The process of studying mathematics without formal instruction. _Don't_ use this tag just because you were self-studying when you came across the mathematical question you're asking; it is only for when fact that you're self-studying is what your question is _about_.

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4
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3answers
120 views

reduction of $6xy + 8 y^2 -12x-26y + 11 = 0$ to canonical one of a second-order curve

I have this polynomial $$ 6xy + 8 y^2 -12x-26y + 11 = 0 $$ and I need to reduce it to a canonical equation of a second-order curve. The correct answer from the textbook is that it is a hyperbola ...
3
votes
3answers
98 views

Why $ (1- \sin \alpha + \cos \alpha)^2 = 2 (1 - \sin \alpha)(1+ \cos \alpha)$?

Why $ (1- \sin \alpha + \cos \alpha)^2 = 2 (1 - \sin \alpha)(1+ \cos \alpha)$? I am learning trigonometric identities one identity I have to proof is the next: $ (1- \sin \alpha + \cos \alpha)^2 = ...
1
vote
1answer
91 views

Typical material covered in Calculus 1 course?

I have a copy of Larson's Calculus: early transcendental functions, 2nd edition. I was wondering what material I would need to cover to have the equivalent of a Calculus 1 course at a University. I ...
1
vote
3answers
321 views

Have any one studied this binomial like coefficients before?

Consider the following identities. $\dfrac{n}{n-r}\dbinom{n-r}{r}=\dfrac{n}{r}\dbinom{n-r-1}{r-1}$ ...
0
votes
2answers
34 views

Could anybody provide a more detailed explanation of a tangent equation in its general form?

In my textbook I'm currently at the topic of a tangent line to an ellipsis and hyperbola. And there I've encountered this statement: If a curve has an equation $$ y = f(x) $$ then an equation of a ...
0
votes
3answers
118 views

how to prove $ax + by = cx + dy \implies a = c, b = d$?

Actually the question is in the title. I just have saw such a method $$ ax + by = cx + dy \implies a = c, b = d $$ in my textbook, so I can assume it is true, but I'm very interested on proving ...
0
votes
2answers
53 views

If $X$ has CDF $F$, how can I find the CDF of $U= \max \{0,X \}$?

If $X$ has CDF $F$, how can I find the CDF of $U=\max\{0,X\}$? Obviously the suport of $U$ consists solely of nonnegative values. Am I right then in thinking that for $u=0, F_U (u)=F_X(0)$ and for ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

Uniformly analytic functions

Consider the following definition: Let $\Omega$ be an open set of $\mathbb{R}_x^n$, $x = (x_1, ..., x_n)$. A $\mathcal{C}^{\infty}$-function $\varphi(x)$ on $\Omega$ is said to be uniformly analytic ...
4
votes
2answers
93 views

Intuition about Taking an Integral

My hope is to personally develop some further intuition for taking an integral (measuring the area under a curve). Consider a normal distribution and I need the area under the curve from $a$ to $b$. I ...
1
vote
5answers
97 views

Prove $\frac{\sin A}{\sec A+\tan A-1}+ \frac{\cos A}{\csc A+\cot A-1}=1$

$$\frac{\sin A}{\sec A+\tan A-1}+ \frac{\cos A}{\csc A+\cot A-1}=1$$ Prove that L.H.S.$=$R.H.S. This type of questions always creates problem when in right hand side some trigonometry function is ...
2
votes
1answer
68 views

Prove this result about construction of sets

In Enderton's book on Set Theory, the following problem is given after introducing the notion of sets as an infinite hierarchy (I hope this much explanation is sufficient; if not, please mention and ...
3
votes
5answers
211 views

Introduction and Prerequisites to Abstract Algebra

So I've seen similar questions asked, but none that really helped me out. I'm going to be a freshman in college next year, having already taken Multivariate Calculus and Elementary Linear Algebra. Of ...
1
vote
3answers
93 views

Transformation of two independent uniform random variables

Suppose $X,Y \sim \text{Uniform} \left(0,1 \right)$ are independent. Then I need to find the PDF for $W=X/Y$. By the CDF technique this is seen to be : $$F_W( w)=\int_{0}^1 \int_{0}^{wy} ...
3
votes
2answers
57 views

Favorite Textbooks for introducing a subject?

I'm interested in learning more about number theory, about fractal geometry, and about probability. Anyone have any good recommendations? I've taken calculus and statistics at university if that helps ...
2
votes
1answer
47 views

Confused about this set representation and conclusions

I'm pursuing Set Theory by Enderton and am having trouble understanding the following idea. Early in the book, the author constructs an "informal view" of sets, which he says he will refine further ...
1
vote
1answer
509 views

How do you self-study Functional Analysis?

