# Tagged Questions

A semigroup is an algebraic structure consisting of a set together with an associative binary operation. A semigroup with an identity element is called monoid. This tag is most frequently used for questions related to the concept of semigroups in the context of abstract algebra. Please use the more ...

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### If S is finite and $x/\rho$ is an idempotent of $S/\rho$ then $x/ \rho$ contains an idempotent

Currently working on the following problem, need a little help with the solution to the last part, any hints? Q: Let S be a semigroup, and let ρ be a congruence on S. Prove that if e ∈ S is an ...
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### How is the following expresson be obtained and the meaning of the expression in blue box?

Let me introduce the term {$E_\lambda:\lambda \geq0$} is the spectral resolution of identity of a self adjoint densely defined, positive and closed operator $A:D(A)\subset X\rightarrow X$ , Where X be ...
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### A semigroup with identity having exactly one idempotent is a group

Let $G$ be a finite semi-group with identity such that it has only one idempotent.Is $G$ a group? It only remains to show that for any $a\in G$ $\exists b\in G$ such that $ab=ba=e$ where $e$ is the ...
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### Isomorphism of a semigroup S and (Aᴬ, ⋅).

I would like to ask you for help with proving the following theorem from our textbook: Any semigroup is isomorphic to a subsemigroup of ($A^A, \cdot$) for a suitable set A. The theorem is then ...
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### Associativity in category theory [closed]

In Category Theory, the composition of morphisms must be associative. What would happen if we give up this associative law? For example Lie algebras are vector spaces with non-associative binary ...
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### Shift operators and c0 semigroups

I am asked where the bounded continuous functions on $\mathbb{R}$ (with sup norm) with the right shift operators ( $T_t(f)(x)=f(x-t)$ ) form a c0 semigroup. I believe the answer is no, but I am ...
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### Closed linear operator

I am having some trouble in showing the following map is closed: For $f\in L^2(\mathbb{R^2})$ with $(x+iy)f(x,y)\in L^2(\mathbb{R^2})$, $M(f)(x,y)=(x+iy)f(x,y)$. I am also asked to find the ...
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### Find a first order sentence satisfied in every finite semigroup but not in every compact semigroup

Several properties that hold in nonempty finite semigroups also hold in nonempty compact semigroups. Furthermore, many of these properties can be formulated by a first order sentence. For instance, ...
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### Semigroups and solutions of equation

It is easy to prove: in a finite semigroup if for all $a$ and $b$, $ax=b$ and $ya=b$ has unique solution. then it is group. But if in a finite semigroup, if for all $a$ and $b$, $ax=b$ and $ya=b$ has ...
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### Semigroup satisfying the cancellation property which cannot be embedded in a group [duplicate]

There is a basic result about commutative semigroups which says Any commutative semigroup satisfying the cancellation property can be embedded in a group. However, I read that Not every ...
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### Schrödinger Semigroup is compact if potential goes to infinity

Several papers (e.g. this one: arXiv:0810.3275v1 [math.SP] 17 Oct 2008 ) claim that if $H=-\Delta+V$ and $V(x)\to\infty$ if $|x|\to\infty$, then the semigroup $e^{-tH}$ is eventually compact. Does ...
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### Does a non-abelian semigroup without identity exist?

I was introduced to semigroups today and had a question. So all the examples of semigroups I was given were either monoids or groups. So I was curious, does there exist a semi-group which is not ...
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### How to show that S/J is a chain where S is a semigroup with no proper generating sets

I'm Struggling with exercise 4.7.17 of Howies Fundamentals of Semigroup theory Let $S$ be a non-trivial semigroup with the property that no proper subset of $S$ generates $S$. Show that each J−...
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### Proving that the binary operator of a group is commutative if the relation on the group is a partial order

What's probably worst is that this is a repost, as I was stuck on 3. before. The question is this: Throughout this question, we shall denote by $\neg$ the relation on a semigroup $(A, * )$ defined ...
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### Proving that if the semigroup (A, *) is a group, then the relation is an equivalence relation.

I'm aware that posting exam questions is probably frowned upon, but this isn't homework, I think I'm genuinely misunderstanding some part of the algebra. The question is this: Throughout this ...
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### About a semigroup equipped by zero

I didn't find a useful related link in which someone could equip a semigroup with a zero while using GAP via web. Theoretically, we can make the semigroup $S$ fat to be $S^{0}=S\cup\{0\}$ with ...
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### Non-unital commutative semigroups $S$ such that for all $x \in S$, the function $S \rightarrow S$ given by $y \mapsto x+y$ is a bijection?

Does there exist a commutative semigroup $S$ with the following (additively denoted) properties? For all $x \in S$, the function $S \rightarrow S$ given by $y \mapsto x+y$ is a bijection. $S$ has no ...
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### Can a smooth function on the reals form a non-commutative semigroup?

Let $f\colon \mathbb{R}^2 \to\mathbb{R}$ be a smooth function. Can there exist an algebraic structure $(\mathbb{R}, \cdot)$ such that for $x,y \in \mathbb{R}$, $x \cdot y = f(x,y)$ that is a non-...
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### Example of an associative binary operation, without identities or inverses.

In essence, I am looking for an example of a semigroup or a semicategory (closure is not that important, but it is useful) that is NOT a monoid or category. Hopefully, there is a neat and simple-to-...
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### Can we define unitary representations on semigroups

A representation on a semigroup $S$ is a pair $(\pi,H_\pi)$ where $\pi$ is a homomorphism from $S$ into $B(H_\pi)$ and $H_\pi$ is a Hilbert space. In the group case, a representation $\pi$ of a group ...
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### Showing the full transformation semigroup $\mathscr{T}_n=\langle\zeta, \tau, \pi\rangle$.

I'm sorry if this is a duplicate in any way. Throughout I use cycle notation and write maps $m:X\to Y$ on the right of their arguments (e.g. $xm=y$ for $m(x)=y$). This is Exercise 1.7 of Howie's ...
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Let $X$ be an infinite set. The relative rank of a subset $T_{X}$ over a subset $S$ is either uncountable or at most $2$. I don't understand how to prove this Corollary in case that $T_{X} \setminus ... 0answers 111 views ### Monoids, Semigroups, and a Reflective Subcategory. The following is reflective in the category$\mathbf{Sem}$of semigroups and their homomorphisms: we add a new neutral element to each semigroup, even monoids; then the reflections are identity ... 0answers 40 views ### Every right principal ideal non-emptily intersects the center — what is that? This is a follow-up to Do Lipschitz/Hurwitz quaternions satisfy the Ore condition? Jyrki Lahtonen answered the question in the positive by noticing that every right principal ideal in either ring has ... 1answer 42 views ### finite semigroup on one generator,cycle, tail,group,zero element Suppose we have a finite semigroup on one generator. It has a tail of length r and cycle of length c.The cycle is a group, but what can be chosen as a neutral element of it?Why is not ANY element ... 1answer 378 views ### Why is a monoid with right identity and left inverse not necessarily a group? [duplicate] This problem is from Herstein's 'Topics in Algebra'. I've thought about it a bit but haven't come up with much. Let$G$be a non-empty set with an associative product which also satisfies:$\exists ...
Let $X$ be a complex Hilbert space; and let $A:D(A)\subset X \to X$ be a $\mathbb C-$linear operator. Assume that $A$ is self-adjoint(so that $D(A)$ is a dense subset of $X$) and that $A\leq 0$ (i.e., ...