For questions involving abstract root systems, their associated Weyl groups and Dynkin diagrams, as well as their applications to Lie theory, graph theory, or other related fields.

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Standard set of Generators

A standard set of generators for a semisimple Lie algebra $ L $ is defined as: {${x_\alpha}, {y_\alpha}, {h_\alpha} $} Where: $ x_\alpha \in L_\alpha, $ $ y_\alpha \in L_{-\alpha}, $ $ ...
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14 views

Weyl Chambers of $ B_2$

How many Weyl Chambers/bases does $ B_2$ have? I thought it was 8, but if instead of for bases using obtuse root pairs you use orthogonal pairs, you get 8 different chambers intersect partially ...
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25 views

Codimension of $\ker $ $\alpha $

Can someone explain why the codimension of $\ker $ $\alpha $ is $1$ in $ H $, with complement $ Fh_\alpha $? Is this because $ h_\alpha $ when $ \alpha $ is simple is part of the dual basis to ...
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40 views

Dual spaces: Roots and Cartan subalgebra

Can someone show that the roots and the Cartan subalgebra are dual vector spaces? I don't see how simple roots acting on non-corresponding indices of a Cartan basis produce 0 and a simple root ...
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31 views

Do involutions suffice to find reflected vectors in a reflection group representation?

Consider a reflection group $W$ acting by isometries on a Euclidean space $V$. I want to understand the union of $(-1)$-eigenspaces for this action, the set $$\{v \in V : \exists w \in W\ (w\cdot v = ...
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two Roots questions

Just two questions on roots... 1) Can the length of roots only be defined relatively? And does length only come about because of the dot product and cartan integers? 2) This might be a weird ...
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46 views

Closure of a Fundamental Weyl Chamber

Can someone explain what a "closure" of a Fundamental Weyl Chamber means? I assume it is related to an algebraic closure, but I don't see how. In addition, how does the Weyl group act on it and why ...
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38 views

killing form and the dot product

When going from talking about roots as functionals to talking about roots as vectors in a Euclidian space (root system), does the killing form become the dot product? Are the killing form and dot ...
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26 views

Killing form and Roots

I know that the roots of a Lie Algebra are functionals such that if $\alpha$ is a root and $h \in \mathfrak h$ is an element of the Cartan subalgebra, then $\alpha(h)$ is an eigenvalue. I'm looking ...
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Angles between adjacent roots in a reduced root system.

Let $R$ be a reduced root system. ($R$ is a finite set spanning $V$, $\alpha \in R \rightarrow -k\alpha \in R$ iff $k=1$, $s_{\alpha}(R)=R$, $s_{\alpha}(\beta)-\beta=k\alpha$ whit $k$ integer). ...
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What are the root systems for the n-dimensional torus?

My question may seem silly at first, but currently I am not able to work out the question of finding all roots for the n-dimensional torus. At first, it seemed obvious to me that there are no roots at ...
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55 views

Which linear combinations of simple roots are roots?

An answer to the following question should be well known to any specialist on Lie theory. Since I don't have time to go through textbooks, I post it here. Let $\Delta$ be a root system, $\Delta^+$ ...
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250 views

Proving that there exists a saturated set with given highest weight

This is an question about an exercise in Humphreys book on Lie algebras. First of all a bunch of definitions and notation, see ยง13 in Humphreys for details. Let $\Phi$ be a root system, $\Delta$ a ...
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28 views

coxeter graph and root system

I want to show that a coxeter graph $\Gamma$ is connected if and only if its root system $\Phi$ is irreducible. So let $\Delta$ be a simple system of $\Phi$, and $\Delta$ is also our simple system. ...
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42 views

Dynkin Diagram $SU(n)$

The goal is to give the Dynkin diagram of $SU(n)$. One can show that the complexification of the Lie algebra $\mathfrak{g}$ of $G$ is given by $\mathfrak{G}_{\mathbb{C}}=\mathfrak{sl}(n,\mathbb{C})$ ...
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91 views

angles between simple roots are obtuse, problem with proof

Let $\Phi$ be a root system in the following sense: (1) $\Phi \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ consists of a finite number of nonzero vectors, (2) for each $\alpha \in \Phi$, $\Phi \cap \mathbb{R} \alpha = ...
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50 views

Angle between roots in a root system

Let $\Phi$ be a root system in the following sense: (1) $\Phi \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ consists of a finite number of nonzero vectors, (2) for each $\alpha \in \Phi$, $\Phi \cap \mathbb{R} \alpha = ...
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vectors with the same mutual angles

Let $S = \{v_1,\ldots,v_n\} \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ and let $T = \{w_1,\ldots,w_n\} \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ be such that the angle between $v_i$ and $v_j$ is equal to the angles between $w_i$ and $w_j$. ...
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81 views

Is there a definition of a dual Lie algebra?

