A semigroup is an algebraic structure consisting of a set together with an associative binary operation. A semigroup with an identity element is called monoid.

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About Rees homomorphism

I am came across the notion Ress Congruence for semigroups. They define it as $$\rho_I=(I\times I)\cup {1_S}$$ wherein $I$ is an ideal of semigroup $S$ satisfying ...
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35 views

One-sided and two-sided cancellability

Is there a semigroup $S$ with right- and left-cancellable elements but no elements cancellable from both sides? $s\in S$ is left-cancellable if for any $a,b\in S$ we have $$sa=sb\implies a=b$$ and ...
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73 views

An estimate involving gaps in a subsemigroup of $(\mathbb N,+)$

I think this question can be solved by a high school student, maybe there is some trick on it or I'm forgetting something. Before my question, some background is required: Definition: A ...
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49 views

Period of semigroup

Let $S$ be a finite semigroup of order $n$. Suppose that $S$ has index $m$ and period $r$, i.e. $S$ satisfies the identity $x^{m+r} = x^m$. Then it is quite easy to show that $m \leq n$. My question ...
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About automorphisms of commutative semigroups

Suppose that $M$ is a commutative monoid and that the product $P$ of $M$ and the nonnegative integers $\mathbb{N}$ with addition has no nontrivial automorphisms. The set $S$ of pairs $(m,n)$ in $P$ ...
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21 views

Finite Linearly Ordered Abelian Monoids

This question concerns the proper definition of the phrase "finite linearly ordered abelian monoids". The sequence A030453 of OEIS counts the number of "finite linearly ordered abelian monoids". The ...
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27 views

Terminology for idempotents that commute with every other idempotent

Given a semigroup $S$, is there terminology for those $x \in S$ such that the following hold? $x$ is idempotent Given any idempotent $y \in S$, we have $xy=yx$. Comments. Let $E$ denote the set ...
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1answer
30 views

Help in this characterization of the gaps of the symmetric numerical semigroups

Before my question, some background: Definition 1: A numerical semigroup is a subsemigroup $N$ of the additive semigroup $\mathbb N$ of the non-negative integers such that $\mathbb N-N$ is ...
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105 views

Who first studied semilattices?

Historically, who first studied semilattices, as opposed to lattices or Boolean algebras? (With or without identity, I do not mind.)
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27 views

Example of a semigroup with unique idempotent which is not a monoid

I am searching for an example of a semigroup , with unique idempotent element , such that it is not a monoid . Please help
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Heat semigroup on Morrey spaces

I have a few questions concerning the heat semigroup $e^{\Delta t}$ on Morrey spaces. (1) I read that the heat semigroup on $ M^{p}_{q}(\mathbb{R}^n):= \left\{ f \in L^{q}_{loc}(\mathbb{R}^n): ...
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Showing uniqueness of inverse element of an element of a monoid

Question- If $\langle A,*\rangle$ is a semigroup with identity, prove that every element a belonging to $A$ has at most one inverse. Proof- Let the identity be $e$. Let us assume that $b_1$, $b_2$ ...
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Krull dimension and Hilbert polynomial of graded rings

Let $P \subseteq \mathbb{R}^n$ be a polytope with integral vertices, and $Q := \mathbb{R}_+ (P \times \{1\}) \cap \mathbb{Z}^{n+1}$ be the monoid of all lattice points of the cone generated by $P$ in ...
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134 views

The lattice points of a f.g. rational cone form a f.g. monoid.

In their book "Polytopes, Rings, and K-Theory" Bruns and Gubeladze sketch an alternative approach to Gordan's Lemma, which is stated in the headline (f.g. = finitely generated). I don't understand the ...
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36 views

Reference request on numeric semigroups

I watched some talks about numeric semigroups, and thei relation whti algebraic geometry (such as Weierstrass semigroup of a curve), and I'm interested in take a deeper look in this topic, can anyone ...
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183 views

A reflective subcategory of the category of inverse semigroups.

The Question. I'm reading Lawson's "Inverse Semigroups: The Theory of Partial Symmetries" and I've hit something I don't understand. It's claimed on page 34 of my copy that The category of ...
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1answer
62 views

If $G,H$ are monoids and not groups, prove that $f(e_G)=e_H$ may be wrong.

