Questions about the set of values at which a given function evaluates to zero. For questions about "square roots", "cube roots", and such, consider using the (radicals) and (arithmetic) tag. For questions about roots of Lie algebras, use the (lie-algebra) tag instead.

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11
votes
1answer
2k views

Derivation of asymptotic solution of $\tan(x) = x$.

An equation that seems to come up everywhere is the transcendental $\tan(x) = x$. Normally when it comes up you content yourself with a numerical solution usually using Newton's method. However, ...
59
votes
4answers
4k views

Are the solutions of $x^{x^{x^{x^{\cdot^{{\cdot}^{\cdot}}}}}}=2$ correct?

Problem: Find $x$ in $$\large x^{x^{x^{x^{ \cdot^{{\cdot}^{\cdot}} }}}}=2$$ Trick: $x^{x^{x^{x^{\cdot^{{\cdot}^{\cdot}}}}}}=2$, so, $x^{(x^{x^{x^{\cdot^{{\cdot}^{\cdot}}}}})}=x^2=2$, and, ...
56
votes
5answers
2k views

Why are the solutions of polynomial equations so unconstrained over the quaternions?

An $n$th-degree polynomial has at most $n$ distinct zeroes in the complex numbers. But it may have an uncountable set of zeroes in the quaternions. For example, $x^2+1$ has two zeroes in $\mathbb ...
9
votes
3answers
598 views

Square roots — positive and negative

It is perhaps a bit embarrassing that while doing higher-level math, I have forgot some more fundamental concepts. I would like to ask whether the square root of a number includes both the positive ...
6
votes
2answers
172 views

Why Rational Root Theorem only works with integers

Why does the rational root theorem only work when the polynomial has integer coefficients?
41
votes
5answers
3k views

Continuity of the roots of a polynomial in terms of its coefficients

It's commonly stated that the roots of a polynomial are a continuous function of the coefficients. How is this statement formalized? I would assume it's by restricting to polynomials of a fixed ...
18
votes
2answers
2k views

Showing that the roots of a polynomial with descending positive coefficients lie in the unit disc.

Let $P(z)=a_nz^n+\cdots+a_0$ be a polynomial whose coefficients satisfy $$0<a_0<a_1<\cdots<a_n.$$ I want to show that the roots of $P$ live in unit disc. The obvious idea is to use ...
5
votes
2answers
485 views

Polynomial $p(a) = 1$, why does it have at most 2 integer roots?

The question that I am trying to answer is : Suppose is $p(x)$ is a polynomial with integer coefficients. Show that if $p(a) = 1$ for some integer a then $p(x)$ has at most two integer roots. I have ...
21
votes
3answers
2k views

Why is it so hard to find the roots of polynomial equations?

The question that follows was inspired by this question: When trying to solve for the roots of a polynomial equation, the quadratic formula is much more simple than the cubic formula and the cubic ...
16
votes
1answer
393 views

Something strange about $\sqrt{ 4+ \sqrt{ 4 + \sqrt{ 4-x}}}=x$ and its friends

We have the nice radical identity involving $d = 163$, $$-\sqrt{ 44- \sqrt{ 44 - \sqrt{ 44-x}}}=x,\quad\quad x = 2-2\sum_{n=1}^{27}\cos\left(\frac{2\pi\, t_1(n)}{163}\right)=-6.15824\dots$$ where ...
14
votes
1answer
3k views

Using Vieta's theorem for cubic equations to derive the cubic discriminant

Background: Vieta's Theorem for cubic equations says that if a cubic equation $x^3 + px^2 + qx + r = 0$ has three different roots $x_1, x_2, x_3$, then $$\begin{eqnarray*} -p &=& x_1 + x_2 ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Proof the Legendre polynomial $P_n$ has $n$ distinct real zeros

I need a proof to show that the inequality $m < n$ leads to a contradiction and $P_n$ has $n$ distinct real roots, all of which lie in the open interval $(-1, 1)$.
3
votes
4answers
4k views

Proving square root of a square is the same as absolute value

Lets say I have a function defined as $f(x) = \sqrt {x^2}$. Common knowledge of square roots tells you to simplify to $f(x) = x$ (we'll call that $g(x)$) which may be the same problem, but it isn't ...
5
votes
1answer
1k views

Why not write the solutions of a cubic this way?