Let $L$ be a Lie algebra. For vector spaces, modules, Banach spaces, etc. we have the notion of a dual. Question: Is it possible to define naturally a Lie algebra $L^*$ that is in some sense dual to ...
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45 views

Conjugacy of simple system in a root system

I'll set up the problem, then ask the question. Let $V$ be a finite dimension vector space over $\mathbb{R}$ and let $\Phi$ be a root system in $V$, i.e. (1) $\Phi \cap \mathbb{R} \alpha = ...
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How does a root datum determine a root system?

A root datum is given by: A subset $R$ of a free abelian group $M$ A subset $C$ of the dual free abelian group Hom$(M,\mathbf{Z})$ A bijection between $R$ and $C$ subject to conditions. A root ...
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Dual basis to $e_{i+1}-e_{i} \in \ker ((1,1,…1)^\vee\in(\Bbb E^{n+1})^\vee)$

Studying the root system $A_n$ given by the simple roots $v_i:=e_{i+1}-e_i \in \Bbb E^{n+1}/\Bbb R(1,1,...,1)$ for $i = 1,...,n$, I came across the following dual basis: $v_i^\vee:= ...
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A construction of $\mathfrak{e}_8$ in Fulton and Harris

In section $22.4$ of "Representation Theory: A First Course" by Fulton and Harris, the exceptional Lie algebra $\mathfrak{e}_8$ is constructed using a method of Freudenthal. For background, I will ...
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55 views

Inverse of Cartan matrix

The Cartan matrix of the root system $A_n$ looks like, denote it by $A'_n$ $$A'_n= \begin{bmatrix} 2 & -1 & 0 & 0&\ldots & 0 \\[0.3em] -1 & 2 & -1 ...
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Root spaces of Lie Algebras — semisimple vs. general

(I am mainly following the notation of Roger Carter's Lie Algebras of Finite and Affine Type). Letting $L$ denote a (finite-dimensional) Lie algebra with roots $\Phi$ and Cartan subalgebra $H$, we ...
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Roots and Weights

I use a Mathematica package to compute roots and weights (and other things) but the package gives me only the expression of the roots in $\omega$-basis (basis of fundamental weights) and in the ...
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1answer
24 views

Kac-Moody root datum introductory text?

I have been given a project to describe the construction of the Lie algebra associated to a Kac-Moody root datum $D=(I,A,\Lambda, (c_i)_{i\in I}, (h_i)_{i\in I})$. I only know basic definitions: that ...
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143 views

How to prove that $B^\vee$ is a base for coroots?

Let $\Phi$ be a root system in a real inner product space $E$. Define $\alpha^\vee = \frac{2\alpha}{(\alpha, \alpha)}$. Then the set $\Phi^\vee = \{\alpha^\vee: \alpha \in \Phi \}$ is also a root ...
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1answer
28 views

Any explicit pictures of root datum

Consider the root datum $(X^*, \Delta,X_*, \Delta^{\vee})$ of a reductive algebraic group, where $X^*$ is the lattice of characters of a maximal torus, $X_*$ the dual lattice (given by the 1-parameter ...
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the real roots of a connected tame quiver

Consider a tame quiver $Q$ whose underlying undirected graph is connected. So that undirected graph is one of the extended, simply laced Dynkin graphs; it's either $\tilde A_n$ for some $n\ge 1$ or ...
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Auto-Langlands dual gruops.

Consider a semisimple Lie group $G$. We define the Langlands dual $\hat{G}$ of $G$ as the group which has as a root system, the root system generated by the coroots of $G$. Recall that given a root ...
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37 views

Weyl group and weight lattice chambers.

Consider two simple Lie groups $G_1$ and $G_2$. Let $G_1$ have $W_1$ as a Weyl group and $G_2$ have $W_2$ as a Weyl group. Is it true that the Weyl group of $G_1 \times G_2$ is $W_1 \times W_2$? ...
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Which is the Weyl group of $U(n)$

Consider the unitary group $U(n)$. How does one compute its Weyl group? Is it the same as the Weyl group of $SU(n)$ since $U(n)\simeq SU(n)\times U(1)$?
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Why is that an automorphism that preserves $B$ and $H$ an automorphism of $\Phi$ that leaves $\Delta$ invariant?

Let $L$ be a semisimple finite dimensional Lie algebra, $H$ its CSA and $\Phi$ its root system with base $\Delta$ and $B = B(\Delta) = H\bigoplus_{\alpha \succ 0}L_\alpha$. If we have an automorphism ...
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53 views

How does a semisimple Lie algebra determine its root space?

