A branch of differential geometry dealing with Riemannian manifolds. *Riemannian manifolds* are smooth manifolds with an inner product smoothly attached to the tangent space of each point. Usually, Riemannian geometry focuses on the notions of distance, curvature, and shape. Consider using this tag ...

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Exercise 3.3 Riemannian Manifolds an Introduction to Curvature

STATEMENT: Let $\gamma(t)=(a(t),b(t)),t\in I$(an open interval), be a smooth injective curve in the $xz$-plane, and suppose $a(t)>0$ and $\dot{\gamma}(t)\neq 0$ for all $t\in I$. Let $M\subseteq ...
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Sheaf, étalé space with Riemann surfaces.

Let $f:X\rightarrow Y$ be an holomorphic map betwen two Riemann surfaces and let: $\Gamma:=${ $(x,y)\in X\times Y|y=f(x)$ } $\subset X\times Y$ be the graph of $f$. I have to show that ...
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Basic question: Riemannian Curvature is nondegenerate

$R(X,Y)=\nabla_X\nabla_Y-\nabla_Y\nabla_X-\nabla_{[X,Y]}$ is the curvature with respect to the Levi-Civita connection $\nabla$ of a metric $g$ on a manifold $M$. Define the Riemann curvature ...
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Flow of a left invariant vector field on a Lie group equipped with left-invariant metric and the group's geodesics

I think the answer to my question is known to many other people, but I'm still getting confused. Let $G$ be a (possibly infinite dimensional also) Lie group and $g$ be its Lie algebra. Consider the ...
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Riemann Roch Meromorphic section on a line bundle.

Let $g:\mathbb{C}\times \mathbb{C^*}\rightarrow \mathbb{C}\times\mathbb{C^*}$ defined by $g(z,w)=(w^n z,\alpha w)$ where $0<|\alpha|<1$. Let $G$ be the cyclic group spanned by $g$ and $A$ the ...
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How to prove that the flat torus is indeed flat?

The $n$-dimensional torus can be obtained as a quotient: $T^n=\mathbb{R}^n/\mathbb{Z}^n$. As pointed out here, the standard metric on $\mathbb{R}^n$ is invariant under translation by the elements of ...
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Why are diffeomorphism-invariant PDE not elliptic?

In reading geometric analysis papers, I frequently encounter a statement of the form, "The PDE in question is diffeomorphism-invariant, and therefore cannot be elliptic." My vague understanding is ...
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Exponential map and convergence

Suppose that $M$ is smooth compact manifold and let $y \to x$. Let also $f \in C^{\infty}(M)$ be a smooth function. I consider the expression $\exp_y^{-1}(x)(f)$: then it follows that it converges to ...
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Curvature tensors and bivectors

At the beginning of the paper "The curvature of 4-dimensional Einstein spaces", by Singer and Thorpe, the authors define the space $\mathcal{R}$ of curvature tensors of the vector space $V$ as the set ...
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What does it mean that we can diagonalize the metric tensor

On a Riemannian manifold $M$, the matrix representation is diagonalisable, cause the tensor is symmetric. What is the physical meaning behind this? I mean, in Riemannian geometry, we always get a ...
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All riemannian isometries between open subsets of $\mathbb{R}^n$ are affine

I heard that there is a theorem of Liouville (Something like "Liouville's rigidity theorem") which states the following: Every Riemannian isometry between open subset of $\mathbb{R}^n$ is affine. ...
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When a given family of curves are geodesics of some affine connection?

Let $M$ be a two-dimensional manifold and let $\mathcal C$ be a family of smooth paths on $M$. How to understand whether this family is actually a family of (possibly reparametrized) geodesics of some ...
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Find a surface that has positive constant curvature that is not open subset of sphere

Can some one find a surface that has positive constant curvature that is not open subset of sphere. I know every connected and compact surface with positive constant curvature is sphere. I need ...
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derivative of one parameter family of riemannian metrics

Let $X= \{ Riemannian \ metrics \ on\ M^n\}$. Parametrized $X$ as follows: define $ f :[0,T) \subset \mathbb{R} \to X$ to be a surjective map. Now I want to define $f'(t_0)$ for some $ t_0 \in ...
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When are geodesically generated surfaces everywhere spacelike?

