This tag is for questions about *rotations*: a type of rigid motion in a space.

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22
votes
9answers
41k views

Calculate Rotation Matrix to align Vector A to Vector B in 3d?

I have one triangle in 3d space that I am tracking in a simulation. Between time steps I have the the previous normal of the triangle and the current normal of the triangle along with both the current ...
12
votes
6answers
4k views

Jacobian matrix of the Rodrigues' formula (exponential map)

I am working an algorithm which is supposed to align a pair of images. The motion model, which describes the pose $p$ of an image (with respect to the second) in 3D space, is purely rotational. ...
6
votes
3answers
784 views

Quaternions vs Axis angle

Whats the use of representing rotation with quaternions compared to normal axis angle representation? I've been trying to learn quaternions and they make enough sense but as far as I can tell ...
5
votes
5answers
4k views

Rotating one 3-vector to another

I have written an algorithm for solving the following problem: Given two 3-vectors, say: $a,b$, find rotation of $a$ so that its orientation matches $b$. However, I am not sure if the following ...
24
votes
9answers
2k views

What does it mean to represent a number in term of a $2\times2$ matrix?

Today my friend showed me that the imaginary number can be represented in term of a matrix $$i = \pmatrix{0&-1\\1&0}$$ This was very very confusing for me because I have never thought of it ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Finding Rotation Axis and Angle to Align Two “Oriented Vectors”

In general, one can align a 3D vector $\vec A$ to another 3D vector $\vec B$ by rotating $\vec A$ around the axis $\| \vec A \times \vec B \|$ by the angle $\arccos{(\| \vec A \| \cdot \| \vec B ...
1
vote
1answer
84 views

Representing rotations using quaternions

I'm learning Unity and came across a situation where rotations are represented as Quaternions. I've heard that they where used in computer graphics, but never had to use them until now. What I can't ...
1
vote
0answers
187 views

Rotating an $n$-dimensional hyperplane

Let $\mathcal{H}: \mathbf{x}^T\mathbf{w}+b=0$ be a hyperplane in the $n$-dimensional Euclidean space of column vectors. Is there a way of "rotating" the above hyperplane such that it coincides with ...
0
votes
2answers
99 views

Rotation of Matrices and their interpretation

Given are now two matrices and I have to discuss what the given functions are doing (geometrically). Maybe you can revise/add the following: given are the matrices $ A = \begin{pmatrix} \cos(a) ...
10
votes
2answers
30k views

How do you rotate a vector by a unit quaternion?

Given a 3-variable right-handed vector v that is a translation measured in local space and a unit quaternion representing an orientation from local to world space, how do you use the quaternion to ...
5
votes
1answer
9k views

Understanding rotation matrices

How does $ {\sqrt 2 \over 2} = \cos (45 \text{ degrees })$? Is my graph (the one underneath the original) accurate with how I've depicted the representation of the triangle that the trig function ...
3
votes
1answer
3k views

rotating 2D coordinates

I've tried googling this, but I always end up somewhere that just says it's easy. Anyhow, I have a coordinate system, where I need to rotate a bunch of points. It's all 2D. Coordinates varies and so ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

Combining Two 3D Rotations

Every rotation in 3D space can be defined by a rotation axis and an angle. Now let's say we have two rotations $R_1 (\text{(axis)}_1, \text{(angle)}_1)$, $R_2 (\text{(axis)}_2, \text{(angle)}_2)$. I ...
6
votes
3answers
807 views

Freedoms of real orthogonal matrices

I was trying to figure out, how many degrees of freedoms a $n\times n$-orthogonal matrix posses.The easiest way to determine that seems to be the fact that the matrix exponential of an antisymmetric ...
5
votes
2answers
316 views

How to find the shift that minimizes the difference between two vectors?

I am looking for a efficient way to find the value of k that minimizes $\sum(s_t - b_{t+k})^2$ where $s$ and $b$ are N-dimensional vectors and the values are wrapped around like this: $b_{t+k} := ...
2
votes
1answer
464 views

Closed-form for eigenvectors of rotation matrix

For matrices that are elements of $SO(3)$ is there a formula for the eigenvectors corresponding to the eigenvalue $1$ in terms of the entries of the matrix?
1
vote
1answer
361 views

Rectangle in rotated bounding rectangle

I'm looking to find the width and height of a rectangle without rotation within a rotated bounding rectangle. I have rotation in degrees and the width and height of the bounding rectangle. Basically ...
5
votes
2answers
809 views

Aren't asteroids contradicting Euler's rotation theorem?