It would be very handy to know about function spaces, distributions and Fourier analysis. It looks like Rudin's Functional Analysis covers these things, but I do not yet have the foundation for it. ...
5
votes
2answers
366 views

Self-Contained Books / Series / Lectures for Comprehensive Introduction to College-Level Math for Someone with VERY Poor Math Foundation?

I've long been interested in various math related subjects (technology, philosophy, sciences, computer science, languages, etc.) without really invested time to actually any learn any of them. I ...
0
votes
2answers
53 views

Help with constructing power set

I' trying to construct the power set of $A = \{\phi, \{a\}\}$ and would appreciate some help. Now, the definition of a power set says that it's the set of all possible subsets of a given set. ...
9
votes
2answers
418 views

The best balance in studying Mathematics?

I'm a student studying Mathematics at a university level. I've completed Single Variable Calculus, Differential Equations, Multivariable Caculus, Real/Complex Analysis, and Linear Algebra and I've ...
2
votes
4answers
451 views

Should I read about Manifolds or Algebraic Topology?

I really enjoy doing maths and it fills quite a lot of my spare time. I'm starting my first year in the university on october and I probably won't have that much time for independent reading once ...
0
votes
1answer
67 views

The Landau symbol $\mathcal{o}$ as in Königsberger Analysis I

I am currently working on Chapter 14 - local approximations of function and Taylor polynomials - in Königsberger Analysis 1 Background: Königsberger introduced the Taylor Polynomial of order ...
3
votes
1answer
129 views

Start studying mathematical biology from basics

I am really passionate about theoretical and quantitative biology and I would like to build my future career around this topic. I've just got my bachelor's degree in biology (ecology) but scince ...
2
votes
2answers
83 views

Tutorial on Complex Networks

Can anyone advise mea nice and short tutorial about Complex Networks? I'm reading "Networks: An Introduction" from Mark Newman, and is a bit tedious... Thanks PS: There isn't a tag "complex networks" ...
0
votes
0answers
41 views

Most suitable book after Bergmann Logic Book

I'd like to know what the best book would be to pick up after this one would be. Essentially, it covers basic logical concepts (validity, soundness, consistency) and goes on to sentential and ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

Volume of parallelepiped gets smaller when using projection vectors

Given a Euclidean Space R and a subspace R' (of dimension $\geq$m), consider vectors $x_1,...,x_m \in$**R**, and let $V[x_1,...,x_m]$ mean the volume of an m-dimensional parallelepiped formed by those ...
2
votes
3answers
177 views

Trouble with inequalities

I'm a 9th grade student, going into 10th grade. Math has always been a subject I enjoyed and excelled in. I'm writing a schoolboard-wide math contest next year in mid-February I believe. To prepare ...
4
votes
1answer
111 views

Riemann Sums as in Königsberger Analysis 1

Intro: I must take a small detour here which is only relevant if you do not know the book itself and care about my background. I am working with Königsberger Analysis I (can be found on Springerlink). ...
1
vote
0answers
45 views

Generator Matrix

I have a C in $F_2^6$ $(x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4) \to (x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4,x_1+x_2,x_3+x_4)$ for $x = (1,0,1,1)$ i get $c = (1,0,1,1,1,0)$ we know that $$c = G . x$$ G is the Generator Matrix in the solution ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Continuity of a map to a Frechet space

Let $(A,\| \cdot \|)$ be a normed space and $B$ be a Frechet space equipped with a family $\{ p_k \}_{k \in \mathbb{N}}$ of seminorms. Let $\phi: A \to B$ be a linear transformation satisfying the ...
5
votes
3answers
62 views

Area preserving transformation in a higher dimensional space is unitary.

In $\mathbb{R}^3$, a linear operator $Q:\mathbb{R}^3 \to \mathbb{R}^3$ preserves the area of parallelograms: that is, given $x,y\in \mathbb{R}^3$, the area of a parallelogram formed by $x$ and $y$ is ...
0
votes
1answer
17 views

quick question on measurability of random variables and what becoming a deterministic function means.

we stated a theorem in class: if X r.v. is $\sigma(Y)$ measurable then X is a function of Y, where $\sigma(Y)$ signifies the sigma algebra of Y. This is fine. The Professor sometimes states that X ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Logarithm with variable base

I am trying to define a function that maps polynomials in the form of $x^{3^n}$ to the value of $n$ in the polynomial, where $n\in{Z}$.* Is is valid to define this function as $log_{x^3}(u)$, where ...
1
vote
0answers
59 views

Soft question — I need books and exercise books that will be working on my fundamental skills.

