numbers $z$ such that $z^n=1$ for some natural number $n$; here usually $z$ is in $\mathbb C$ or some other field

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22
votes
3answers
4k views

Prove that $\prod_{k=1}^{n-1}\sin\frac{k \pi}{n} = \frac{n}{2^{n-1}}$

Using $\text{n}^{\text{th}}$ root of unity $$\large\left(e^{\frac{2ki\pi}{n}}\right)^{n} = 1$$ Prove that $$\prod_{k=1}^{n-1}\sin\frac{k \pi}{n} = \frac{n}{2^{n-1}}$$
16
votes
3answers
955 views

Is $\sqrt 7$ the sum of roots of unity?

Let $a_n$ and $b_n$ be 2 sequences of $n$ rationals. Is it possible that $\sqrt 7 = \sum_{m=1}^{n} a_m (-1)^{b_m}$ ? Is it possible that $\sqrt{17}$ = $\sum_{m=1}^{n} a_m (-1)^{b_m}$ ? How to ...
8
votes
1answer
220 views

A little more on $\sqrt[3]{\cos\bigl(\tfrac{2\pi}7\bigr)}+\sqrt[3]{\cos\bigl(\tfrac{4\pi}7\bigr)}+\sqrt[3]{\cos\bigl(\tfrac{8\pi}7\bigr)}$

Using a special case of an identity by Ramanujan, we find that given the roots $x_i$ of $$x^3 + x^2 - (3 n^2 + n)x + n^3=0\tag1$$ which, since its discriminant is negative, always has three real ...
6
votes
4answers
788 views

Prove that $\cot^2{(\pi/7)} + \cot^2{(2\pi/7)} + \cot^2{(3\pi/7)} = 5$

Prove that $\cot^2{(\pi/7)} + \cot^2{(2\pi/7)} + \cot^2{(3\pi/7)} = 5$ . I am sure this is derived from using roots of unity and Euler's complex number function, but I am very uncomfortable in these ...
2
votes
3answers
380 views

Complex numbers and Roots of unity

I have no clue how to begin these problems. How do I start? I don't think I should pound em out...Thanks. Let P be the set of $42^{\text{nd}}$ roots of unity, and let Q be the set of $70^{\text{th}} ...
5
votes
3answers
2k views

Quadratic subfield of cyclotomic field

Let $p$ be prime and let $\zeta_p$ be a primitive $p$th root of unity. Consider the quadratic subfield of $\mathbb{Q}(\zeta_p)$. For instance, for $p=5$ we get the quadratic subfield to be ...
7
votes
1answer
216 views

What's so special about primes $x^2+27y^2 = 31,43, 109, 157,\dots$ for cubics?

While trying to find a closed-form solution for particular cubics as sums of cosines (related to this question), I came across this family with all roots real, $$F(x) = x^3+x^2-mx+N = ...
4
votes
3answers
318 views

Question on primitive roots of unity

Let $p$ be an odd prime and $\omega$ be a primitive $p$th root of unity. The question is to prove that: $$(1-\omega)(1-\omega^2) \cdots (1-\omega^{p-1})=p$$ What I have done so far is: I can see ...
3
votes
1answer
116 views

A Polygon is inscribed in a circle $\Gamma$

A regular polygon P is inscribed in a circle $\Gamma$. Let A, B, and C, be three consecutive vertices on the polygon P, and let M be a point on the arc AC of $\Gamma$ that does not contain B. Prove ...
7
votes
1answer
153 views

Inverse Limits: Isomorphism between Gal$(\mathbb{Q}(\cup_{n \geq 1}\mu_n)/\mathbb{Q})$ and $\varprojlim (\mathbb{Z}/n\mathbb{Z})^\times$

I'm trying to prove that $\operatorname{Gal}(\mathbb{Q}(\cup_{n \geq 1}\mu_n)/\mathbb{Q}) \cong \widehat{\mathbb{Z}}^\times = (\varprojlim (\mathbb{Z}/n\mathbb{Z}))^\times$, where $\varprojlim$ ...
4
votes
0answers
92 views