Suppose that $\langle M, g\rangle$ is a Lorentzian manifold, and that $\xi$ is a timelike vector in $T_pM$, at some point $p \in M$. Let $S$ be a surface consisting of points that lie on some ...
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Riemannian manifold and coordinate transformation

Given a manifold $\mathcal{M}$ with fixed "shape" (say a hemisphere), we may define two sets of Riemannian metrics and connections for $\mathcal{M}$, say $g_{ij},\Gamma_{i,j}^k$ and $g'_{ij}, ...
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Local expression of hermitian metric

I have really hard times reading Zheng's Complex Differential Geometry and I find the following sentence especially baffling (sec. 7.4, page 170): "Let $M^n$ be a complex manifold. A Hermitian metric ...
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52 views

Index notation.

I have a very basic question concerning index notation, normally used in physic papers. I have never used index notation and it is very difficult to me to translate from index free notation, even in ...
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How does the Schrodinger's potential transformer if the metric conformally transformers?

Given Schrodinger's equation $$ (-\nabla^2+V)\psi=E\psi $$ and the conformal transformation $\tilde{g}_{mn}=e^{2\phi}g_{mn}$, how does the Schrodinger's potential $V$ transformer if the metric ...
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Diameter of the Grassmannian

Just an interesting question that came to my mind while studying(!): Since the Grassmannian $G(k,\mathbb{C}^n)$ is a compact manifold, what do we know about its diameter? Do we know any estimate? ...
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Riemannian metric of $3$-sphere

I know this probably seems like a dumb question, I have parametrised part of the unit $3$-sphere with $(x,y,z)\to (x,y,z,(1-(x^2+y^2+z^2))^{\frac{1}{2}})$ and now I'm trying to calculate the ...
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What is the formal name for the conformal laplacian?

\begin{align} L=R-4\dfrac{n-1}{n-2}\nabla^k\nabla_k \end{align} What is the formal name for $L$? I have seen it referred to as the conformal laplacian, however I thought I once read $L$ with a formal ...
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Representation of complex Clifford algebra on exterior algebras when quadratic form has odd index

Overview This problem entails the explicit construction of representation of Clifford algebra upon the exterior algebra, using orthogonal complex structure or polarization, namely, given a ...
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Parallel $ (1,1) $-forms on compact Kähler manifolds.

Let $ (X,\omega) $ be a compact Kähler manifold. We know one example of a parallel $ (1,1) $-form, namely, $ \omega $ itself. Are there obstructions for the existence of non-vanishing parallel $ (1,1) ...
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Closed geodesic minimizing properties

Considering closed geodesics on a compact manifold M of even dimension, what does it mean to say that a curve (any closed geodesic) is locally energy minimizing but not globally ? For simplicity, say ...
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Closed geodesics on real projective space

We have the result that all closed geodesics on $S^n$ must be contained with the intersection of $S^n$ and a plane. Hence all length minimising closed geodesics are single points. If we equip ...
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Green's function for Laplace operator in a conformally flat metric?

Given the Laplace–Beltrami operator $\nabla^2$, does there exists a closed form for the greens function $G$ such that $\nabla_x^2G(x,y)=-\delta(x,y)$, and $$ \nabla_x^2\iiint_{y^3}G(x,y)f(y)dy^3=-f(x) ...
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Expressing a metric as a sum of (possibly) many squares

Given a Riemannian manifold $M$ whose metric $g$ has zero curvature, it is known that we can find local coordinates $x^i$ such that $$g=\sum_{i=1}^{\dim(M)}(dx^i)^2.$$ Conversely, if the curvature ...
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91 views

Is $S^1 \times S^1$ really a torus?

Consider a function $f(x)$ that is $2\pi$ periodic. Consider another function $g(y)$ that is also $2\pi$ periodic. If I wanted to compute the integral of either of these functions I would do so ...
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What is the smallest Euclidean space in which one can embed a given curved space?

Given a $d$-dimensional curved space, how many dimensions are required to embed it? As an example think of a sphere's surface, which is a two-dimensional curved space that can be expressed in ...
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Mean value theorem on Riemannian manifold?

Is there some generalisation of the classical mean value theorem for real-valued functions on an interval $$|f(x)-f(y)| \leq |\nabla f(c)||x-y|$$ for some $c$ between $(x,y)$ to the case where $f:M ...
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The relationship between Ricci and Gaussian curvatures

Why do we have that for a surface (dimension $2$) that $$\text{Ric}(X, Y) = K \langle X, Y \rangle ,$$ where $K$ is the Gaussian curvature and $X, Y$ are vector fields?
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Relation between parallel vector field along a geodesic and Jacobi field along that same geodesic

Cross posted from my question: http://mathoverflow.net/questions/204097/parallel-transport-along-a-geodesic-and-the-related-jacobi-field This is a formula/theorem (written below) that I found ...
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What is a local invariant?