For the solution of the cubic equation $x^3 + px + q = 0$ Cardano wrote it as: $$\sqrt[3]{-\frac{q}{2} + \sqrt{\frac{q^2}{4} + \frac{p^3}{27}}}+\sqrt[3]{-\frac{q}{2} - \sqrt{\frac{q^2}{4} + ...
3
votes
6answers
10k views

How to find the roots of $x^4 +1$

I'm trying to find the roots of $x^4+1$. I've already found in this site solutions for polynomials like this $x^n+a$, where $a$ is a negative term. I don't remember how to solve an equation when $a$ ...
11
votes
3answers
1k views

How to solve polynomial equations in a field and/or in a ring?

I'm studying for my exam, and I stuck on solving polynomials in a field and/or in a ring. Let me give you some examples: (1) Solve equation $x^2+4x+3=0$ in field $\mathbb{Z}_5$, $\mathbb{Z}_8$ and in ...
25
votes
3answers
890 views

Galois groups of polynomials and explicit equations for the roots

Lets say I have calculated the galois group of some polynomial and I also have the subgroup structure. What's an effective procedure to turn the group into equations for the actual roots of the ...
8
votes
0answers
159 views

Let $x_n$ be the (unique) root of $\Delta f_n(x)=0$. Then $\Delta x_n\to 1$

Note that by Cesaro's Theorem, we have as a consequence $$\frac{x_n}n\to 1$$ Consider $$r_n(x)=e^{-x}-\sum_{k=0}^n (-1)^k\frac{x^k}{k!}$$ and $$f_n(x)=(-1)^{n+1}e^{-x}r_n(x)$$ One can argue by ...
3
votes
6answers
615 views

Solving $\sqrt{7x-4}-\sqrt{7x-5}=\sqrt{4x-1}-\sqrt{4x-2}$

Where do I start to solve a equation for x like the one below? $$\sqrt{7x-4}-\sqrt{7x-5}=\sqrt{4x-1}-\sqrt{4x-2}$$ After squaring it, it's too complicated; but there's nothing to factor or to ...
8
votes
2answers
517 views

Roots of the incomplete gamma function

Is there any way that one can describe all the roots of the incomplete gamma function $\Gamma(n,z)$, for $n\in \mathbb{N}$, analytically?
4
votes
1answer
954 views

$\lambda-z-e^{-z}=0$ has one solution in the right half plane

Let $\lambda > 1$ , want to show that the equation $$\lambda-z-e^{-z}=0$$ has exactly one solution in the right half plane $\{z:Re(z)>0\}$. Moreover, the solution must be real.I tried to use ...
6
votes
1answer
255 views

Location of zeros of a sum of exponentials

Describe the approximate locations of the zeros of the function $$ f(z) = e^{iz}+e^{-iz}+e^z $$ lying outside the circle $|z|=R >>1$. Another prelim problem. For Rouche's theorem we need to ...
5
votes
3answers
5k views

How to find roots of $X^5 - 1$?

How to find roots of $X^5 - 1$? (Or any polynomial of that form where $X$ has an odd power.)
7
votes
5answers
579 views

Rational Roots of Riemann's $\zeta$ Function

A look at the first few zeros $$14.134725,21.022040,25.010858,30.424876,32.935062,37.586178,\dots$$ is in accord with Numerical evidence suggests that all values of $t$ (the imaginary part of a ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

Find all real zeros of $f(x)=2x^3+10x^2+5x-12$

Hey guys I'm having a little trouble with one problem: Find all real zeros of $$f(x)=2x^3+10x^2+5x-12.$$ I got $x=-4,(2x^2+2x-3)$. I'm just having trouble using the quadratic formula to get ...
3
votes
1answer
149 views

$n \approxeq k + 2^{2^k}(k+1)$. How can one get the value of $k(n)$ from this equation?

