Questions on the famed $\zeta(s)$ function of Riemann, and its properties.

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68
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8answers
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Why does $1+2+3+\dots = {-1\over 12}$?

$$\lim_{N\to\infty} \sum_{i=1}^N \, i = +\infty$$ $\displaystyle\sum_{n=1}^\infty n^{-s}$ only converges to $\zeta(s)$ if $\text{Re}(s) > 1$. Why should analytically continuing to $\zeta(-1)$ ...
33
votes
4answers
5k views

Nice proofs of $\zeta(4) = \pi^4/90$?

I know some nice ways to prove that $\zeta(2) = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n^2} = \pi^2/6$. For example, see Robin Chapman's list or the answers to the question "Different methods to compute ...
25
votes
1answer
913 views

Show that $\int_{0}^{\pi/2}\frac {\log^2\sin x\log^2\cos x}{\cos x\sin x}\mathrm{d}x=\frac14\left( 2\zeta (5)-\zeta(2)\zeta (3)\right)$

Show that : $$\int_{0}^{\pi/2}{\frac{{{\ln }^{2}}\cos x{{\ln }^{2}}\sin x}{\cos x\sin x}}\,\mathrm{d}x=\frac{1}{4}\left( 2\zeta \left( 5 \right)-\zeta \left( 2 \right)\zeta \left( 3 \right) ...
22
votes
3answers
2k views

Two Representations of the Prime Counting Function

The bounty for the best work out of Greg's answer, especially the "solving for $\pi^*(x;q,a)$ in terms of all $\Pi^*$ functions (tedious but possible)" part is over. Since Raymond's ...
18
votes
3answers
1k views

Computing $\zeta(6)=\sum\limits_{k=1}^\infty \frac1{k^6}$ with Fourier series.

Let $ f$ be a function such that $ f\in C_{2\pi}^{0}(\mathbb{R},\mathbb{R}) $ (f is $2\pi$-periodic) such that $ \forall x \in [0,\pi]$: $$f(x)=x(\pi-x)$$ Computing the Fourier series of $f$ and ...
7
votes
1answer
522 views

Zeta function zeros and analytic continuation

I'm learning about the zeta function and already discovered the intuitive proof of the Euler product and the Basel problem proof. I want to learn how to calculate the first zero of the Riemman Zeta ...
3
votes
2answers
342 views

evaluation of $ \operatorname{Arg}\zeta (1/2+is) $ ??

how could evaluate with accuracy the function $ \operatorname{arg} \zeta (1/2+is) $ here $ \zeta (s) $ is the 'Riemann Zeta function' on the critical line I had thought that I could use the 'Riemann ...
15
votes
1answer
378 views

“Orientation” of $\zeta$ zeroes on the critical line.

I am pretty ignorant about complex analysis so please forgive my lack of terminology. I saw a pretty picture (posted below) of the behavior of the Riemann zeta function along the critical line. What ...
18
votes
4answers
2k views

Riemann zeta function at odd positive integers

Starting with the famous Basel problem, Euler evaluated the Riemann zeta function for all even positive integers and the result is a compact expression involving Bernoulli numbers. However, the ...
12
votes
3answers
501 views

Do these series converge to logarithms?

It is well known that $$1-\frac{1}{2}+\frac{1}{3}-\frac{1}{4}+\frac{1}{5}... =\log(2).$$ If we consider the array: $T(n,k) = -(n-1)\; \text{ if }\; n|k, \;\text{ else } \;1,$ Starting: ...
9
votes
2answers
288 views

Generalized Euler sum $\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{H_n}{n^q}$

I found the following formula $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{H_n}{n^q}= \left(1+\frac{q}{2} \right)\zeta(q+1)-\frac{1}{2}\sum_{k=1}^{q-2}\zeta(k+1)\zeta(q-k)$$ and it is cited that Euler proved the ...
9
votes
2answers
466 views

How to find $\zeta(0)=\frac{-1}{2}$ by definition?

