Questions about studying mathematics without formal instruction.

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How to Read Michael Artin's Algebra

I am currently reading Algebra by Michael Artin (for self study). I'm finding the book pretty interesting, but I'm still not sure how I should study the book. For example, should I try to prove every ...
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1answer
17 views

Conditional probability with balls in urns involving discards

I found this problem in a statistics book, and I'm wondering if my solution is correct. "You and a friend play a game involving 20 balls in an urn, of which 1 is red and 19 are white. The game is ...
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52 views

Compact family of Lip functions under the sup norm metric, proof verification.

Hi everyone I'd like to know if the following is correct, I'd appreciate your opinion and also any suggestion to improve my argument. Thanks in advance for your time. If $(K,d)$ is a compact ...
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1answer
12 views

Expected value of Cumulative Hazard

Define $T=\min(T^0,C)$ where $T^0$ is the failure time and $C$ is the censoring time. Define the failure indicator $$\delta = \begin{cases} 1 & \text{if $T^0\leq C$}\\ 0 & \text{if $T^0> ...
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1answer
29 views

Convergent Series $\frac{1}{n^q}, \ \ q>1$

How to show the following result about series? Thank you! Convergent Series: $$\sum_n \frac{1}{n^q}, \ \ q>1$$
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1answer
13 views

Finding probability given mean and standard deviation

I don't know how to approach this problem: X is normally distributed with a mean of 200 and a standard deviation of 10. Find P(X ≥ 203)
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3answers
37 views

Finding a recursive formula for a number

I am trying to find a recursive formula for a given number in order to solve a problem I am working on. For every $n \in \mathbb{N} \setminus \lbrace 0,1 \rbrace$ we define the number ...
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2answers
37 views

Mathematical background for one wishing to study Chaos/Complexity Theory

I don't have a very strong mathematics background. In fact I quite abhorred mathematics during my Middle/High School years. I'm currently applying for PhD programs in the field of literature as that ...
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21 views

On a step in a solution of a proof of the Continuity of thomae's function at irrationals.

Thomae's function: $$t(x) = \begin{cases} 0 \ \ \text{if} \ x \in \mathbb{R}- \mathbb{Q} \newline \frac{1}{q} \ \ \text{if} \ x \in \mathbb{Q} \ \text{and} \ x = \frac{p}{q} \ \text{in lowest terms} ...
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19 views

Good book for self-studying Binary Relations

I am studying economics and I frequently encounter Binary Relations. But without any good knowledge of it, I get confused. Here is some background, if it's helpful: I know calculus(single and ...
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2answers
33 views

Proof of: Because $I$ is dense in $R$ there exists a sequence $\{x_n\} \subset I$ with $\{x_n\} \to r$.

In a passage from some school slides I have written: consider an arbitrary $r \in Q$. Because $I$ is dense in $R$ there exists a sequence $\{x_n\} \subset I$ with $\{x_n\} \to r$. This seems ...
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58 views

Again with this question. How to learn mathematics [on hold]

So I've been studying mathematics and I am completely sick of being spoon fed with equations and algorithms. I've taken the right step by beginning to learn logic and set theory; having almost ...
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0answers
25 views

Complex trigonometric equation

Find a solution to the equation $\tan(z)=7i$ which satisfies the condition $0<\Re(z)< \pi$} We use the $\sin(z)=\frac{e^{zi}-e^{-zi}}{2i}$ and $\cos(z)=\frac{e^{xi}+e^{-xi}}{2}$. Here is ...
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33 views

Joint density of $X_1^2+X_2^2\ \text{and} X_2,\ X_i\sim N(0,1)$

Let $X_1 $ and $X_2$ be iid with a common standard normal distribution. I am looking to find the joint pdf of $Y_1 =X_1^2 +X_2^2$ and $Y_2=X_2$. I know i can use a straight transformation argument but ...
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2answers
38 views

Product metric spaces is again a metric space

Let $(X,d_X)$ and $(Y,d_Y)$ be metric spaces, and let: $$ d_2 ((x_1,y_1),(x_2,y_2)) = \left[d_X(x_1,x_2)^2 + d_Y (y_1,y_2)^2 \right]^{\frac{1}{2}} $$ for the points $(x_1,y_1)$ and $(x_2,y_2)$ in $X ...
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2answers
79 views

Bartle vs Rudin, which one is better for real analysis?

I'm in high school and I want to study real analysis, and I can choose between The elements of real analysis by Robert G. Bartle and Principles of mathematical analysis by Walter Rudin, so, from the ...
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2answers
127 views

on a recursive sequence (exercise 8.14 Apostol).

The exercise asks to prove convergence and find the limit of the sequence:$$a_n= \frac{b_{n+1}}{b_n},\text{ where } b_1=b_2 =1, b_{n+2} = b_{n} + b_{n+1}. $$ It also gives a hint: Show that $ \ ...
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1answer
31 views

Possible number of arrangement.

Question: How many cars are there with number GJ-X-AB-abcd. GJ and A are constant.X is digit between 1 to 9, B is english alphabet and abcd is 4 digit number.(a can be zero) My Efforts: It is but ...
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1answer
17 views

Formally proving $\sum_{k=1}^{\infty}P\left(-k<X\leq-k+1\right)=P\left(X\leq0\right)$?

