A semigroup is an algebraic structure consisting of a set together with an associative binary operation. A semigroup with an identity element is called monoid. This tag is most frequently used for questions related to the concept of semigroups in the context of abstract algebra. Please use the more ...

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Idempotents in $M_2(\mathbb{C})$

Given two idempotents $e,f\in M_2(\mathbb{C})\setminus\{I_2\}$, the sets $$\{eg^{-1}:g\in GL_2(\mathbb{C}), eg^{-1} \text{ is an idempotent}\}$$ and $$\{gf:g\in GL_2(\mathbb{C}), gf \text{ is an ...
9
votes
1answer
113 views

Does the Trace product in a semigroup have any relation with Trace of a matrix / matrix product

I recently read an article on generalized inverses and Green's relations (by X.Mary). The framework is semigroups, but obviously it has a lot of application within matrix theory. In the article ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

Why $f(x)=x$ for any $x\in f(X)$?

The set $S(X,X)$ of all mappings of a set $X$ to itself with the composition of mappings in the role of multiplication, where $|X|>1$. Why is not it a group? Let $X$ be a nonempty set. Then the ...
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3answers
46 views

Example for a claim

If $H$ is a subsemigroup of a semigroup $S$, then it may happen that, for some $a$ and $b$ in $S$, the sets $aH$ and $bH$ don't coincide and, nonetheless, are not disjoint. Does there exist an ...
3
votes
3answers
111 views

How could I understand this sentence:

How could I understand this sentence: For any subgroup $H$ of a group $G$ we have $H^2=HH=H$. However, in general, the same is not true for subsemigroups of semigroups. Thanks a lot!
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2answers
39 views

How can I show $\lim_{t\to 0^{+}}\|S(t)-I\|\neq 0$ where $S(t)f(x)=e^{-t^2-2tx}f(x+t)$..

I need some help with the following: For every $t\in [0, \infty)$ let $S(t):C_0([0, \infty))\rightarrow C_0([0, \infty))$ be the bounded linear operator given by, $$S(t)f(x)=e^{-t^2-2tx}f(x+t)),$$ ...
0
votes
2answers
91 views

How could I prove that the equality $a^na^m=a^{n+m}$ in a semigroup with identity?

Let $S$ be a semigroup with a identity. How could I prove that the equality $a^na^m=a^{n+m}$ which holds for all $n,m \in \mathbb Z$. Note that $a \in S$ and $\mathbb Z$ denotes the set of all ...
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vote
2answers
551 views

Is associative binary operator closed on this subset?

Here is the problem: Suppose that $*$ is an associative binary operation on a set $S$. Let $$H:= \{a \in S\mid a * x = x * a \mbox{ for all }x\in S\}.$$ In other words, $H$ is consisting of all ...
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0answers
53 views

A combinatoric theorem about semigroups

I am struggling with the following theorem about semigroups, so I was hoping someone could give me a hand. The theorem states: "Let $S$ be an arbitrary semigroup such that for every $a\in{}S$ it ...
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2answers
30 views

How to show that $\lim_{t\to 0^{+}}\|S(t)-I\|\neq 0$?

For every $t\in[0, \infty)$ consider the bounded linear operator $S(t):C_{ub}(\mathbb R)\rightarrow C_{ub}(\mathbb R)$ given by $$S(t)u(x)=u(x+t),$$ where $C_{ub}(\mathbb R)$ is the set of all bounded ...
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2answers
47 views

Why is two-element null semigroup excluded from the $0$-simple semigroup definition?

My question is probably a little bit silly, but still.. The definition of $0$-simple semigroup states, that a semigroup $S$ with zero is called $0$-simple, if $\{0\}$ and $S$ are it's only ideals and ...
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1answer
51 views

Confusing in periodic semigroup

Can anyone tell my, why we have to mod $r$ ? Thank you so much.
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votes
3answers
267 views

uniqueness of solutions of $ax=b$ and $ya=b$ in a semigroup . [duplicate]

Suppose $G$ is a semigroup in which every equation of the form $ax=b$ or $ya=b$ has a solution. Does this solution have to be unique?
0
votes
1answer
60 views

Prove that any completely regular semigroup $S$ satisfies the identities $ab=a(ba)^0b=a(b^0a^0)^0b$, $a,b\in{}S$

Consider any completely regular semigroup $S$. I would like to prove, that any $a,b\in{S}$ satisfies the identities $ab=a(ba)^0b=a(b^0a^0)^0b$, $a,b\in{}S$. So far, I was able to prove only the first ...
5
votes
1answer
74 views

A statement about an element $a$ in semigroup S, such that $aS$ containts idempotent and $a=axa$ implies $x=xax$

I have been currently studying some characteristics of completely regular and completely simple semigroups and I have came across a lemma, which seems simple, but I'm struggling with it's proof, so I ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

Terminology for a weaked vector space

Let $S$ be a semigroup on which acts $\mathbb{R}_{\geq0}$. Does this structure has a name? For example $S$ can be the set of convex bodies in $\mathbb{R}^n$ with the Minkowsky sum.
2
votes
1answer
34 views

Is a direct product $\prod_{\alpha\in{}A}S_\alpha$ of semigroups $S_\alpha$ simple, if all semigroups $S_\alpha$ are simple?