I would like to know how we can find the following result: $$\zeta(0)=-\frac12$$ Is there a way, using the definition, $$\zeta(s)=\sum_{i=1}^{\infty}i^{-s}$$ to find this?
3
votes
2answers
195 views

Elementary derivation of certian identites related to the Riemannian Zeta function and the Euler-Mascheroni Constant

Is the proof of these identities possible, only using elementary differential and integral calculus? If it is, can anyone direct me to the proofs? ( or give a hint for the solution ) ...
3
votes
0answers
347 views

An Expression for $\log\zeta(ns)$ derived from the Limit of the truncated Prime $\zeta$ Function

I think, here, I found $$ P_\color{red}x(\color{blue}s)=\sum_{p<\color{red}x} \frac{1}{p^{\color{blue}s}} =\sum_{\color{green}n=1}^{\infty}\frac{ \mu (\color{green}n)}{\color{green}n} ...
70
votes
5answers
5k views

What is the Riemann-Zeta function?

In laymen's terms, as much as possible: What is the Riemann-Zeta function, and why does it come up so often with relation to prime numbers?
30
votes
2answers
1k views

Prime powers, patterns similar to $\lbrace 0,1,0,2,0,1,0,3\ldots \rbrace$ and formulas for $\sigma_k(n)$

Some time ago when decomponsing the natural numbers, $\mathbb{N}$, in prime powes I noticed a pattern in their powers. Taking, for example, the numbers $\lbrace 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16 ...
23
votes
1answer
727 views

Are Primes a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy?

Assume the following process: Let's start with the set of primes $\{p_k\}$ Then we use the Euler product being equivalent to Riemann's Zeta function $$ \prod_{p \text{ prime}} \frac{1}{1-p^{-s}} = ...
31
votes
5answers
2k views

Does $\zeta(3)$ have a connection with $\pi$?

The problem Can be $\zeta(3)$ written as $\alpha\pi^\beta$, where ($\alpha,\beta \in \mathbb{C}$), $\beta \ne 0$ and $\alpha$ doesn't depend of $\pi$ (like $\sqrt2$, for example)? Details Several ...
22
votes
4answers
1k views

Proving a known zero of the Riemann Zeta has real part exactly 1/2

Much effort has been expended on a famous unsolved problem about the Riemann Zeta function $\zeta(s)$. Not surprisingly, it's called the Riemann hypothesis, which asserts: $$ \zeta(s) = 0 ...
12
votes
3answers
3k views

Analytic continuation- Easy explanation?

Today, as I was flipping through my copy of Higher Algebra by Barnard and Child, I came across a theorem which said, The series $$ 1+\frac{1}{2^p} +\frac{1}{3^p}+...$$ diverges for $p\leq 1$ and ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

How to evaluate Riemann Zeta function

How do I evaluate this function for given $s$? $$\zeta(s) = \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac1{n^s} = \frac{1}{1^s} + \frac{1}{2^s} + \frac{1}{3^s} + \cdots$$
12
votes
3answers
265 views

Proving that $\left(\frac{\pi}{2}\right)^{2}=1+\sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\frac{(2k-1)\zeta(2k)}{2^{2k-1}}$.

Wolfram$\alpha$ says that we have the following identity $$ \left(\frac{\pi}{2}\right)^{2}=1+2\sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\frac{(2k-1)\zeta(2k)}{2^{2k}} $$ but, how does one prove such identity?
5
votes
2answers
1k views

Riemann Zeta Function and Analytic Continuation

The Riemann Zeta Function is defined as $ \displaystyle \zeta(s) = \sum\limits_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n^s}$. It is not absolutely convergent or conditionally convergent for $\text{Re}(s) \leq 1$. ...
10
votes
2answers
403 views

Two Dirichlet's series related to the Divisor Summatory Function and to the Riemann's zeta-function, $\zeta(s)$

Considering the $\textit{Divisor Summatory Function}$, $D(n)$, defined as $$ D(n) = \sum_{k=1}^{n}d(k) , $$ where $$ d(n) = \sum_{k|n}^{n}1. $$ One can observe the following pattern in the values of ...
6
votes
3answers
229 views

What is the half-derivative of zeta at $s=0$ (and how to compute it)?

