The process of studying mathematics without formal instruction. _Don't_ use this tag just because you were self-studying when you came across the mathematical question you're asking; it is only for when the fact that you're self-studying is what your question is _about_.

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How is Fubini Theorem used here?

Let $\mu$ be a $\sigma$-finite translation invariant measure defined on the Borel subsets of $\mathbb R^d$ and $\lambda$ be the usual Lebesge measure. My question is how the Fubini theorem is used in ...
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2answers
121 views

How to gain a mentor for self study

I am trying to independently learn mathematics at an upper-level undergraduate and first year grad student level. It's mostly linear algebra and statistics. The textbooks that I'm reading are quickly ...
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2answers
142 views

Self learning game theory and probability

I am teaching myself mathematics, my objective being a thorough understanding of game theory and probability. In particular, I want to be able to go through A Course in Game Theory by Osborne and ...
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1answer
37 views

Ratio of hazards in Proportional Odds model

In the proportional odds model we have the the odds of survival in 1 group are proportional to the odds of survival in another group $$\dfrac{ S_1(t)}{1-S_1(t)} = \psi \dfrac{S_0(t)}{1-S_0(t)}$$ ...
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4k views

Derivative of a function with respect to another function.

I want to calculate the derivative of a function with respect to, not a variable, but respect to another function. For example: $$g(x)=2f(x)+x+\log[f(x)]$$ I want to compute $$\frac{\mathrm ...
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89 views

How to avoid losing the woods for the trees in daily study/lecture time

When facing to some new material in mathematics, I feel easily to be overwhelmed by lots of details with losing the woods for the trees. So is there some good strategy to study the materials ...
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252 views

Uncountable Dense Linear Orders

Is there an example of two uncountable equipollent dense linear orders without endpoints that don't satisfy the same first order properties? Or is it true that two uncountable equipollent dense linear ...
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0answers
151 views

On what value of $f(X)$ minimizes $E[(Y-f(X))^2|X]$

$X$ and $Y$ are random variables. The question is: what value of $f(X)$ minimizes $E[(Y-f(X))^2|X]$. I am pretty sure I have found the solution to this problem by writing: $$E[(Y-f(X)-E[X|Y] +E[X|Y] ...
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96 views

How to select good exercises?

I'm studying on Rudin "Principles of of Mathematical Analysis" which I begin to find as a good and complete reference. I wonder how many exercises shall I do at the end of each chapter ? In case of ...
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2answers
113 views

Determining final and initial object in a certain category

I am reading Paolo Aluffi's greatly entertaining book "Algebra: Chapter $0$" and I got stuck on some excercises dealing with universal properties. Let $C$ be a category, and let $A$ and $B$ be two ...
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1answer
63 views

Normal Distribution and Iterated Logarithm

Let $X_n$ be independent $N(0, \sigma^2)$-distributed random variables with partial sum $S_n := \sum_{k=1}^n X_k$, $n \geq 1$. Then I read the following results. $$ \sum_{k = 1}^n \mathbb P (S_n > ...
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3answers
36 views

Limit with terms very similar to those that should give an exponential function

I have been trying to solve the following limit but am completely stuck. $$\lim_{\alpha \rightarrow \infty} 1-\left( \frac{y+\alpha}{\alpha-1} \right)^{-\alpha}$$ I have tried inverting the ratio ...
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1answer
516 views

Posterior Probability

a) Your initial belief is that a defendant in a court case is guilty with probability 0.5. A witness comes forward claiming he saw the defendant committed the crime. You know the witness is not ...
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1answer
37 views

Confusion about the associative property and the mechanics of Parenthesis

This is a follow up question on my earlier post (Updated): Showing that a set $M$ with two elements classifies as a field. I feel this post is necessary because I realize that what confuses me is how ...
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1answer
44 views

Simple probability question

Question: In class of 125 students, in examination 70 students passed in mathematics and 55 students passed in statistics and 30 passed in both the subject. Find the probability of the event where ...
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1answer
40 views

(Updated): Showing that a set $M$ with two elements classifies as a field

My question is more conceptual, so I will come straight to the exercise: Exercise: Let $M= \lbrace g,u \rbrace $ be a Set. On $M$ the Addition and the Multiplication is given by: \begin{align} ...
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4answers
208 views

Constructive proof for existence of integer part of real number

I try to prove de following exercise of my analysis textbook. Show that for every real number $x$ there is exactly one integer $N$ such that $N \le x < N + 1$. I have been finding a ...
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8answers
133 views

Proof that $|\sqrt{x}-\sqrt{y}| \leq \sqrt{|x-y|},\quad x,y \geq 0$

Any hints on how I can prove the inequality: $$|\sqrt{x}-\sqrt{y}| \leq \sqrt{|x-y|},\quad x,y \geq 0$$ Thank you.
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3answers
41 views

Is this derivative correct?