I am totally confused about Euler's rotation theorem. Normally I would think that an asteroid could rotate around two axes simultaneously. But Euler's rotation theorem states that: In geometry, ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

How to find an angle in range(0, 360) between 2 vectors?

I know that the common approach in order to find an angle is to calculate the dot product between 2 vectors and then calculate arcus cos of it. But in this solution I can get an angle only in the ...
2
votes
2answers
89 views

How do I rotate a given point on $\mathbb{S}^n$ so that I send it to the South Pole

This seems pretty trivial but I'm not sure what to do. My coordinates are Cartesian, and I want to send point the $(x_1,...,x_{n-1},x_n)$ to point $(0,...,0,-1)$ so that all the other points are also ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Recurrent points and rotation number

I need to show that if $f:S^{1} \rightarrow S^{1}$ is a preserving-order diffeomorphism and $f$ has irrational rotation number, then $f$ has at least one recurrent point. How can I prove that? ...
0
votes
1answer
83 views

Rotations of complex graphs

Let $c_1 = -i$ and $c_2 = 3$. Let $z_0$ be an arbitrary complex number. We rotate $z_0$ around $c_1$ by $\pi/4$ counter-clockwise to get $z_1$. We then rotate $z_1$ around $c_2$ by $\pi/4$ ...
0
votes
2answers
110 views

Find the axis of rotation from the rotation matrix.

This is a problem from the book "Mathematical Methods in the Physical Sciences" Third Edition by author Mary L. Boas. on page 129, Example 5, just in case any of you are familiar with it. So I ...
0
votes
1answer
88 views

$n$-dimensional rotation along a 2D arbitrary plane

Given two vectors in $\mathbb{R}^n$, $v_0$ and $v_1$, which define a plane including the origin a rotation along that plane can be defined from $v_0$ to $v_1$. I know the formula for rotation within ...
0
votes
1answer
1k views

Determine whether or not a point lies within a rotated rectangle

I need some maths help for a 2D game I am programming. In this game I have a rectangle, specified by its centers' X and Y coordinates, and its width and height. I then rotate this rectangle via ...
24
votes
4answers
2k views

Math behind rotation in MS Paint

For those who don't know, MS Paint only has the options to rotate an image by right angles. To carry out an arbitrary rotation ($\theta^\circ$), the following hack is suggested: Horizontal skew ...
5
votes
4answers
3k views

What's the best 3D angular co-ordinate system for working with smartphone apps

This is very much an applied maths question. I'm having trouble with Euler angles in the context of smartphone apps. I've been working with Android, but I would guess that the same problem arises ...
10
votes
3answers
1k views

Rotation invariant tensors

It is often claimed that the only tensors invariant under the orthogonal transformations (rotations) are the Kronecker delta $\delta_{ij}$, the Levi-Civita epsilon $\epsilon_{ijk}$ and various ...
4
votes
1answer
443 views

Uniform distributions on the space of rotations in 3D

I believe on moral grounds that the following three definitions are equivalent, and determine "the" uniform distribution on rotations in three dimensions. The Haar measure on $SO(3)$. The uniform ...
1
vote
3answers
428 views

Minimization on the Lie Group SO(3)

Refering to a question previously asked Jacobian matrix of the Rodrigues' formula (exponential map). It was suggested in one of the answer to only calculate simpler Jacobian ...
4
votes
1answer
189 views

Angular alignment of points on two concentric circles

I have two concentric circles $C_1$ and $C_2$ with radii $r_1,r_2$ such that $r_1< r_2$and a set of finite points $P=\left \{ p_1,p_2...p_n \right \}$ and $Q=\left \{ q_1,q_2...q_n \right \}$ are ...
3
votes
1answer
103 views

Mean value of the rotation angle is 126.5°

In the paper "Applications of Quaternions to Computation with Rotations" by Eugene Salamin, 1979 (click here), they get 126.5 degrees as the mean value of the rotation angle of a random rotation (by ...
3
votes
3answers
837 views

How to create 2x2 matrix to rotate vector to right side?