I am trying to find approximation for this sum. Asymptotic approximation of sum $\sum_{k=0}^{n}\frac{{n\choose k}}{2^{2^k}}$ Doing following way. Let $a_k(n) = \frac{n\choose k}{2^{2^k}}$. I tried to ...
2
votes
1answer
483 views

Roots of a finite Fourier series?

In general, are there any clever tricks to help find the roots of a finite Fourier series? Presumably there aren't analytic methods, but can we use the fact that our function is a finite Fourier ...
135
votes
1answer
4k views

Rational roots of polynomials

Can one construct a sequence $(a_k)_{k\geqslant 0}$ of rational numbers such that, for every positive integer $n$ the polynomial $a_nX^n+a_{n-1}X^{n-1}+\cdots +a_0$ has exactly $n$ distinct rational ...
41
votes
4answers
1k views

AM-GM-HM Triplets

I want to understand what values can be simultaneously attained as the arithmetic (AM), geometric (GM), and harmonic (HM) means of finite sequences of positive real numbers. Precisely, for what points ...
26
votes
3answers
457 views

Patterns of the zeros of the Faulhaber polynomials (modified)

Faulhaber polynomial of order $p \in \Bbb{N}$ is defined as the unique polynomial of degree $p+1$ satisfying $$ S_{p}(n) = \sum_{k=1}^{n} k^p $$ for $n = 1, 2, 3, \cdots$. For example, ...
15
votes
3answers
330 views

How can I prove $\sqrt{2}^{\sqrt{2}^{\sqrt{2}^{\sqrt{2}^{\sqrt{2}…}}}}=2$ [duplicate]

How can I prove $$\sqrt{2}^{\sqrt{2}^{\sqrt{2}^{\sqrt{2}^{\sqrt{2}...}}}}=2$$ I don't know which method can be used for this?
7
votes
9answers
9k views

Fastest Square Root Algorithm

What is the fastest algorithm for finding the square root of a number? I created one that can find the square root of "987654321" to 16 decimal places in just 20 iterations (I'm not ready to release ...
16
votes
5answers
5k views

Roots of Legendre Polynomial

I was wondering if the following properties of the Legendre polynomials are true in general. They hold for the first ten or fifteen polynomials. Are the roots always simple (i.e., multiplicity $1$)? ...
15
votes
3answers
758 views

Prove $\sqrt{a} + \sqrt{b} + \sqrt{c} \ge ab + bc + ca$

Let $a,b,c$ are non-negative numbers, such that $a+b+c = 3$. Prove that $\sqrt{a} + \sqrt{b} + \sqrt{c} \ge ab + bc + ca$ Here's my idea: $\sqrt{a} + \sqrt{b} + \sqrt{c} \ge ab + bc + ca$ ...
8
votes
5answers
475 views

Prove $\sqrt[3]{3} \notin \mathbb{Q}(\sqrt[3]{2})$

I've tried solving $\sqrt[3]{3} =a + b* \sqrt[3]{2}+c* \sqrt[3]{4}$, but there is no obvious contradiction, even when taking the norms/traces of both sides. I can't think of another approach. This is ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

How was Euler able to create an infinite product for sinc by using its roots?

In the Wikipedia page for the Basel problem, it says that Euler, in his proof, found that $$\begin{align*} \frac{\sin(x)}{x} &= \left(1 - \frac{x}{\pi}\right)\left(1 + \frac{x}{\pi}\right)\left(1 ...
3
votes
1answer
518 views

Multiple choice question - number of real roots of $x^6 − 5x^4 + 16x^2 − 72x + 9$

The equation $x^6 − 5x^4 + 16x^2 − 72x + 9 = 0$ has (A) exactly two distinct real roots (B) exactly three distinct real roots (C) exactly four distinct real roots (D) six distinct real roots
7
votes
3answers
309 views

All roots of the quartic equation $a x^4 + b x^3 + x^2 + x + 1 = 0$ cannot be real

Problem Prove that all roots of $a x^4 + b x^3 + x^2 + x + 1 = 0$ cannot be real. Here $a,b \in \mathbb R$, and $a \neq 0$. Source This is one of the previous year problem of Regional ...
4
votes
4answers
1k views

Finding all complex zeros of a high-degree polynomial

Given a large univariate polynomial, say of degree 200 or more, is there a procedural way of finding all the complex roots? By "roots", I mean complex decimal approximations to the roots, though the ...
3
votes
5answers
494 views

How to find the number of real roots of the given equation?

