Questions about the set of values at which a given function evaluates to zero. For questions about "square roots", "cube roots", and such, consider using the (arithmetic) tag. For questions about roots of Lie algebras, use the (lie-algebra) tag instead.

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10
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1answer
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+50

Can we prove that the solutions of $\int_0^y \sin(\sin(x)) dx =1$ are irrational?

Can we prove that the solutions of $$\int_0^y \sin(\sin(x)) dx =1$$ are irrational? Wolfram Alpha gives two approximate sets of solutions as $\{4.58+2\pi k|k\in\mathbb{Z}\}$ and $\{1.69+2\pi ...
1
vote
1answer
62 views

Roots of $\tan x - x$

The function $\tan x - x$ has exactly one root $x_n$ in the interval $(n\pi, (n + \frac{1}{2})\pi)$. Show that $$x_n = n\pi + \frac{\pi}{2} - \frac{1}{n\pi} + r_n$$ where $\lim_{n\rightarrow \infty} n ...
5
votes
1answer
84 views

A number related to the roots of a quartic polynomial is a root of a cubic polynomial

So here is the problem, $a$ and $b$ are two distinct real roots of $f(x)=0$ where $f(x)=x^4-6x+3$, show that $(a+b)^2$ is a root of $g(x)=x^3-12x-36$. I have tried many methods, such as substitution, ...
1
vote
4answers
32 views

Number of distinct real roots with $e^{-x}$ in the equation

How to find the number of distinct real roots of the equation $$13x^{13}-e^{-x}-1=0$$ I know that we generally find number of real roots by observing number of sign changes in $f(x)$ and $f(-x)$ but ...
2
votes
1answer
97 views

Solving equation $a^{-x} + \log x/\log a = 0$

Please can you instruct me how should I start writing an algorithm (pseudo-code, to be implemented) for finding all solutions for the following equation: $a^{-x} + \log x/\log a = 0$ where $a$ ($a$ ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

Sum of Non Real Roots of Bi Quadratic

Consider $$f(x)=8x^4-16x^3+16x^2-8x+k=0$$ where $k \in \mathbb{R}$,then find sum of non Real roots of f(x). My approach: we have $$f'(x)=32x^3-48x^2+32x-8=0$$ Also ...
0
votes
1answer
20 views

Projective roots of a homogeneous polynomial

Suppose that $f(X,Y)\in\mathbb C[X,Y]$ is a homogeneous polynomial of degree $n$, then we can consider it as a function on $\mathbb P^1_\mathbb C$. It has at most $n+1$ projective roots (points of ...
1
vote
1answer
283 views

Solution of Bessel equation

Prove that for a Bessel function in its normal form that is: $$u'' + \left(1 + \frac{1-(4*p^2)}{4x^2}\right)u=0$$ if $p > \frac12$ then every interval of length $\pi$ contains at most one zero of ...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

Quartic Polynomial Manipulation

I have a quartic polynomial in $x$ (too long to write here) $f(x,c_1, c_2, c_2)$ where $c_1, c_2, c_3$ are constants which I have complete freedom over how to fix their values, as long as they are ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Rouches Theorem Applied to a family of Polynomials

I would like to prove that the family of polynomials $z^{2j+2} + \alpha z^{2j+1} - \alpha z - 1$ has only one root inside the open unit circle when $|\alpha|$ is greater than 1. This seems like an ...
5
votes
1answer
71 views

To prove this complex polynomial has all zeros on unit circle

I'm trying to prove a self-inversive polynomial $P(z) = \sum\limits_{n=0}^{N-1}a_nz^n$ has all its roots on the unit circle. The coefficients are such that $ a_n = e^{j(n-\frac{N-1}{2})\pi u_0} - ...
0
votes
2answers
23 views

Understanding Multiplicities

I am having troubles understanding what 'multiplicities' mean. In example what does $-1/3(multiplicity 2)$ translate into?? To clarify this is for finding zero's in a polynomial function Any help ...
3
votes
1answer
74 views

Find roots of $3z^{100} - e^z$ in the unit disc.