Let $(M,g)$ be a Riemannian manifold. Then, it is usually said that $M$ has local invariants associated to $g$. For example, the curvature of the Levi-Civita connection associated to $g$. My question ...
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General setting of Varadhan's result for distance functions and heat kernels

For a senior project of mine, I would like to know what the most general setting of Varadhan's formula for the geodesic distance in terms of the limiting behavior of heat kernels is. The result I'm ...
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Intuitive interpretation of Ricci Flow

What is the best way to interpret, explain or somehow visualize the basic idea behind formal definition of Ricci Flow? I am familiar with the hackneyed expressions like "Ricci Flow is a ...
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1answer
60 views

a question about differential geometry(Gauss-bonnet theorem and isolated singular point in the surface)

Let C be a regular closed simple curve on a sphere $S^2$. Let v be a differentiable vector field on $S^2$ such that the trajectories of v are never tangent to C. prove that each of the two regions ...
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a question about undergraduate-level differential geometry(Gauss-Bonnet theorem)

Let $S\subset R^3$ be a regular surface homeomorphic to a sphere. Let $\alpha\subset S $ be a simple closed geodesic in S,let A and B be a regions of S which have $\alpha$ as a common boundary. Let ...
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When are heat kernels only dependent on the distance?

"All" the examples of heat kernels in circulation are only dependent on the distance between the space variables rather than on the space variables themselves, i.e. $$K(t;x,y) = K(t;d(x,y)).$$ Think ...
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Geodesic parameterization under conformal mapping

Under a conformal deformation of the euclidean metric, say: $\hat{g}_{ij}=e^{\phi}\delta_{ij}$, where $\phi$ depends on the radial coordinate alone, I am struggling to see the following fact: "With ...
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Verification of the identity $\langle \nabla _{[X,Y]}Z,Z \rangle = \frac{1}{2}[X,Y]\langle Z,Z \rangle$

In the book Riemannian Geometry, page 91, Do Carmo writes: $$\langle \nabla _{[X,Y]}Z,Z \rangle = \frac{1}{2}[X,Y]\langle Z,Z \rangle$$ I could not understand how this happens. Can someone ...
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1answer
59 views

Is it possible to compute geodesic without induced metric

Suppose a manifold embedding $i:M\to N$ into Riemannian manifold $(N,g)$ is given by $f(x)=0$, where $f:M\to R^m$ is a smooth vector-valued function. Now if it is very hard to parameterize the ...
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Does every smooth manifold admits non-isometric riemannian metrics?

I want to get a feeling for how much flexibility we have when putting a Riemannian metric on a given smooth manifold $M$. Is it always possible to find two non-isometric metrics on $M$? If the ...
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What intuition do we have for a subalgebra of Lie to be abelian?

The motivation for my question comes from the definition of rank of a given globally symmetric space: it is based on the image of a maximal abelian subalgebra of a given algebra by the exponential ...
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Self contained book on Ricci Flow/Geometric Analysis

Can someone please tell me whether there is any self contained book on Geometric Analysis/Ricci Flow/analytic techniques used in Riemannian Geometry? By self contained I mean it does not assume that ...
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Necessary of completeness assumption for Cartan Hadamard theorem

I have learnt the Cartan Hadamard theorem, Let $M$ be a complete Riemannian manifold with nonpositive sectional curvature. Then $\forall x\in M, \exp_x:T_xM\to M$ has no conjugate point. Then the ...
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Induced Connection on $\Sigma\subset M$

Let $(M,g)$ be a Riemannian manifold, $\Sigma$ a manifold and $F:\Sigma \rightarrow M$ a smooth map. For $X,Y \in \Gamma(T\Sigma)$ vector fields and $\tilde{\nabla}$ the pull back connection on ...
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is every totally geodesic submanifold the set of fixed points of some isometries?

It is well known that the set of fixed points of an isometry $\phi:(M,g)\rightarrow (M,g)$ is a totally geodesic embedded submanifold. (e.g here ). I ask whether the converse is true, i.e is every ...
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Question about parallel displacement on a surface

This is Problem 9.6(1) from the book The Geometry of Physics: What's wrong with the following argument? A vector $\mathbf v$ is parallel displaced around a small closed curve $C = ...
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Unbounded Geodesics and Nonpositive Curvature

I have the following interesting(?) question: Let $M$ be a complete Riemann manifold. Suppose that it is of non-negative curvature. I want to know if $M$ has unbounded geodesics. As the question is ...