The number of real roots of the equation $$2 \cos \left( \frac{x^2+x}{6} \right)=2^x+2^{-x}$$ is (A) $0$, (B) $1$, (C) $2$, (D) in finitely many. Trial: $$\begin{align} 2 \cos \left( ...
1
vote
0answers
53 views

Find the positive root of the equation $ce^{-c}-2(1-e^{-c})^2=0$

Can you help me find a root for $c$ in the equation below? $$ce^{-c}-{10\over5}(1-e^{-c})^2=0$$ By expanding this I got, $$ce^{-c}-2 + 4 e^{-c}-2e^{-2c}=0$$ now grouping, ...
11
votes
6answers
852 views

Complex roots of $z^3 + \bar{z} = 0$

I'm trying to find the complex roots of $z^3 + \bar{z} = 0$ using De Moivre. Some suggested multiplying both sides by z first, but that seems wrong to me as it would add a root ( and I wouldn't know ...
7
votes
4answers
377 views

How prove this $\displaystyle\lim_{n\to \infty}\frac{n}{\ln{(\ln{n}})}\left(1-a_{n}-\frac{n}{\ln{n}}\right)=-1$

let equation $x^n+x=1$ have positive root $a_{n}$. show that $$\displaystyle\lim_{n\to \infty}\dfrac{n}{\ln{(\ln{n}})}\left(1-a_{n}-\dfrac{n}{\ln{n}}\right)=-1$$ some hours ago,it prove that ...
4
votes
1answer
186 views

Solve $2000x^6+100x^5+10x^3+x-2=0$

One of the roots of the equation $2000x^6+100x^5+10x^3+x-2=0$ is of the form $\frac{m+\sqrt{n}}r$, where $m$ is a non-zero integer and $n$ and $r$ are relatively prime integers.Then the value of ...
2
votes
1answer
100 views

Order of growth of $ \prod_{n=1}^{+\infty} (1-e^{-2\pi n}\cdot e^{2\pi i z})$

The order of an entire function $f$ id defined as $$ord ( f) = inf \{\lambda \geq 0 \ | \ \exists A, B > 0 \ s.t. \ |f(z)|\leq Ae^{B|z|^{\lambda}} \forall z \in \mathbb{C} \}$$ I have $F(z) = ...
10
votes
5answers
506 views

Finding real roots of $ P(x)=x^8 - x^7 +x^2 -x +15$

Let $ P(x)=x^8 - x^7 +x^2 -x +15 $, Descartes' Rule of Signs tells us that the polynomial has 4 positive real roots , but if we group the terms as $$ P(x)= x(x-1)(x^6+1) +15 $$ we find that $ P(x) $ ...
7
votes
3answers
218 views

Proving that $\sum\limits_{n = 0}^{2013} a_n z^n \neq 0$ if $a_0 > a_1 > \dots > a_{2013} > 0$ and $|z| \leq 1$

I'm going to teach a preparation course for the complex analysis qualifying exam from my university (which basically consists of me doing some problems from past exams) and I'm trying to solve some ...
5
votes
2answers
200 views

Find asymptotics of $x(n)$, if $n = x^{x!}$

Find the asymptotic for $x(n)$, if $n = x^{x!}$. I've tried 1) to take a logarithm: $x! \log{x} = \log{n}$. 2) to find $n'(x)$, using gamma-function for factorial $\Gamma(z) = \int_0^\infty ...
2
votes
1answer
541 views

Minimum Modulus Principle for a constant fuction in a simple closed curve

Suppose that $f$ is analytic on a domain $D$, which contains a simple closed curve $\gamma$ and the inside of $\gamma$. If $|f|$ is constant on $\gamma$, then I want to prove that either $f$ is ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Polynomial root finding

I have an univariate polynomial of some degree - how do I numerically find all of its real roots? I never thought I would ask this question - everyone knows how to find polynomial roots, right..? ...