Problem: If $f:G\longrightarrow H$ is a homomorphism of groups, then $f(e_G)=e_H$ and $f(a^{-1})=f(a)^{-1}, \forall a\in G$. Show by example that the first conclusion may be false if $G, H$ are ...
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About translating subsets of $\Bbb Z.$

This is a continuation of About translating subsets of R2. Is it possible to find a pair of sets $A,B\subseteq\Bbb Z$ such that A is a union of translated (only translations are allowed) copies of ...
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63 views

How many associative ternary operations there are on a finite set?

We know that algebraic operation a is function $f:\underbrace{\left ( X\times X\times \cdots \times X\right )}_{t\ \text{times}}\rightarrow{X}$ If $X$ is a set and and cardinality is $|X|=n$ then ...
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38 views

Example of an inverse semigroup

An inverse semigroup $S$ is a semigroup in which for each $x\in S$ there exists a unique $y\in S$ such that $xyx=x$ and $yxy=y$. I'm trying to find an explicit example(which is not a group) of such ...
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2answers
26 views

Evolution Equation

Let $X=L^2(0,\pi)$. Define the operator $(A,D(A)$ by: $$D(A)=\{u\in H^2(0,\pi):u(0)=u'(\pi)=0\} ,\quad \quad Au=u''$$ Show that $A$ is the infinitesimal generator of a $C_0$ semigroup of contractions ...
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199 views

Describing the Wreath product categorically.

The Details: Let's have a recap of some definitions (taken from "Nine Chapters in the Semigroup Art" (pdf), by A. J. Cain). Definition 1: Let $P$ be a semigroup. The left action of $P$ on a set ...
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Commutative Cancellative Semigroup: When is an irreducible element prime?

Suppose $(S,\cdot)$ is a semigroup with neutral element $e$ (i.e. $xe=ex=x$ for all $x\in S$) and the following properties: S is commutative: $xy=yx$. S is cancellative: $xy = xz$ implies $y = z$. ...
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33 views

Involution on semigroups with identity

I'm trying to understand the following: Let $S$ be a semigroup. By an involution on $S$ we mean a map $* : S \to S$ satisfying for all $a,b\in S$ $(ab)^*=b^*a^*$ $(a^*)^*=a $ My problem is the ...
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Does a discrete semilattice of finite width have finite number of points between any pair of elements.

Let $(S,<)$ be a countably infinite semilattice such that: 1) $S$ is no-where dense - i.e. there does not exist a subset $T$ such that for all $a,b\in T$ with $a<b$, there exists $c\in T$ with ...
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142 views

Different ways of constructing the free group over a set.

This could be too broad if we're not careful. I'm sorry if it ends up that way. Let's put together a list of different constructions of the free group $F_X$ over a given set $X$. It seems to be ...
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1answer
33 views

A construction using a semiring

In page number 3 of J.S. Golan's book Semirings and their applications, there is a result which says that if $R$ is a hemiring and $S$ is a subhemiring of $R$ which is a semiring having ...
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1answer
106 views

Can I define a category as a monoid with partially defined multiplication?

A groupoid can either be thought of as a category whose morphisms are isomorphisms, or as a generalization of a group whose multiplication is only partially defined. Can I do a similar thing with ...
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29 views

Semigroups — Underlying Set Non Empty or it can be Empty?

Many authors consider Semigroups being Non Empty sets. Others include empty sets as Semigroups. What is the rationale behind both choices ?
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62 views

under what conditions a product of matrices is the identity matrix (more complicated than that)?

I have a set of matrices $A_1,\ldots,A_n$ and another set $B_i = A_i^{-1}$ for $i = 1,\ldots, n$ (I assume $A_i$ are invertible). Let $\mathcal{A} = \{A_i\} \cup \{B_i\}$. What are some simple ...
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31 views

Semi direct product for semigroups

I have a definition for the semidirect product of semigroup, the same way as we have for groups. Now I want to prove that $$(S \rtimes T)^{\times} = S^{\times} \rtimes T^{\times},$$ where $S \rtimes ...
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semidirect product of semigroups

Let $S,T$ be two semigroups. A function $f:S\to T$ is called multiplicative if for any $x,y\in S$ we have $f(xy)=f(x)f(y)$. If $T=S$ then $f:S\to S$ is called automorphism on $S$. A function ...
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Examples of skew adjoint differential operators

I just need some references which studies examples of skew adjoint differential operators generating unitary strongly continuous groups of operators, and its applications to partial differential ...
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24 views

Commuting probability

http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/~vadim/commute.pdf Where does the commuting probability formula on page 8 come from ?
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operator semigroups with negative growth bound.