I have vector u=(x,y) and i need to create matrix M: M*u=(1,0). But that matrix has to rotate vector, instead of keep and ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

Non-standard 3D rotation of a set of points [duplicate]

I want to create a 3D surface as shown in the figure below. Toward this, I thought if I rotate a set of points in $xy$-plane on a elliptical arc I may be able to get such a surface. I was thinking of ...
7
votes
6answers
2k views

“Random” generation of rotation matrices

For a current project, I need to generate several $3\times 3$ rotation matrices for input into an algorithm. I thought I might go about this by randomly generating the number of elements needed to ...
6
votes
3answers
238 views

Prove where exp: Skew($3\times 3$) $\rightarrow SO(3)$ is local homeomorphism

The matrix exponential on skew-symmetric $3\times3$ matrices onto $SO(3)$ is not local homeomorphism everywhere. I have been instructed that one problem is with the spheres of radius $2n\pi$ ...
5
votes
1answer
268 views

Whether matrix exponential from skew-symmetric 3x3 matrices to SO(3) is local homeomorphism?

$SO(3)$ denotes 3x3 rotation matrices. This is Lie group, with corresponding Lie algebra being $\mathrm{Skew}_3$, the space of 3x3 skew-symmetric matrices. The link between them is the matrix ...
5
votes
2answers
474 views

How to solve an overdetermined system of point mappings via rotation and translation

I have a set of points in one coordinate system $P_1, \ldots, P_n$ and their corresponding points in another coordinate system $Q_1, \ldots , Q_n$. All points are in $\mathbb{R}^3$. I'm looking for a ...
4
votes
3answers
67 views

Rotate an area around a diagonal line.

I know how to find the volume of the figure formed when you rotate a $2$-dimensional area around a horizontal or vertical line, but what if it were a diagonal line instead? For example: Rotate the ...
4
votes
1answer
90 views

The rotation group $SO(3)$ may be mapped to a $2$-sphere by sending a rotation matrix to its first column. How can I describe the fibres of the map?

The rotation group $SO(3)$ may be mapped to a $2$-sphere by sending a rotation matrix to its first column. How can I describe the fibres of the map?
4
votes
2answers
639 views

What is a good geometric interpretation of quaternion multiplication?

I understand that the formula for quaternion multiplication of $q_1=(s_1,\vec{v_1})$ by $q_2=(s_2,\vec{v_2})$ $q_1q_2=(s_1s_2-\vec{v_1}\cdot\vec{v_2}, \vec{v_1} \times\vec{v_2} + \vec{v_1}s_2 + ...
4
votes
1answer
93 views

Optimal rotation to align a circle with external points

I have a circle $C$ with radius $r$ and a set of finite points $P=\left \{ p_1,p_2,\ldots,p_n \right \}$ are identified external to the circle $C$. These points may lie on the exterior or the interior ...
3
votes
0answers
40 views

How to transform (rotate) this hyperbola?

Given this hyperbola $x_1^2-x_2^2=1$, how do I transform it into $y_1y_2=1$? When I factor the first equation I get $(x_1+x_2)(x_1-x_2)=1$, so I thought $y_1=(x_1+x_2)$ and $y_2=(x_1-x_2)$. ...
3
votes
1answer
543 views

Can axis/angle notation match all possible orientations of a rotation matrix?

The rotation group is isomorphic to the orthogonal group $SO(3)$. So a rotation matrix can represent all the possible rotation transformations on the euclidean space $R3$ obtainable by the operation ...
2
votes
2answers
143 views

Simulating simultaneous rotation of an object about a fixed origin given limited resources.

Sorry if the title is a bit cryptic. It's the best I could come up with. First of all, this question is related to another question I posted here, but that question wasn't posed correctly and ended ...
2
votes
1answer
520 views

Jacobian of exponential mapping in SO3/SE3

Following this post Jacobian matrix of the Rodrigues' formula (exponential map) What if I really need the Jacobian of the exponential mapping function in $\omega \neq 0$? Basically, I want to ...
2
votes
1answer
106 views

How can I break down a rotation of known amount around a known axis into two rotations of unknown amounts around known axes?

I have a vector that's been rotated a known amount about a known axis. I would like to break this rotation down into two separate rotations around known, linearly independent axes where the amounts I ...
2
votes
1answer
128 views

Find rotation that maps a point to its target

I have a 3D point that is rotated about the $x$-axis and after that about the $y$-axis. I know the result of this transformation. Is there an analytical way to compute the rotation angles? $$ ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Solid body rotation around 2-axes

I am trying to understand how to describe the rotation of a solid body flying in 3D space. From physics forums, I understand that the rotation of any solid object in space, is around 2 axes ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

Confusion on different representations of 2d rotation matrices

When I first learned about 2d rotation matrices I read that you represented your point in your new coordinate system. That is you take the dot product of your vector in its current coordinate system ...