This question was given in an exam in complex analysis: Let $f \left( z \right) = 3z^{100} - e^z$. Find all of $f$'s roots in $D \left ( 0,1 \right)$ and show that they are simple roots. I've seen ...
0
votes
1answer
48 views

If one root is unsolvable, can there be a solvable root?

Suppose you have some polynomial $p(x)$ with rational coefficients in which at least one root is unsolvable by radicals, does this imply that all other roots of $p(x)$ are unsolvable by radicals? ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

What is the condition for roots of conjugate reciprocal polynomials to be on the unit circle?

Given an Nth order complex polynomial $P(z) = \sum\limits_{n=0}^N a_nz^n$ such that $a_n = a^*_{N-n}$ i.e. conjugate reciprocal, Lakatos and Losonczi mention that a necessary and sufficient condition ...
6
votes
1answer
173 views

Numerical inverse of logarithmic integral

What is the best way to numerically calculate the inverse of the logarithmic integral, defined by $$ \operatorname{li}(x)=\int_{0}^{x}\dfrac{1}{\log(t)}\operatorname{d}t $$ eg ...
1
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0answers
28 views

Version of Chevalley's Theorem proving $\mathbb{F}_q$ is a $C_1$-field for $\mathbb{Z}/p^n\mathbb{Z}$?

Let $k=\mathbb{F}_q$ Chevalley's theorem states that if $f(x_i)\in k[x_1,...,x_n]$ is such that $f(0,...,0)=0$ and $deg(f)<n$, then there is a non-trivial $a_i\in k^n$ such that $f(a_i)=0$. Is ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

Kantorovich Theorem example

I need to write in C a program that finds roots of a 6th order polynomial. I was thinking of using Kantorovich Theorem convergence of Newton's method to find when can I use Newton-Rhapson method. I'm ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

Relation between the roots of a cubic equation and the coefficients

$ax^3 +bx^2 + cx + d= 0$ If the roots are $\alpha$ $\beta$ and $\gamma$, Is there any relationship between the sum of the squares of the roots and the coefficients of the quadratic equation.. In ...
7
votes
4answers
109 views

Finding double root of $x^5-x+\alpha$

Given the polynomial $$x^5-x+\alpha$$ Find a value of $\alpha>0$ for which the above polynomial has a double root. Here's an animated plot of the roots as you change $\alpha$ from $0$ to $1$ I'm ...
1
vote
2answers
77 views

Most Efficient Method to Find Roots of Polynomial [duplicate]

I am designing a software that has to find the roots of polynomials. I have to write this software from scratch as opposed to using an already existing library due to company instructions. I currently ...
3
votes
2answers
430 views

geometric interpretation of quadratic equation with complex coefficients

When an equation has real coefficients and non-negative discriminant, the geometric meaning of it's roots is intersection of the function with the x-axis. I know how to get roots of quadratic ...
7
votes
1answer
75 views

Find the maximum value of $ \sqrt{x^4-3x^2-6x+13} - \sqrt{x^4-x^2+1} $

If $x\in\mathbb{R}$ find the maximum value of $$ \sqrt{x^4-3x^2-6x+13} - \sqrt{x^4-x^2+1} $$ I tried this: Let $$y= \sqrt{x^4-3x^2-6x+13} - \sqrt{x^4-x^2+1}$$ For maxima ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

Proving that $\lim\limits_{z\to z_0}\frac{f(z)}{g(z)}=\lim\limits_{z\to z_0}\frac{f^\prime(z)}{g^\prime(z)}$

Let $f,g$ both analythic in neighbourhood of $z_0$ and they both have zero of multiplicity $n$ in $z_0$. Prove that $\lim\limits_{z\to z_0}\frac{f(z)}{g(z)}=\lim\limits_{z\to ...
4
votes
3answers
112 views

all complex solutions of $z\sin(z)=1$?