I understand that given a root system $\Phi$, by Serre's theorem there exists a Lie algebra $L$ with root system $\Phi$. Also isomorphism theorem implies that any two such $L$ are isomorphic. That ...
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Simple Lie algebras have irreducible root systems?

I was unable to see why $(\alpha+\beta,\alpha) \ne 0$ and $(\alpha+\beta,\beta)\ne0$ implies $\alpha+\beta \not\in\Phi$. Everything else is fine. $\quad$*Proposition.* Let $L$ be a simple Lie ...
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— Cartan matrix for a semisimple Lie algebra with an extension

The question is a modified one inspired by this post: What is the Cartan matrix for this Lie algebra below? (for this semisimple Lie algebra $g(X) \oplus h(Y)$,) $$ [X_i, X_j] = f_{ij}{}^k X_k ...
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1answer
64 views

Regarding root space decomposition

In Humphreys, given a finite dimensional semisimple Lie algebra $L$ and a maximal toral subalgebra $H$, $$L_\alpha := \{x\in L|[hx] = \alpha(h)x\;\forall h\in H\}$$ Then since $ad_L\;H$ is a commuting ...
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— Cartan matrix for an exotic type of Lie algebra --

(1) Is there a notion of Cartan matrix for non-semisimple Lie algebra? For example, consider this Lie algebra: $$ [X_i, X_j] = f_{ij}{}^k X_k \qquad\qquad [X_i,Y^j] = - f_{ik}{}^j Y^k \qquad\qquad ...
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Question about closed subsets of a root system of a vector space?

Let $S$ be a root system of an euclidean space $V$. A subset $T \subseteq S$ is called closed if the following holds: $a,b \in T$ and $a+b \in S$ implies $a+b \in T$. Now let $T$ be a closed subset ...
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Problem 9.7 - Lie Algebras - Humphreys

Let $\alpha,\beta\in\Phi$ span a subspace $E'$ of $E$. Prove that $E'\cap\Phi$ is a root system in $E'$. Prove similarly that $\Phi\cap(\mathbb{Z}\alpha+\mathbb{Z}\beta)$ is a root system in E' (must ...
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Maximal noncompact forms in classical Lie algebra?

In this short note on Lie algebra, discussing about classical Lie algebra A,B,C,D class, in page 4 after Eq.(7), on the part of B,D class of O(2n,F) and O(2n+1,F) group (or algebra?), there is a ...
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Quaternion, Dihedral groups and A-D-E classification

$\bullet$ What is the role of Quaternion group $H$ and dihedral groups $D_n$ in A-D-E classification? $\bullet$ Is Quaternion group $H$ in $A$ (special linear Lie algebra of traceless operators) or ...
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Weyl orbits of integral dominant weights and convex polytopes

Let $\xi$ be an integral dominant weight of a root system $\Delta$, and let $\mathcal{O}_{\xi}$ be its orbit under the action of the Weyl group. The elements of the orbit are the vertices of an ...
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Coxeter numbers for semisimple and reductive algebraic groups

I'd like to know how to define the coxeter number for semisimple and reductive algebraic groups. I know that for a simple algebraic group $G$, we can fix a maximal torus $T\subset G$, which acts on ...
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Base of a root system

Let $R \subset V$ be a reduced root system, and $R' \subset R$. Assume that: (i) $\alpha \in R' \ \to \ - \alpha \notin R'$, (ii) $ \alpha, \beta \in R'$ and $\alpha + \beta \in R$ implies $\alpha ...
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115 views

Examples of root, parabolic, and borel subgroups corresponding to roots

I'm interested in seeing a few examples of root, parabolic, and Borel subgroups given a specific reductive group $G$. Here is what I know. Let $G$ be a reductive algebraic group over an ...
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parabolic subalgebra

Let $G$ be a semisimple lie group, a parabolic subgroup of $P$ is a connected subgroup that contains a conjugate of $B$, (which $B$ is Borel subgroup of $G$) then I can not see why lie algebra of $P$ ...
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65 views

Equation On Root Systems (Humphreys Exercise 9.10)

I am stuck in the following problem from Humphreys. Let $\alpha, \beta$ be roots in a root system $\Phi$. Let the $\alpha$-string through $\beta$ be $\beta - r\alpha, \ldots, \beta + q\alpha$ and let ...
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Bounding the inner product in root systems.

Let $R$ be a root system (irreducible if that makes this easier) in the real vectorspace $E$. Let $\lambda$ and $\mu$ in $E$ with $w_0(\lambda)\leq \mu \leq \lambda$ where $w_0$ is the longest ...