$\sum_{k=1}^{\infty}P\left(-k<X\leq-k+1\right)=P\left(X\leq0\right)$ This fact seems pretty obvious but how would I formally prove it, is there a painless way?
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1answer
20 views

Calculating a harmonic conjugate

Is the following reasoning correct? Determine a harmonic conjugate to the function \begin{equation} f(x,y)=2y^{3}-6x^{2}y+4x^{2}-7xy-4y^{2}+3x+4y-4 \end{equation} We first of all check $f(x,y)$ ...
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1answer
20 views

Case Deletion Diagnostics

I have NO idea how to approach this problem. I don't see any connection between the corollary and the formula we need to prove. Does anyone have any hints? Corrolary: If $\mathbf{A}$ and ...
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2answers
57 views

Proving formally $\lim_{x \to -\infty}\mathrm{Pr}( \left \lfloor{x}\right \rfloor \le X < x) = 0$ (Proof check)

we have $$\lim_{x \to -\infty}\mathrm{Pr}( \left \lfloor{x}\right \rfloor \le X < x) $$ where X is a real random variable, and $x \in R$. My idea of a proof would be by contradiction: Assume ...
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1answer
41 views

Examining the effect of a quantitative factor on response.

To examine the effect of a quantitative factor temperature on yield,the researcher has a plan to use the following model for the analysis: $$y_{ix}=\beta_0+\beta_1 x+\epsilon_{ix}$$ where $y_{ix}$ ...
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2answers
75 views

Parametric solution of the Diophantine equation $\frac{1}{p}=\frac{1}{x}+\frac{1}{y}+\frac{1}{z} ,x,y,z∈Z^+.$

I have prove that, for any given positive integer $p,$ parametric solution of the Diophantine equation $$\frac{1}{p}=\frac{1}{x}+\frac{1}{y}$$ can be written in the form $x=ac(a+b),y=bc(a+b),$ where ...
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1answer
36 views

Why $\{Z \le z\} = \bigcap_{m = 1}^\infty \bigcup_{n=1}^\infty \bigcap_{k=n}^\infty \{ Z_k \le z + 1/m \}$ if $Z=\lim_nZ_n$?

I am following A first look at rigorous probability theory by Rosenthal, and I am having troubles with limits of random variables. Specifically proposition 3.1.5. (iii) states that if $Z_1,Z_2...$ ...
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0answers
40 views

What is the most “powerfull” method to prove a sequence is increasing or decreasing?

Given a sequence $a_n$ defined in a recursive manner, the methods I know to prove if the sequence is increasing are: 1) observe if $a_{n+1} - a_n > 0 \ \forall n.$ 2) take $\frac{a_{n+1}}{a_n}$ ...
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1answer
13 views

Testing statistic $\frac{MSS(X)}{MSS(Y)}$

Suppose a test statistic $\frac{MSS(X)}{MSS(Y)}$, where $MSS$ denotes Mean Sum of Squares, is to be used for testing the significance of the factor $X$. Do we need the assumption $$\mathbb ...
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1answer
67 views

general topology (self learning)

Hi everyone I'd like to know if the following is correct. I'd appreciate any suggestion. Thanks in advance. From Dudley´s book: Let $A_n$ be the set of all the integers greater than $n$. Let ...
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2answers
33 views

Determining if the relation is an equivalence one.

Determine if the relation : $$x \sim y \iff |y-x| \text{ is an integer multiple of } 3$$ is an equivalence one. Now, I think this is an equivalence relation but I am having troubles formally ...
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2answers
47 views

on the exercise 8.10 Apostol. (limit of sequence)

The exercise states: prove that the limit of the sequence $$a_{n+2}=(a_na_{n+1})^{1/2} \ where \ a_1 \ge 0, a_2 \ge 0 $$ is $L = (a_1a_2^2)^{1/3}$ The solutin says: $$Let \ b_n = ...
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2 views

Least square estimator: $N( \beta x_i, \sigma^2)$

Let $ Y_1,...,Y_n$ be i.i.d $N(\beta x_i, \sigma^2) $ with known $ x_i's$. It is asked to find the Mean Squared Estimator for $\beta.$ I didn't understandmuch about this method of pbtaining an ...
0
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1answer
18 views

Expected Residual lifetime

I have a 2 part question. I was able to figure out part 1. I need some help with part 2. I will write out part 1 (and my solution) for completion. Let $T$ be a continuous survival time with survival ...
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1answer
60 views

Exam exercise on sequence $a_n = \sin(n)$ [duplicate]

Prove that the sequence $a_n = \sin(n)$ cannot converge when $n \rightarrow \infty $ I tried to find two subsequences that converge to different values but I am having trouble with the fact that $n ...
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2answers
75 views

Proving $(1-x)^n \geq 1 - nx $

$(1-x)^n \geq 1 - nx\,\, $ If i expand the left side of the inequality with the binomianl coefficient formula I obtain: $1-nx + {n \choose 2}x^2 - {n \choose 3}x^3 ... $ now I see where the $1-nx$ ...
2
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1answer
30 views

Uniform integrability of a sequence of functions.