[Update 3:] I gave a new partial answer following the ansatz in question Q3. I leave the other parts of the question untouched, they are also partially answered in specialized other questions in MSE. ...
6
votes
3answers
2k views

Calculating the Zeroes of the Riemann-Zeta function

Wikipedia states that The Riemann zeta function $\zeta(s)$ is defined for all complex numbers $s \neq 1$. It has zeros at the negative even integers (i.e. at $s = −2, −4, −6, ...)$. These are ...
5
votes
0answers
537 views

Zeta function values in terms of Bernoulli numbers.

The material presented at this link on Zeta function values at even integers proposes a method to compute these that is based on Euler's work. I would like to present a short proof for your ...
5
votes
2answers
572 views

An identity involving the Möbius function

$$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{n^s}\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{\mu(n)}{n^s}=1$$ for $s>1$. How do I prove this identity?
2
votes
1answer
290 views

Is $\frac1\pi \arctan \frac\pi{\ln x}- \frac1{\ln x}$ related to the trivial solutions $\zeta(-2n)$?

The Prime Counting Function $\pi(x)$ is given $$ \pi(x) = \operatorname{R}(x^1) - \sum_{\rho}\operatorname{R}(x^{\rho}) - \frac1{\ln x} + \frac1\pi \arctan \frac\pi{\ln x} , $$ with $ ...
16
votes
3answers
303 views

Find the value of $\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{x^3}{e^x-1}\ln(e^x - 1)\,dx$

I'm trying to figure out how to evaluate the following: $$ J=\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{x^3}{e^x-1}\ln(e^x - 1)\,dx $$ I'm tried considering $I(s) = \int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{x^3}{(e^x-1)^s}\,dx\implies ...
27
votes
1answer
1k views

Are these zeros equal to the imaginary parts of the Riemann zeta zeros?

Edit 8.8.2013: See this question also. The Fourier cosine transform of an exponential sawtooth wave times $e^{-x/2}$: $$\operatorname{FourierCosineTransform}(\operatorname{SawtoothWave}(e^x)\cdot ...
23
votes
2answers
1k views

Proving an “amazing” claim regarding $\zeta( 3)$ and Apéry's proof

I recently printed a paper that asks to prove the "amazing" claim that for all $a_1,a_2,\dots$ $$\sum_{k=1}^\infty\frac{a_1a_2\cdots a_{k-1}}{(x+a_1)\cdots(x+a_k)}=\frac{1}{x}$$ and thus (probably) ...
8
votes
4answers
380 views

Sum : $\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n}{(2n+1)^3}$

Prove that : $$\sum_{k=0}^{\infty} \frac{(-1)^{k}}{(2k+1)^3}=\frac{\pi^3}{32}.$$ I think this is known (see here), I appreciate any hint or link for the solution (or the full solution).
30
votes
1answer
649 views

A Bernoulli number identity and evaluating $\zeta$ at even integers

Sometime back I made a claim here that the proof for $\zeta(4)$ can be extended to all even numbers. I tried doing this but I face a stumbling block. Let me explain the problem in detail here. I was ...
9
votes
2answers
718 views

Values of the Riemann Zeta function and the Ramanujan Summation - How strong is the connection?

