos(180^\circ-x),\sin x=\cos(90^\circ-x),\cos ...
6
votes
2answers
393 views

Integrating over the naturals. What does it mean?

Let $F$ be the power set of $\Bbb{N}$ and consider the measurable space $(\Bbb{N}, F)$. Then what does it mean to take the integral with respect to the measure $\mu(A) = \sum_{a \in A} \frac{1}{a}$. ...
1
vote
2answers
52 views

Show that this series is divergent using the comparison test.

Let $\langle a_n\rangle$ be a sequence of positive numbers. Consider $\sum_{n=1}^\infty{Y_n}=\sum_{n=1}^\infty{\left(\frac{a_n}{n}+\frac{n}{a_n^2}+\frac{a_n}{n^3}\right)}$. Show this diverges using ...
4
votes
1answer
83 views

The infinite series $\sum_i a_i \prod_{j=0}^{i - 1}(1 - a_j)$ has sum equal to $1$

Suppose we have an infinite sequence of constants $\{ a_i \}_{i=0}^{\infty}$, where $0 < a_i < 1$ for every $i$, and we define $b_i \equiv a_i \prod_{j=0}^{i - 1}(1 - a_j)$. How do we prove ...
-6
votes
0answers
35 views

Help Please, If anyone solve this I'll thankfull to him [duplicate]

find the limit of the following series 1+1+3/4+1/4+5/16+3/16+7/64+5/64+.... Thanks
2
votes
3answers
54 views

A series involving harmonic numbers

Does anyone know the exact value of this: $$ \sum_{k=1}^{\infty} (-1)^k\frac{H_k}{k} $$ or this: $$ \sum_{k=1}^{\infty} (-1)^k\frac{H_k^{(2)}}{k} $$ Thanks!
2
votes
1answer
37 views

On a property of Fourier coefficients

I need to prove the following: If $(\Phi_n)_{n\ge0}$ is an orthonormal system of integrable functions defined on some interval $[a,b]$, and $(c_n)_n$ is a sequence of reals such that $\sum c_n ...
9
votes
0answers
106 views

Product of $n^n$

Is there a formula that defines $$(1^1)(2^2)(3^3) . . . (n^n)?$$ Most of the texts on the internet tackle series with the same exponent, but how about this one? Sorry for my mistakes
-10
votes
1answer
65 views

I want you to help me with this question please [on hold]

find the limit of the following series $1+1+3/4+1/4+5/16+3/16+7/64+5/64 +....$ Simple prove for the question $1111-22=11(101)-11(2)=11(101-2)$ $=11(99)=(11^2)(3^2)=33^2$
0
votes
1answer
36 views

“Standard first term” of a series

A (not so interesting) question. Just to get good practices. When a series is considered in English, is the first term usually $a_0$ or $a_1$?
3
votes
0answers
35 views

Number of squarefree numbers and the Basel problem

Who discovered/proved that there are about $$ \frac{x}{\zeta(2)} $$ squarefree numbers up to $x$, or (roughly) when was this first known? Today I think this is considered 'obvious', but I don't know ...
0
votes
2answers
35 views

Prove or disprove if a series is convergent that it implies the square of the series is convergent as well

Heyy, Can we prove or disprove the following $$ \Sigma a_n \text{ is convergent} \Rightarrow \Sigma a_n^2 \text{ is convergent} $$ Since the statement cannot be proven without knowing whether the ...
2
votes
1answer
43 views

Show that the binomial series satisfies: $(1+x)f'(x)=\alpha f(x)$

If $f(x) = \sum_{n=0}^{\infty}{\alpha\choose n}x^n$, show (without assuming the results of the binomial theorem) that $$(1+x)f'(x)=\alpha f(x)$$ for $|x|<1$ I've already shown that the sum ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Finding value (Trigo Series) [duplicate]

Find the value of $$\cos ^2\theta+\cos^2 (\theta+1^{\circ})+\cos^2(\theta+2^{\circ})+......+\cos^2(\theta+179^{\circ})$$ Can anyone teach me where to start with? I've no idea.
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Find $Z$ transform of given signal

Given the discrete signal $h(n)=r^n\frac{\sin{[(n+1)\theta]}}{\sin{\theta}}$ if $n \geq 0$ and $h(n)=0$ otherwise, find the $Z$ transform of $h(n)$. What I did: We know that ...
10
votes
1answer
120 views

Evaluate the double sum $\sum_{m=1}^{\infty}\sum_{n=1}^{m-1}\frac{ 1}{m n\left(m^2-n^2\right)^2}$

As a follow up of this nice question I am interested in $$ S_1=\sum_{m=1}^{\infty}\sum_{n=1}^{m-1}\frac{ 1}{m n\left(m^2-n^2\right)^2} $$ Furthermore, I would be also very grateful for a solution ...
0
votes
1answer
23 views

How to get this very simplified demographic forecast?

I'm working on the simulation of a population growth. The variables and hypothesizes are the following: Lifetime: X years (X constant for everybody, yeah !) Initial population: Y people (with always ...
0
votes
3answers
50 views

If $X$ has a Poisson distribution with $E[X]=\lambda$, does $Var[X^2]=4\lambda^3+6\lambda^2+\lambda$?

Suppose $X$ has a Poisson distribution with mean (and therefore variance) $\lambda$. Using Excel to explore properties of the distribution of $X^2$ with some small integer values of $\lambda$ I ...