I am currecntly trying to give an answer to the following problem. Consider a family of semigroups $(S_\alpha)_{\alpha\in{}A}$ and let every semigroup $S_\alpha$ be simple. Is it true or not, that ...
3
votes
3answers
123 views

Does representation theory exists without Groups?

I need to know: is representation theory all about Groups? Is it necessary to be a finite group? Does representation theory exists without Groups? For example is there sample where representation is ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

The $\mathcal{J}$- class of a primitive idempotent in a regular semigroup.

I am currently studying some basic facts of regular semigroups and Green's relations and I got stuck on the following exercise problem. Let $S$ be a regular semigroup with a primitive idempotent $e$. ...
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0answers
167 views

Strong continuity in time vs uniform continuity in time

I have a problem with understanding the definition of strong continuity and uniform continuity for the families of operators, e.g. semigroups. Let $(X_t)_{t \geq 0}$ be a family of bounded linear ...
4
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1answer
95 views

Maximal ideals in rings

Let $R$ be a ring with identity. Is it true that if $R$ has a finite maximal right ideal then it MUST have a finite maximal two-sided ideal ?
2
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1answer
228 views

If in a semigroup $S$, $\forall x \exists ! y:xyx=x$, then $S$ is a group [duplicate]

If for all $x$ in a semigroup $S$, there exists a unique $y$ such that $x y x=x$, then $S$ is a group. (Not to be confused with inverse semigroup, where only $y$ satisfying both $xyx=x$ and $yxy=y$ is ...
2
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1answer
97 views

Equational theories in commutative idempotent monoids

It might well be that my question is trivial but I'm not a mathematician, I just need a formalization for algebraic semiotics. If I have a commutative idempotent monoid, I can define a partial ...
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votes
2answers
108 views

Building factor semigroup w.r.t. $I_n = \{ w \in A^+ : |w| \ge n \}$.

I don't understand the following factor semigroup. Consider the pseudovariety $N$ of nilpotent semigroups. For any finite alphabet $A$, let $I_n = \{ w \in A^+ : |w| \ge n \}$. Then $A^+ / I_n$ is ...
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1answer
88 views

Proving $\mathcal{D}$-class of semigroup.

Theorem 2.17 If $a$ and $b$ are elements of a semigroup $S$, then $ab\in R_a\cap L_b$ if and only if $R_b\cap L_a$ contains an idempotent. If this is the case, then $$aH_b = H_a b = H_a H_b ...
4
votes
1answer
35 views

Semigroup which satisfied $(xy)^{\pi} = (xy)^{\pi}x$ and principal right ideals

Let $(S,\cdot)$ be a finite semigroup, then every $s \in S$ has an unique idempotent power, i.e. there exists a smallest $i \in \mathbb N$ such that $s^i$ is idempotent. It is the unique idempotent in ...
3
votes
1answer
329 views

Recommend a semigroup theory book.

I have learnt semigroup theory and I want some good book for studying by myself. Thank you everyone.
0
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1answer
67 views

Please check my solution, inverse semigroups.

Let $x$ and $y$ be elements of an inverse semigroup $S$. Then the following are equivalent: (1) $xy^{-1}x = x$ (2) $x^{-1}yx^{-1}=x^{-1}$ I'm not sure in my solution, ...
9
votes
3answers
1k views

Is a semigroup $G$ with left identity and right inverses a group?

Hungerford's Algebra poses the question: Is it true that a semigroup $G$ that has a left identity element and in which every element has a right inverse is a group? Now, If both the identity and the ...
8
votes
1answer
159 views

Structure theorem for finitely generated commutative $semi$groups.

$\newcommand{\ZZ}{\mathbb{Z}}$ It is a classical theorem that a finitely generated commutative group is isomorphic to one of the form: $$ \ZZ^n \oplus \ZZ/{m_1}\ZZ \oplus \ZZ/{m_2}\ZZ \oplus \dots ...
1
vote
2answers
162 views

Whether $L=\{(a^m,a^n)\}^*$ is regular or not?

I am condidering the automatic structure for Baumslag-Solitar semigroups. And I have a question. For any $m,n \in Z$, whether the set $L=\{(a^m,a^n)\}^*$ is regular or not. Here a set is regular means ...
5
votes
1answer
245 views

Help me prove equivalently of regular semigroup and group.

Let $S$ be a semigroup. Prove that the following are equivalent: $\forall a \in S \exists! x \in S$ such that $ax \in E(S)$ where $E(S)$ is the set of all idempotent. $\forall a \in S \exists! x \in ...
4
votes
1answer
80 views

Is there a standard name for this semigroup?