A possibly easy question, Can we find all complex solutions of $z\sin(z)=1$ ? My try: Let $$\sin(z) = \frac{e^{iz} - e^{-iz}}{2i}$$ so we have $$ z\frac{e^{iz} - e^{-iz}}{2i}=1 $$ Not sure how ...
6
votes
1answer
69 views

Solution of $\exp(z)=z$ in $\Bbb{C}$.

I have posted a related question here. I thinkg this one is more interesting: What about the solution of $\exp(z)=z$ in $\Bbb{C}$? My try : $z \mapsto e^z - z$ is entire non-constant. Perhaps ...
1
vote
1answer
56 views

I need help proving a statement about rational roots

I have no idea where to start...this is the statement: If a polynomial of degree not greater than 5 with rational coefficients has multiple roots, it has also a rational root, except in the case ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

Determine the coefficients of a polynomial knowing its roots

My prof. gave this problem as a bonus in an exam, and I couldn't figure out a solution. Some hints or a general method of solving it would be very nice. Given the following polynomial: ...
0
votes
3answers
56 views

Using sum/product of quadratic roots to solve cubic equation

Given $\alpha$ and $\beta$ are the roots of the quadratic equation $6x^2 + 2x - 3 = 0$, how do I find the value of: $$ \alpha^3 + \beta^3 $$ and: $$ \frac{1}{\alpha^3} + \frac{1}{\beta^3} $$ ...
3
votes
2answers
32 views

Build field extension and solve equation

Build quadratic extension of field that contains $5$ elements. And solve $x^2+x+2=0$ in this field. As I understand we need to build $\mathbb{F}_{5^{2}}$. Field $\mathbb{F}_5$ contains ...
3
votes
1answer
46 views

What is the Most Efficient Way to Calculate the Internal Rate of Return?

I have built a program that prices financial assets and it does this in part by calculating the IRR. The problem is that it does not run as quickly as I would like it to. I currently use the ...
0
votes
0answers
38 views

Extension of quadratic forms

A homogen multivariate polynomial with degree 2 is a quadratic form. It can be checked if the polynomial is positive for any non-zero vector by checking if the corresponding matrix A is positive ...
3
votes
0answers
34 views

How can I find my eccentricity (k, of the incomplete elliptic integral of the second kind) using a binomial series or root-finding algorithm

My main objective is to rearrange the following to find $A=$. I start with $C=\int^{B}_{0}\sqrt {1+\dfrac {A^{2}}{B^{2}}\cos^{2}\left(\dfrac {x}{B}\right) }dx$ By substituting $y=x/B$ and using ...
0
votes
1answer
21 views

complex conjugate pairs of a quartic

I tried my hand at this question, which included finding the partial fractions of $\frac{x^2}{1-x^5}$. I found a factor of $1-x$ for the denominator, but I do not know how to work out the complex ...
1
vote
2answers
45 views

Fastest way to obtain the parametric value t of a bezier curve, for a given set x coordinates.

The problem is the following: Having a bezier curve B(t) we have coordinate x from the curve, and we need to obtain the y values from it, hence we need to compute the t values. What is the fastest ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Equation with binomial coefficients

Problem: Find the roots of $6z^5+15z^4+20z^3+15z^2+6z+1 = 0$. What I found: I realized that the coefficients were the binomial coefficients of $6$. Putting these values in, you would get ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

How to solve: $0 = -\sin \space 3x \cdot3, \left({\pi\over 12}, {7\pi \over12}\right)$

While working on some Rolle's Theorem problems I came to: $$f(x) = \cos 3x$$ This is both continuous on the given interval (and everywhere really) $[{\pi\over 12}, {7\pi \over12}]$ and ...
2
votes
1answer
54 views