More on primes $p=u^2+27v^2$ and roots of unity

Given, $$p=u^2+27v^2=3m+1\tag1$$ and the cubic, $$x^3+x^2-mx+N=0\tag2$$ with its constant expressed in terms of $(1)$ as, $$N = \frac{1}{27}(1-3p\pm2pu)\tag3$$ and the sign $\pm u$ chosen ...
2
votes
1answer
48 views

Cyclic properties of multiplicative group G of all the complex $2^n$ roots of unity

Consider the multiplicative group G of all the complex $2^n$ roots of unity, $n=0,1,2,\ldots$ I am asked to verify whether $G$ is a cyclic group and whether it has a finite set of generators. The ...
2
votes
1answer
813 views

Determine splitting field $K$ over $\mathbb{Q}$ of the polynomial $x^3 - 2$

Determine the splitting field $K$ over $\mathbb{Q}$ of the polynomial $x^3 - 2$ Also determine the basis over $\mathbb{Q}$ and its degree. Can I do this using only first principles?
2
votes
3answers
429 views

Way to show $x^n + y^n = z^n$ factorises as $(x + y)(x + \zeta y) \cdots (x + \zeta^{n-1}y) = z^n$

For odd $n$ the Fermat equation $x^n + y^n = z^n$ factorises as $$(x + y)(x + \zeta y) \cdots (x + \zeta^{n-1}y) = z^n,$$ where $\zeta = e^{2 \pi i/n}$. I tried seeing this was true by multiplying ...
6
votes
1answer
627 views

Zero sum of roots of unity decomposition

It's known that sum of all $n$'th roots of some $z \in \mathbb C$ with $|z| = 1$ is zero (if $n \geqslant 2$). Is it true that any zero sum of roots of unity can be decomposed in this way? That is if ...
5
votes
5answers
347 views

Prove that $(x^2-x^3)(x^4-x) = \sqrt{5}$, where $x= \cos(2\pi/5)+i\sin(2\pi/5)$

Prove $(x^2-x^3)(x^4-x) = \sqrt{5}$ if $x= \cos(2\pi/5)+i\sin(2\pi/5)$. I have tried it by substituting $x = \exp(2i\pi/5)$ but it is getting complicated.
4
votes
2answers
230 views

Discriminant of $x^n-1$

Question is to find discriminant of polynomial $x^n-1$ I consider $f(x)=x^n-1=(x-a_1)(x-a_2)(x-a_3)\cdots(x-a_n)$ Now, ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

$p^a\mid f(v) \implies p^a\mid f(w)$ in $\mathbb Z[w]$

Let $p$ be a prime, $n$ a positive integer and $q=p^n$ a $p$- power. Let $w,v$ is a root of the $q,p$-th cyclotomic polynomial $Q_q,Q_p$, respectively. Let $f$ be a polynomial with coefficient in ...
1
vote
1answer
111 views

Roots of unity and a system of equations by Ramanujan

Is it immediately apparent that the solution to the system of equations, $$\begin{aligned} x_1^2 &= x_2+2\\ x_2^2 &= x_3+2\\ x_3^2 &= x_4+2\\ &\vdots\\ x_n^2 &= x_1+2\\ ...
1
vote
1answer
101 views

Conjecture about some group semiring representations ( and roots of unity ).