Given a semigroup $X,$ we can form a new semigroup $Y$ by asserting that: the carrier of $Y$ is the set $X^2$, and the law of composition in $Y$ is given by $(a,b)(a',b')=(aa',b'b).$ Finally, ...
1
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1answer
62 views

semigroups-terminology question

Let the element $x$ of a commutative semigroup has the property $x=a+b\Rightarrow a=x~$or $b=x$. I call such an element "prime". My question is: what is the right term about such elements. ...
4
votes
1answer
264 views

Structure Descriptions (GAP) in semigroups

As can be easily seen through GAP manual: 37.6 Structure Descriptions StructureDescription( G ) A The method for StructureDescription exhibits the ...
3
votes
1answer
178 views

Is closure of a semigroup again a semigroup?

Let $S$ be a compact left-topological semi-group (meaning, $S$ is both a semi-group and a compact Hausdorff topological space, and the map $x \mapsto x y$ is continuous for any fixed $y$, but the map ...
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vote
2answers
39 views

Size of the image (rank) in $T_n$

For $\alpha, \beta \in T_n$ (full transformation semigroup/monoid - set of all maps from $\{1,2,\ldots, n\}$ to itself), show that $|\text{Im}(\alpha\beta)| \leqslant |\text{Im}(\alpha)|$ and ...
3
votes
2answers
60 views

Show $\mathcal{R}$ related

If $\alpha\in T_n$ and $\beta\in S_n$ show that $\alpha \mathcal{R} \alpha\beta$ ($T_n$ is the full transformation monoid, and $S_n$ is the symmetric group, both on $\{1,2,\ldots ,n\}$). Does this ...
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vote
0answers
68 views

irreducible words in a semigroup

Let $S$ be a monoid generated by $\{x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4,x_5\}$ with the following relations: $x_i^2=0$ for all $i$, $x_ix_j=x_jx_i$ for all $|i-j| \geq 2$ and $x_ix_{i+1}x_i=x_{i+1}x_ix_{i+1}$ for all ...
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0answers
61 views

Trivial question about semigroups

I have a question about analytic semigroups. I know that if $A: D(A)\subset X\to X$ is a sectorial operator on $X$, it generates an analytic semigroup $e^{tA}$. One of the properties of this semigroup ...
3
votes
1answer
119 views

Does someone know other examples of $K$-semigroups?

In our work on projective representations we need use the following object: Let $K$ be a field. By a $K$-semigroup we mean a semigroup $S$ with $0$ and a map $K \times S \to S$ such that $\alpha ...
2
votes
1answer
63 views

Spaces of class $J_\alpha$

This question is about the spaces of class $J_\alpha$. Given three Banach spaces $Z\subset Y\subset X$ (with continuous embeddings), and given $\alpha\in (0,1)$, we say that $Y$ is of class $J_\alpha$ ...
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0answers
43 views

Weak limits and structure of a generated semigroup

I am getting acquainted with the beautiful theorem known as Jacobs–de Leeuw–Glicksberg decomposition. A special case of this theorem is the following: Theorem. (Jacobs–Glicksberg–de Leeuw ...
0
votes
1answer
89 views

semigroup presentation and Diamond lemma

Suppose a semigroup (possibly infinite) presentation is given with generating set $S$ and relations $R$. I need to prove using Bergman's diamond lemma that the semigroup is non-zero i.e, I have to ...
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3answers
132 views

Semigroup generators and Cones

In $\mathbb{R}^2$, let $C$ be the cone (non-negative linear combinations) on the two vectors $$ v_1=\begin{pmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \end{pmatrix}, \quad v_2=\begin{pmatrix} 2 \\ 3 \end{pmatrix} $$ Consider ...
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5answers
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Is there an idempotent element in a finite semigroup?

Let $(G,\cdot)$ be a finite semigroup. Is there any $a\in G$ such that: $$a^2=a$$ It seems to be true in view of theorem 2.2.1 page 97 of this book (I'm not sure). But is there an elementary proof? ...
2
votes
1answer
128 views

Finitely generated semigroup gets the finitely generated subsemigroup?

From N.RUSKUC's paper "On Large Subsemigroups and Finiteness conditions of Semigroups", there is a theorem, Here large subsemigroup means $S$\ $T$ is finite. In this side "=>" of the proof in the ...
4
votes
2answers
83 views

How to move from a right semigroup action to a left semigroup action?

Let $S$ be a semigroup and $X$ any set. Define a left action of $S$ on $X$ to be a map $\sigma: S \times X \rightarrow X$ with the property that $(st)x = s(tx)$, where we define $gx = \sigma(g,x)$ ...
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0answers
244 views

How much do idempotent ultrafilters generate in terms of semigroups?

It is known that the set of ultrafilters on, say, the natural numbers $\mathbb{N}$, can naturally be endowed with the structure of a compact topological left semigroup (which fails to be anything ...
3
votes
3answers
118 views

How are the powers being changed

I have a semigroup $S$ including a generator, say $d$, such that $$d^4=d$$ I am trying to guess the general rule of $d$'s powers such that when I want to calculate $d^n, n\in\mathbb N$; I can simplify ...