Given roots (real and complex), find the polynomial

This is not a duplicate of theory of equations finding roots from given polynomial. Given that the roots (both real and complex) of a polynomial are $\frac{2}{3}$, $-1$, $3+\sqrt2i$, and $3+\sqrt2i$, ...
12
votes
2answers
84 views

Function such that zeros$=$order of the derivative

Does there exist a function $f\in C^n(\mathbb{R},\mathbb{R})$ for $n\ge2$ such that $f^{(n)}$ has exactly $n$ zeros, $f^{(n-1)}$ has exactly $n-1$ zeros and so on ? Where $f^{(n)}$ is the nth ...
4
votes
1answer
198 views

Expressing the solutions of the equation $ \tan(x) = x $ in closed form.

I know that the equation $ \tan(x) = x $ can be solved using numerical methods, but I’m looking for a closed form of the solutions. In my opinion, having only numerical solutions means that we don’t ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

Common root of quadratic.

If the quadratic equations, $x^2+bx+c=0$ & $bx^2+cx+1=0$ have a common root. Prove that either $b+c+1=0$ or $b^2+c^2+1=bc+b+c$. Please also explain What should be the logic / approach we should ...
1
vote
1answer
24 views

Perturbation of complex polynomials

Let $f(z)=\sum\limits_{k=0}^N a_kz^k$ be a (monic) complex polynomial and $\{\xi_{k}\}_{k=1}^{N}$ be the roots of $f$ (with multiplicities). Let $\{\tilde{\xi_{k}}\}_{k=1}^{N}$ be the perturbed ...
1
vote
2answers
38 views

The domain of cubic root

The domain of cubic root and in general $(2n-1)$ th root is $\mathbb{R}$. But Wolframalpha says the domain of cubic root is all non-negative real numbers. Also Matlab return ...
4
votes
3answers
164 views

Square roots modulo powers of 2

Experimentally, it seems like every $a\equiv1\left(\bmod\,8\right)$ has 4 square roots mod $2^n$ for all $n \ge 3$ (ie solutions to $x^2\equiv a\left(\bmod\,2^n\right)$) Is this true? If so, how can ...
1
vote
2answers
31 views

Intermediate value theorem problem(proving only one root)

This problem is likely very trivial. Let $f(x) = x^5 - 5x + p$. Show that $f$ can have at most one root in $[0,1]$,regardless of the value of p. This seems to be an IVT problem, so I will go ...
-3
votes
2answers
118 views

Number of real roots ,eh!! [closed]

Consider $P(x)=1+x+\frac {x^2}{2}+\frac {x^3}{6}+\frac {x^4}{24}$ Find the number of real zeros of the polynomial $P(x)$
1
vote
1answer
27 views

On the existence of polynomial roots

Assume $F$ is a field, and $f\in F[x]$ is polynomial. To see that $f$ has a root in some extension of $F$, without loss of generality we can assume $f$ is irreducible. Indeed any polynomial $f$ is ...
2
votes
1answer
55 views

Solving a cubic polynomial equation.

Overview I have tried finding a solution to this problem myself and I have flailed. Its just a challenge for me. could you please tell me how far am I in solving this question? My approach for ...
1
vote
4answers
91 views

Roots of $x \cos{x}-1$ and $\cos{x}-x^{-1}$

To finding the roots of $x \cos{x}-1=0$ we can write the equation as $$ f(x)=x \cos{x}-1=0 \to x \cos{x}=1 \to \cos{x}=\frac{1}{x} \to \cos{x}-\frac{1}{x}=u(x)-v(x)=g(x)=0 $$ The roots of $f(x)$ are ...
0
votes
2answers
43 views

Cubic roots of determinant.

If x=a+2b satisfies the cubic (a,b element of R) f(x)= $$\left|\begin{matrix} a-x & b & b \\ b & a-x & b \\ b & b & a-x\end{matrix}\right|$$ =0, then it's other 2 roots are?