I need help, urgently. I acquired a book called: Mathematics, Its Content, Method and Meaning. Now the problems is the book doesn't provide me with any exercises. I was searching for a book that would ...
2
votes
2answers
37 views

Probability of returning to a given state after n transitions-Markov chains

Let us denote $f_j^{(n)}$ denote the probability of the first return to state $j $after n transitions. Let $p_{jj}^{(n)}$ be the probability of returning to the state $j$ after $n$ transitions when ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Confusion with Bolyai-Gerwien theorem

The Bolyai-Gerwien theorem states: Given two polygons with the same area, it is possible to cut up one polygon into a finite number of smaller polygonal pieces and from those pieces assemble into ...
1
vote
1answer
72 views

Queuing theory-Multiple server (reducing simple recurrence formulas)

The equations given in 6.3 have been reduced which really eases the computation in further studies. But I tried to find the method of reducing these but I could not find a way at all. Any hints will ...
-1
votes
2answers
35 views

Prove this result about power sets [duplicate]

I have to prove this result: If $P$ be the power set, and $B$ and $C$ are two sets, then if $B \subseteq C$ prove that $P(B) \subseteq P(C)$. Now, it seems obvious to me that since all the ...
2
votes
1answer
104 views

What is the metric spaces needed to motivate concepts of general topology?

I intend to start learning some topology on my own. I wonder How much metric spaces I should know in order to motivate the concepts of topology? I know it's possible to learn topology without any ...
0
votes
0answers
54 views

Can ergodic Markov chains be periodic?

I found a statement in one of my notes which said If a state is persistent, aperiodic and not null the it is said to be ergodic Is it necessary that it should be aperiodic? This statement ...
1
vote
1answer
27 views

Markov chains: An issue in classification of states

I recently came across a lemma which goes as follows. Suppose a Markov chain has N states. Let i and j be pair of states. Then j can be reached from i iff there is an integer $ 0 ≤n< N$ such ...
0
votes
2answers
74 views

Find the galois group of the polynomial when a root is given

If $\alpha$ is a root of a polynomial $f(x)=x^3 +x^2-4x+1$ then show that $2 - 2\alpha - \alpha^2$ is also a root of $f(x)$. Use this fact to compute the Galois group of the splitting field of $f(x)$ ...
2
votes
2answers
68 views

Intersection of ideals $I=(2x)$ and $J=(2x^2)$ of $\mathbb{Z}[2x,2x^2,2x^3,\dots]$ is not finitely generated.

Consider the subring $\mathbb{Z}[2x,2x^2,2x^3,\dots]\subset \mathbb{Z}[x]$. Then show that the intersection of ideals $I=(2x)$ and $J=(2x^2)$ of $\mathbb{Z}[2x,2x^2,2x^3,\dots]$ i.e., $I\cap ...
2
votes
7answers
756 views

What are the most important functions every mathematician should know? [closed]

I am an undergrad in math and was wondering, what are for you the most important functions every mathematician should know? At the moment I think ...
1
vote
4answers
52 views

A simple conditional probability problem

Assume that two fair dice are rolled one at a time. Given that the sum of the two numbers that occured was at least $7$, compute the probability that it was equal to $7$. I tried computing the ...
0
votes
2answers
790 views

Proof that the subset relation is reflexive and transitive

I'm teaching myself set theory, and I'm not sure how detailed I should be when asked to prove things. Here is my proof that $A\subseteq A$ (the subset relation is reflexive): $A \subseteq B$ iff ...
1
vote
1answer
60 views

Optimization with both equality and inequality constraints

I need to minimize the following quantity: $$\min x_1^{-1/n}- \left(1-x_2 \right)^{-1/n}$$ subject to: $1-x_1-x_2=\gamma$ and $0<x_1+x_2<1$ $\gamma$ being a constant. Had it been two ...
4
votes
2answers
116 views

How to find the minimum value of $|5^{4m+3}-n^2 |$

How can I find the minimum value of $|5^{4m+3}-n^2 |$ for positive integers n,m. I solve this home work problem, but it is a very long process. So I need a short answer.
28
votes
8answers
2k views

Complex analysis is more “real” than real analysis

In physics, in the past, complex numbers were used only to remember or simplify formulas and computations. But after the birth of quantum physics, they found that a thing as real as "matter" itself ...
1
vote
2answers
36 views

law of total probability and conditiona probability exercise.

Exercise: Let $X$ be an uniform discrete r.v. with four possible values: 1, 2, 3, 4. Let $Y$ be an exponential variable whose parameter is the value taken by $X$. So, if $X = 3$, $Y$ is Exp (3). ...
4
votes
3answers
182 views

Show that $\lim_{x \rightarrow 1} \frac{x^4-2x+1}{x-1} + \sqrt{x} =3$

Show that $\lim_{x \rightarrow 1} \frac{x^4-2x+1}{x-1} + \sqrt{x} =3$ from the definition (using $\epsilon-\delta$) Why can't I do something like this? We want: $|\frac{x^4-2x+1}{x-1} + ...