I'm newbie at Calculus, so I'm doing some exercises of derivates, I know by the formula: $f(x) = \sqrt u$ $\frac {df(x)}{dx} = \frac{u'}{2 \sqrt u}$ that the derivate of the next function is: ...
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1answer
83 views

Question about Lebesgue Covering Dimension

Suppose we have a metric space equipped with two different metrics: $(X,d), (X, d')$. What must be true of the metrics: $d, d'$ in order for $X$ to have the same Lebesgue covering dimension? A ...
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1answer
49 views

Proof on existence of the natural numbers, crucial step.

I am trying to understand/reconstruct the proof given by my Professor addressing the existence of natural numbers. However there is one step in particular I don't understand and the more I think about ...
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1answer
794 views

Without solving the equation, determine the nature of its roots: $x^2 + ax + a^2 = 0$

I'm working through the book Core Maths for Advanced Level on my own, and, after solving the above problem, I'm not getting the same answer as the book. So, given: $$x^2 + ax + a^2 = 0$$ Using the ...
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1answer
46 views

Want to check measure theory proof

I need to show that sigma-finiteness implies semifinite. Does the following proof work? Let $(X,m,\mu)$ be a $\sigma-$finite measure. Let, $E\in m$, and $\mu(E)=\infty$. By $\sigma-$finiteness, ...
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3answers
586 views

Probably of 2 six in 5 dice rolls

What is the probability of obtaining exatcly 2 six when rolling a dice 5 times? In order to obtain this probability, I will need to devide the number of favorable events by the number of possible ...
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1answer
100 views

An exercise on first order logic formulas, terms and Polish notation

This is part of my homework (not mandatory and not accredited). Please comment/answer if my reasoning for the exercises is correct, because I'd like to see if I understand the material. I will start ...
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2answers
48 views

problem with rudin theorem 1.14 first step $g^{-1}((\alpha, \infty]=\cup_{n=1}^\infty f_n^{-1}((\alpha, \infty])$

Theorem 1.14 of Complex and real analysis by Rudin states: if $f_n:X\to [-\infty, +\infty]$ is measurable for $n = 1,2,3...$ and: $$g=\sup_{n\geq 1} f_n,~~~~h=\limsup_{n\to \infty} f_n,$$ then $h$ ...
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1answer
73 views

Show expectation is infinite

Let $X_1,\ldots,X_n$ be independent, identically distributed with expectation 1 and finite variance. Find the limit distribution of $\sqrt{n}(\bar{X}_n^{-1}-1)$. If the random variables are sampled ...
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1answer
109 views

The Use of Sound in Mathematics. [closed]

I'm not sure that this question is appropriate here. There's a good chance it's too opinion-based. If that's the case, I'm sorry. I was sat in a research seminar recently and wondered whether it'd be ...
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1answer
707 views

Proving, that closure of set is equal this set iff set is closed

I've started intorduction to topology course and I need help with one of the problems: Let $A \subset(X,T). $ Prove that $cl(A) = A\iff A$ is closed. It may looks trivial, but I had a little ...
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1answer
33 views

Definition of $C^1$ functions with values in $\mathbb R^m$

My analysis textbook defines a $C^1$ function $f:\mathbb{R^n}\to\mathbb{R^m}$ as one in which for each component function $f_i, 1\leq i\leq m$ the partial derivative $\frac{\partial f_i}{x_j}$ exists ...
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2answers
150 views

Path to 3d Mathematics programming, where to start?

This might read like duplicate of this question https://math.stackexchange.com/search?q=where+to+start However since that one wasn't answered, and I have a more specific problem in regards to ...
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1answer
55 views

Fourier Transforms of $L^1$ functions

Suppose that $f_n$ and $f$ are $L^1(\mathbb R^n)$ functions with $f_n \to f$ in $L^1$ sense. Then is it true that their Fourier transforms defined as $$ \hat f(\xi) := \int_{\mathbb R^n} ...
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1answer
62 views

Conditional probability with balls in urns involving discards

I found this problem in a statistics book, and I'm wondering if my solution is correct. "You and a friend play a game involving 20 balls in an urn, of which 1 is red and 19 are white. The game is ...
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148 views

Compact family of Lip functions under the sup norm metric, proof verification.