I am considering the following sequence of functions. I think it converges pointwise to $0$ because the intervals in the domain in which the nth function is greater than zero eventually shrink and ...
4
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1answer
54 views

On a recursive sequence (exercise 8.9 Apostol)

The exercise states: show convergence of the sequence ${a_n}$ knowing that: $$|a_n| \le 2, \ \ \ |a_{n+2}-a_{n+1}| \le \frac{1}{8}|a_{n+1}^2 - a_{n}^2|.$$ The solution states: $$|a_{n+2}-a_{n+1}| ...
2
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1answer
81 views

exam exercise on Series problem.

The exercise states: Does the series $$\sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty \int_{0}^1 \frac{x^n dx}{x+1}$$ converge? The solution states as the first step: $$I_n =\int_{0}^1 \frac{x^n dx}{x+1} $$ then $ ...
2
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1answer
37 views

Testing convergence of the series of $n^p((n-1)^{-1/2}-n^{-1/2})$

Exercise 8.15 (l) of Analysis by Apostol states: Test for convergence: $$\sum\limits_{n = 2}^\infty n^p\left(\frac{1}{\sqrt{n-1}}-\frac{1}{\sqrt{n}} \right)$$ The solution I have states as the first ...
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2answers
61 views

Books/subjects for proof practice

So I want to practice writing proofs. I've studied general proof-writing but now I want to learn how to apply that to mathematics. From what I understand, the best and most accessible subjects for ...
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1answer
112 views

$[0,1]^{[0,1]}$ is separable

This is from Dudley´s book: Let $I:=[0,1]$ with the usual topology. Let $I^I$the set of all the functions from $I$ to $I$ with the product topology. a) $I^I$ is separable. Hint: Consider function ...
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1answer
24 views

Showing a set is closed, question from real analysis

Let $\mathbb{X}=\{1,2,3\}$ and let $\mathbb{P}$ be the set of all probabilities on $\mathbb{X}$. $\,\,$ Let, $V:\mathbb{P}\to \mathbb{R}$ be defined as $V(p)=(1+p_1)^2+(2+p_2)^2+(3+p_3)^2$. Show that ...
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2answers
28 views

How many ways there are to divide $5$-element set to at mot three sets?

How many ways there are to divide $5$-element set to at most three subsets? If I am right, then I have following subsets: 1 subset: containing five elements (that is 1 possibility) 2 subsets: 1 ...
3
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1answer
31 views

Find inverse of $I+\mathbf{ab}^\intercal$

Could you guys give me some hints on this homework? Find inverse of $\mathbf{I} + \mathbf{ab}^\intercal$. Hint: try to form $c\mathbf{I} + d\mathbf{ab}^\intercal$ and solve for $c,d$. What happens ...
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3answers
11 views

Simple Conditional Variance Proof Question

So I have the following best linear predictor: $y_{t+1} = a + b y_t + v_t $ , where $b$ is a measure of persistence and $v_t$ is noise (independent of $y_t$). Variance is persistent across ...
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4answers
143 views

Is there a closed form expression for $\int_{- \infty}^\infty \int_{-\infty}^y \frac{1}{2 \pi} e^{-(1/2) ( x^2+y^2 )} \mathrm{d}x\,\mathrm{d}y$?

I have been trying to evaluate the integral: $$\int_{- \infty}^\infty \int_{-\infty}^y \frac{1}{2 \pi} e^{-(1/2) ( x^2+y^2 )}\mathrm {d}x\,\mathrm{d}y$$ I know of course that the integral equals ...
3
votes
1answer
49 views

Introductory texts in abstract algebra, and game theory taking non-standard approaches

I like to see subjects from different angles. For example in linear algebra I'm reading through Axler's text (which takes a proof based approach for math students), but I'm also checking out a text on ...
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1answer
95 views

What is the (rigorous) reason that the derivative of $|x|$ does not exist at $x=0$?

Let $g=|x|$. Then, the derivative at $c=0$ is given by: $$ g'(0) = \lim_{x \to 0} \frac{|x|}{x} $$ which is either $+1$ if $x$ comes from the positive $x$-axis or $-1$ if $x$ comes from the negative ...
2
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0answers
73 views

A Compact Real Analysis book for a graduate student, who is short of time.

I am a Phd student in Computer Science and I want to focus on Machine Learning, especially on statistical methods. My problem is, I always keep hitting the wall when it comes to studying underlying ...
1
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1answer
25 views

Proof check from basic set theory

I wonder if my proof is detailed enough. $f:X\to Y.$ To be proved: $f^{-1}(\bigcap_{\alpha}E{\alpha})=\bigcap_{\alpha}(f^{-1}E_{\alpha}) $ $$\,$$ So, here goes ...
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1answer
34 views

On complex numbers and absolute values

Exercise 1.31 of Analysis by Apostol states: Given three complex numbers $z_1,z_2,z_3$ such that $|z_1| = |z_2| = |z_3| = 1$ and $z_1 + z_2 +z_3 = 0$. Show that these numbers are vertices of an ...