Let $\Bbb R_+=[0,\infty)$ be a semiring. $\Bbb R_+[C_n]$ is the group semiring formed by the semiring $\Bbb R_+$ and the cylic group $C_n$. Let $\Bbb R_+[X_n]$ be the polynomial semiring. ...
4
votes
1answer
76 views

Can $\sin(\pi/25)$ be expressed in radicals, revisited

This was inspired by this post. Let, $$q = e^{2\pi\, i/m}$$ D. Speyer's answer can be generalized as, $$\sin\Big(\frac{\pi}{m^2}\Big) = \frac{i}{2}\Big(-q^{1/(2m)}+q^{-1/(2m)} \Big)\tag1$$ while ...
4
votes
2answers
156 views

Nth root of Unity

Hi all I am in higher level mathematics and I am taking the IB. We started doing problems associated with nth root of unity. I understand how to find the roots of for example: $$Z^3 - 1 =0$$ and ...
2
votes
1answer
681 views

Complex Numbers and Primitive Roots of Unity

I'm not super familiar with primitive roots of unity and I am not quite sure how to express the following problem in algebraic form. Help is appreciated, thanks :D Let R be the set of primitive ...
2
votes
4answers
129 views

Proof that $\mathbb G_n \bigcap \mathbb G_m = \mathbb G_{(m:n)}$

Being $\mathbb G_n$ the roots of unity for $n \in \mathbb N$, prove that $\mathbb G_n \bigcap \mathbb G_m = \mathbb G_{(m:n)}.$
2
votes
2answers
43 views

$\sum_{x \in \mathbb Z_9}w^{x^2-cx}=?$,where $c \in \mathbb Z_9$ and $w=e^{2\pi i/9}$

$$\sum_{x \in \mathbb Z_9}w^{x^2-cx}=?$$ where $c \in \mathbb Z_9$, $w=e^{2\pi i/9}$ and $\mathbb Z_9$ is the ring of integers modulo 9.
2
votes
1answer
312 views

A Trigonometric Sum Related to Gauss Sums

This is a problem given to me by fractals on Art of Problem Solving. I couldn't solve it so I'm posting it here for some thoughts on it. Let $$S = \sum_{j = 0}^{\lfloor n/2 \rfloor} ...
2
votes
1answer
151 views

The digit base and the NTT convolution

Suppose I'm using a number theoretic transform (NTT) in an integer field $GF(p)$. I assume that $2n$-th root of unity exists for such a $p$, and I want to compute a convolution of two $n$-length ...
1
vote
0answers
74 views

What is the condition for roots of conjugate reciprocal polynomials to be on the unit circle?

Given an Nth order complex polynomial $P(z) = \sum\limits_{n=0}^N a_nz^n$ such that $a_n = a^*_{N-n}$ i.e. conjugate reciprocal, Lakatos and Losonczi mention that a necessary and sufficient condition ...
1
vote
1answer
106 views

Product of Differences of nth Roots of Unity

I'm trying to show that $$\prod_{j=1}^{n-1}\left(1-e^{2\pi ij/n}\right)=n$$ but am finding it surprisingly difficult. I know by symmetry that $$\prod_{j=1}^{n-1}\left(1-e^{2\pi ...
1
vote
1answer
65 views

How find this value of $\prod_{1\le i<j\le n}(w^i-w^j)^2$

give the positive integer number $n$, and $w=\cos{\dfrac{2\pi}{n}}+i\sin{\dfrac{2\pi}{n}}$ where $i^2=-1$ find the vaule $$\prod_{1\le i<j\le n}(w^i-w^j)^2$$ My try:note $$w^n=1$$ ...
1
vote
3answers
1k views

What are the “roots of unity”?

A question is asking me to "find the sixth roots of unity and represent them on an Argand diagram". I don't need you to do the problem for me, I'd rather attempt it myself. However, I don't ...
0
votes
2answers
64 views

Number of elements in sets of roots of unity

Problem: The sets $ A =\{z : z^{18}= 1\} $ and $ B =\{w : w^{48}= 1\} $ are both sets of complex roots of unity. The set $ C =\{zw : z\in A\ \text{and}\ w\in B\} $ is also a set of complex roots of ...
0
votes
1answer
66 views

Adjoining two primitive n-th roots

Let $\omega_n$ denote a primitive $n^{th}$ root of unity. If $m$ and $n$ are positive integers with $lcm(m,n)=k$, show that $\mathbb{Q}(\omega_n,\omega_m)=\mathbb{Q}(\omega_k)$. To start, I am aware ...