Let $(T(t))_{t\geq 0}$ be a strongly continuous semigroup on a Banach space $X$, for which we assume that its growth bound $\omega_0$ is negative. Let $(A,D(A))$ be the generator of $(T(t))_{t\geq ...
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Understanding the definition of a Integral

Definition: Let $X$ be a Banach space and $I$ the identity operator on $X$. A family $\{T(t)\}_{t\geq 0}$ of bounded linear operators from $X$ into $X$ is a semigroup of bounded linear operator on ...
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70 views

Is Writing a Semi Group?

While writing this question, I compose letters from a set $L=\{a,...z,A,...Z\}\cup\{\;\text{ } \;\}$. Writing has a binary operation which is associative. The result always is an element of $L^n$. ...
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Proof of no identity element in a multiplication semi group

I have a question from my workbook: Let $\mathrm{E}$ denote the set of even integers. This forms a semi-group under multiplication. Show that there is no identity in this semi-group. Now this is ...
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16 views

An intersection equation in semigroups

Do you have an example of a semigroup $S$ and a collection of its subsets $(A_i)_{i\in I}$ and $a\in S$ such that $$a\big(\bigcap_{i\in I}A_i\big)\ne\bigcap_{i\in I}aA_i$$ ?
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Is a core for the generator of a Feller semi-group invariant under the resolvent?

Let $\{T_t:t\geq 0\}$ be a Feller semi-group acting on $C_0(\mathbb{R})$ with generator $(A,\mathcal{D}_A)$. We know a subspace $D\subset \mathcal{D}_A$ is a core for $A$ if $(\lambda-A)D$ is dense in ...
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Semigroups and units

I am working my way though Basic Algebra 1. I am currently on chapter 1 , and more specifically I busy with the following exercise: "Let $S$ be a set a define a product in $S$ by $ab=b $. Show that ...
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45 views

How to show $c-b\lt b-a$

The question: Let $G$ be an Arf semigroup and $a\lt b\lt c$ be three consecutive elements in $G$. How to show that $c-b\lt b-a$ and how to show that this is not necessarily the case for every ...
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Prove that a cyclic semigroup is either finite or isomorphic to $\langle \mathbb{N},+ \rangle$

A semigroup $G$ is cyclic if $G$ is generated by a single element. I know that a finite cyclic group generated by $a$ is necessarily abelian, and can be written as $\{1, a, a^2, . . . , a^n−1\}$ ...
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Semilattices are congruence-semi-distributive

A semilattice $(S,\cdot)$ is a commutative idempotent semigroup. A congruence on a semilattice is an equivalence relation that preserves multiplication, i.e. $x_1\mathrel{\theta} y_1$ and ...
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65 views

What are $\Gamma$-semigroups?

I have some problems with $\Gamma$-Semigroups, the definition that I've found is A $\Gamma$-Semigroup is a pair $(M,\Gamma)$ defined as follow If $x,y$ and $z$ are in $M$ and $\alpha$ and ...
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What is the semigroup reduct of an abelian torsion group

I was going through a paper on universal algebra where the author mentions one of his examples as a the "semi group reduct of an abelian torsion group". I have no idea what a semigroup reduct means ...
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47 views

Involution on inverse semigroups

I'm trying to prove the following for inverse semigroups $\bf Def:$ an inverse semigroup $S$is a semigruop such that for each $x\in S$ the exists a unique $y\in S$ such that $xyx=x$ and $yxy=y$. An ...
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1answer
34 views

Isomorphism of direct product of semigroups

I would appreciate some help with the following problem. Consider four semigroups $A,B,C,D$. I was able to prove that $A\cong C\wedge B\cong D$ implies $A\times B\cong C\times D$. But does also ...
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Are these adjoint functors to/from the category of monoids with semigroup homomorphisms?

Do the forgetful functors $G_H:\bf Monoid \to \bf Semigroup^1$ and $G_O:\bf Semigroup^1 \to \bf Semigroup$ have left and/or right adjoints? Here $\bf Semigroup$ is the category of semigroups with ...
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positive integer polynomial under the usual polynomial multiplication

consider the set of polynomials with positive integer coefficients together with the operation, usual multiplication of polynomials. now my first question is does this set together with the ...