The Ramanujan Summation of some infinite sums is consistent with a couple of sets of values of the Riemann zeta function. We have, for instance, $$\zeta(-2n)=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} n^{2k} = 0 ...
8
votes
4answers
2k views

What do I need to know to understand the Riemann hypothesis

Which kinds of fields of mathematics do I have to know about in order to understand the Riemann hypothesis millenium prize problem?
13
votes
2answers
392 views

A series involves harmonic number

How do we get a closed form for $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{H_n}{(2n+1)^2}$$
6
votes
3answers
416 views

Limit of Zeta function

I'm looking for a reference for (or an elementary proof of) $$ \lim_{s \rightarrow 1} \left( \zeta(s) - \frac{1}{s-1} \right) = \gamma$$ Thanks for your help.
4
votes
3answers
510 views

$1 + 1 + 1 +\cdots = -\frac{1}{2}$ [closed]

The formal series $$ \sum_{n=1}^\infty 1 = 1+1+1+\dots=-\frac{1}{2} $$ comes from the analytical continuation of the Riemann zeta function $\zeta (s)$ at $s=0$ and it is used in String Theory. I am ...
9
votes
1answer
415 views

Riemann's thinking on symmetrizing the zeta functional equation

In the translated version of Riemann's classic On the Number of Prime Numbers less than a Given Quantity, he quickly derives the zeta functional equation through contour integration essentially as ...
8
votes
3answers
1k views

Factorial of infinity

So, I've read in this article that: $$\zeta'(0) = \log\sqrt\frac{1}{2\pi}$$ And that: $$e^{-\zeta'(0)} = 1\cdot2\cdot3\cdot\ldots\cdot\infty = \infty! = \sqrt{2\pi}$$ I found this result very ...
7
votes
3answers
283 views

Riemann Zeta function - number of zeros

I want to write a program that calculates the number of zeros (It is not necessary to identify them, just the number of them) between 0 and x for the Riemann Zeta function, being x the imaginary part ...
5
votes
2answers
92 views

$\prod_{i=1}^{\infty}{1+(\frac{k}{i})^3}$ for integer k

Can anyone compute $$\prod_{i=1}^{\infty}{1+(\frac{k}{i})^3}$$ for integer k? Can it be done in closed form, using only elementary functions, without the use of the Gamma function? For k=1, the closed ...
5
votes
2answers
211 views

Generating functions and the Riemann Zeta Function

The generating function for the terms of the harmonic series: $\frac{1}{n}$ is $-\ln(1 - x)$. Does an ordinary generating function exist for the terms of the zeta function $\zeta(s) = ...
5
votes
3answers
653 views

Derivatives of the Riemann zeta function at $s=0$

It's a curious fact that for $n>0$, $\zeta^{(n)}(0)\approx -n!$. Apostol gave a table for $\frac{\zeta^{(n)}(0)}{n!}$, among other results on $\zeta^{(n)}(0)$ . the sequence : $$\delta_{n}=\left | ...
4
votes
2answers
566 views

Question Relating Gamma Function to Riemann Zeta function evaluated at integers

I was just reading a paper of Ramanujan entitled " On question 330 of Professor Sanjana" when i got stuck up with a Proposition which i am unable to answer. The proposition is if $ \displaystyle ...
2
votes
1answer
237 views

Riemann Zeta Function Manipulation

The Riemann zeta function is defined on the $Re z> 1$ by $$\zeta(z)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{n^z}$$ (i) show that for $Re z> 1$, we have $$(1-2^{1-z})\zeta(z)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty ...
1
vote
2answers
147 views

Sum of Stieltjes constants

Does anyone know of any papers or resources dealing with the following question: For which values of $s=\sigma+it$ does the following sum of Stieltjes constants hold, ...
8
votes
1answer
377 views

Apéry's constant ($\zeta(3)$) value

I tried to find some proofs about the Apéry's constant, but I didn't find any intuitive proof. Is this constant given by the "brutal force" summing of $1 + \frac{1}{2^3} + \frac{1}{3^3} + ...
2
votes
1answer
173 views

1+2+3+4+… = -1/12 [duplicate]

Consider the zeta function $\zeta(s)= \sum \limits_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n^s}$. It is established that $ \zeta(-1) = -\frac{1}{12}$. Reference (Equation 90) Then we have $ \zeta(-1) = \sum ...