Hi everyone I'd like to know if the following is correct, I'd appreciate your opinion and also any suggestion to improve my argument. Thanks in advance for your time. If $(K,d)$ is a compact ...
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1answer
126 views

Expected value of Cumulative Hazard

Define $T=\min(T^0,C)$ where $T^0$ is the failure time and $C$ is the censoring time. Define the failure indicator $$\delta = \begin{cases} 1 & \text{if $T^0\leq C$}\\ 0 & \text{if $T^0> ...
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1answer
38 views

Convergent Series $\frac{1}{n^q}, \ \ q>1$

How to show the following result about series? Thank you! Convergent Series: $$\sum_n \frac{1}{n^q}, \ \ q>1$$
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1answer
126 views

Finding probability given mean and standard deviation

I don't know how to approach this problem: X is normally distributed with a mean of 200 and a standard deviation of 10. Find P(X ≥ 203)
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3answers
43 views

Finding a recursive formula for a number

I am trying to find a recursive formula for a given number in order to solve a problem I am working on. For every $n \in \mathbb{N} \setminus \lbrace 0,1 \rbrace$ we define the number ...
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2answers
212 views

Mathematical background for one wishing to study Chaos/Complexity Theory

I don't have a very strong mathematics background. In fact I quite abhorred mathematics during my Middle/High School years. I'm currently applying for PhD programs in the field of literature as that ...
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2answers
202 views

Good book for self-studying Binary Relations

I am studying economics and I frequently encounter Binary Relations. But without any good knowledge of it, I get confused. Here is some background, if it's helpful: I know calculus(single and ...
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2answers
62 views

Proof of: Because $I$ is dense in $R$ there exists a sequence $\{x_n\} \subset I$ with $\{x_n\} \to r$.

In a passage from some school slides I have written: consider an arbitrary $r \in Q$. Because $I$ is dense in $R$ there exists a sequence $\{x_n\} \subset I$ with $\{x_n\} \to r$. This seems ...
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0answers
34 views

Complex trigonometric equation

Find a solution to the equation $\tan(z)=7i$ which satisfies the condition $0<\Re(z)< \pi$} We use the $\sin(z)=\frac{e^{zi}-e^{-zi}}{2i}$ and $\cos(z)=\frac{e^{xi}+e^{-xi}}{2}$. Here is ...
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2answers
90 views

Product metric spaces is again a metric space

Let $(X,d_X)$ and $(Y,d_Y)$ be metric spaces, and let: $$ d_2 ((x_1,y_1),(x_2,y_2)) = \left[d_X(x_1,x_2)^2 + d_Y (y_1,y_2)^2 \right]^{\frac{1}{2}} $$ for the points $(x_1,y_1)$ and $(x_2,y_2)$ in $X ...
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2answers
167 views

on a recursive sequence (exercise 8.14 Apostol).

The exercise asks to prove convergence and find the limit of the sequence:$$a_n= \frac{b_{n+1}}{b_n},\text{ where } b_1=b_2 =1, b_{n+2} = b_{n} + b_{n+1}. $$ It also gives a hint: Show that $ \ ...
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1answer
63 views

Possible number of arrangement.

Question: How many cars are there with number GJ-X-AB-abcd. GJ and A are constant.X is digit between 1 to 9, B is english alphabet and abcd is 4 digit number.(a can be zero) My Efforts: It is but ...
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1answer
22 views

Formally proving $\sum_{k=1}^{\infty}P\left(-k<X\leq-k+1\right)=P\left(X\leq0\right)$?

$\sum_{k=1}^{\infty}P\left(-k<X\leq-k+1\right)=P\left(X\leq0\right)$ This fact seems pretty obvious but how would I formally prove it, is there a painless way?
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2answers
3k views

Calculating a harmonic conjugate

Is the following reasoning correct? Determine a harmonic conjugate to the function \begin{equation} f(x,y)=2y^{3}-6x^{2}y+4x^{2}-7xy-4y^{2}+3x+4y-4 \end{equation} We first of all check $f(x,y)$ ...
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46 views

Case Deletion Diagnostics

I have NO idea how to approach this problem. I don't see any connection between the corollary and the formula we need to prove. Does anyone have any hints? Corrolary: If $\mathbf{A}$ and ...
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68 views

Proving formally $\lim_{x \to -\infty}\mathrm{Pr}( \left \lfloor{x}\right \rfloor \le X < x) = 0$ (Proof check)

we have $$\lim_{x \to -\infty}\mathrm{Pr}( \left \lfloor{x}\right \rfloor \le X < x) $$ where X is a real random variable, and $x \in R$. My idea of a proof would be by contradiction: Assume ...
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1answer
62 views

Examining the effect of a quantitative factor on response.

To examine the effect of a quantitative factor temperature on yield,the researcher has a plan to use the following model for the analysis: $$y_{ix}=\beta_0+\beta_1 x+\epsilon_{ix}$$ where $y_{ix}$ ...